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HARVARD 
COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 



Preservation facsimile 

printed on alkaline/buffered paper 

and bound by 

Acme Bookbinding 

Charlestown, Massachusetts 

2003 




HARVARD 
COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 



LECTURES ON MAN: 



HIS 



PLACE IN CREATION, AND IN THE HISTORY 
OF THE EARTH. 



dk. carl VOGT, 

PBOFBUOB OF MA.TUBAL HISTOBT IK TBM VHmnMm OV OBMSTA, TOBBZOir AMOOUTB 

OV TBB AirrHBOPOLOOZGAX. 800ISTT OV VABI8, AMD HOMOBABT TMLtMW 

OV THB AXTBaOPOLOOXOAL BOCHTX OV Lomov. 



MDJTWD BT 



JAMBS HUNT, 

PR. On V*8JL, T.KJLU, V.A.gX., 



VOBBZOK A8800ZATS OV TBB ABrBBCVOLOOIOAL BOOXBTT OV VABIS, HOBOBABT VBLLOW OV 
BTHBOLOOIOUi ■OCTBTT OV IiOHDOB, OOBBBtPOVOIBa MBMBBB OV TBB VPPBB H8B88 
■OOZBTX VOB RATUBAL AMD XBOXOAL 8CXBB0B, PBBSIOBBT OV TBB 
ABTHBOPOLOOIOAIi 800X8X1 OV LOKDOB. 



LONDON: 

FUBLISHBD VOB THB ABTHBOPOLOaiGAL SOOIBTTj BT 

LONGMAN, GREBN, LONGMAN, AND ROBERTS, 
PATERNOSTER ROW. 

1864. 



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T. HIOIUB]>t, 87, ORXAT QUXBll tTSUrT. W.0; 



TO 

Db. PAUL BEOCA, 

BSOBiTAZBI OtnttLkJs X>l LA BOOZitK D'ARTHBOPOLOOXX 1>m PAB^B, 

HOHOBABV FELLOW OP TBB ABTBBOPOZAOZOAL 800ZXTT OP LOMDOR, 

PB0PB8BBUB AQtioi A L4 PAGOLTA DB M^BCIBB DB PABZ8, CBXKOBaiMM 

A L'b6kTAL SALPBTBliBB, TIOB PBiUDBVT DB L4 BOClili 

DB OHZBUBOIB DB PABU, ABD HOXOBABT PBZXAW 

OP TBB BTBBOLOOIOAL 800XBTT OP LOXDOB. 

My dbab Db. Bboca, 

Your kind pennission to dedicate the following 
translation to you, affords me the opportunity which I 
have long desired of expressing my sense of the honour 
which your personal friendship confers upon me ; and at 
the same time enables me to testify my appreciation o^ 
and admiration for, the incalculable services which your 
zeal and ability have rendered to the noblest of all sci- 
ences, the science of Man — ^Anthropology. 

To those unacquainted with your labours* for this 
young science in France, and their triumphant results, 

• The following list of BrofcBBor Broca's imieiitifle worta, eepecJaUy boBriiig 
OB the Bdenoe of Max^ wiU give eome little idea of his indnBtiy. elthough 
they ooDBtitate bat a bdibU part of what that aooomipliahed AnthropologiBt 
has published daring the last fow yean :— 

Rsehtrek$$ mr VmhmologU ds laiPrafu^danfl"M«m.de laSocd'Anthzop./* 
1. 1, p. I, k 66, Fazis, ISeo, gr. in 8to. TM k part, bioohttze da 66 pagea 
avec one oarte. Mimoir§ twr VHybridiU «l mr la DUtiMHon d§$ StpSen ilwt- 
moIm, " Joozn. de FhyaioL/' 1868, t. i, p. i88^7l, p. 68i-729| 1869, t. ii, 
p. 218-260, et p. 846-890. BUumi dM/ott* r«laf(^f oiw CroiMNMnte dt$ Chimu, 
d€ 100^9, d9 ChaedU, ei de £mard«, " Joom. de FhyiioL/' 1860, t. ii, p. 
890-4I96. 8wr Im primdpamm HybHd«f d« ^emn Sfmu, aur VHiridUi dti 
C0TacUr§i ehm U$ mHi$ «l mr la FieondUd dM JTiOm, *« Jooxn. de FhyiioL," 
1860, t. ii, p. 2604S68. Mhfunr^nirlM PJOwnnineg d'EfhridiU dam U gmre 
JkwNMin, " Joom. de FhyrioL,'' 1860, t. ii, p. 601-686, et I860, t. iii,p. 892-489, 
Air VInfM§mc§ dwrabU ds emiahu CroiMummU de Racu, "BolL de la Soc, 
d'Anthxop.," 1860, t, i, p. 19-26. Sw Im captulM turr^nolfi d'HH Ni^f, iUd., 
t. i, p. 80. Bwr 1m Amm primiiiMt, efmUmj^oroinn de T^po^iM dUe dm iXlo- 



Yl DEDICATION. 

a recapitulation of them here would sound more like 
a panegyiiCy than the simple recital of what one man 
has accomplished I am therefore glad that the majority 
of those who will peruse this volume are already ac- 
quainted with what you have doue for the establishment 
of Anthropology in your own country, and will join with 
me in a public recognition of your valuable servicer to 
science generally, and also in pa3ring homage to the noble 
example you have set to lovers of truth, and students 
of mankind throughout the world. 

Some seven years since, when I first had the honour 

viwm, ibid., t. i, p. 70-76, p. 87-92. InHrudUmi pour U SMgal, ibid., t. i, 
p. 121-187. Tir6 k part, brooh. in-Sro de 16 p. Bemarqusi tur U$ Languet 
Polyn^fiennef, ibid., 1860, t. i, p. 250-2S6. J)o€ummU rOat^Baum Croi$emmt$ 
d€8 JZocM trU difirmlea, ibid, t. i, p. 255-264. Sur U Difaut d$ perfedUnliU 
d9 etTtoMnn Baeei, ibid., t. i, p. 837-342, p. 868-876. 8wr U volume et la forme 
du CervMU, mnvant Um individut $k guivanJt 1m Baen, ibid.,1861, t. ii, p. 188- 
204, et 801-821. Tir£ ^ part, brochure in-8TO de 76 pagea. Sur Uu Poida 
relaitf du Cerveau dea FranqaU «< def Allemandg, ibid., p. 441-446. Bappori tur 
Ut/outUet PraHqu^ dam Vaneien CinUMre dea C^Icf tint, Pabli^ par la VOle 
de Pazia: Paris, 1860, in-4to, 19 pages. Sur dea Crd/naa provmuint d'un Citn^- 
Hira da la CiU, aaUMewr au xiua aiieU, " Boll, de la Soc. d'Anthrop.," 1861, 
i. ii, p. 501-518. Sur la CapadU dea Crinea Pariaiena dea diveraea ^quea, 
ibid., 1862, t. iii, p. 102-116. Ces deux mimoires ont M tirte k part, bro- 
chure in-STO de 82 pages. Mhnoire aur le Crdniographe at aur quetquea^unea 
de aea Applioationa, dans " Mim. de la Soa d'Anthrop./' t. i, p. 849-378. 
Tirk k part, brochure gr. in-Sro, de 80 pagea, avec 1 pL Sur la JMUrmiuoHon 
dea PoifUa ftn^lterf da la VoUie du CrAne qui limiieni lea auglea aurieulairea, 
" BulL de Soc. d'Anthrop.," 1862, t. iii, p. 17-24. Sur lea ProporHona itelo- 
Hvea du Brae, de Vavani-braa et dela Clavieule ekea Ua Nigrea et lea Buro^ 
pieua, ibid., t. iii, p. 162-172. Tir^ k part, brochure in-Sro de 12 pages. La 
lAmguiatique si V AuXkropoUgU, " BnU. de la Soc. d'Anthrop.," 1862, t. iii, p. 
264-319. Tir4 k part, brochure in-Sro de 55 pages. Sur Ua PrejecHoua de la 
Tite ei awr uu uouvewa Proeidk de CkphaUmHrie, " BnlL de la Soc. d'An- 
throp.," t. iii, Korembre 1862. Tiii k part, brochure in-Sro de 80 pages. 
Bur lea CaracUrea du CrAne dea Baaquea, "Bull, de la Soc. d'Anthrop.," t. 
iii, Deeembre 1862. Tii€ k part, brochure in-8¥0 de 15 pages. Second Ui» 
moire aur lea Caraet^ea du OrAne dea Baaquea, " Bull, dela Soc. d'Anthrop.," 
F^Trier 1868, t. It. Inatruetiona OhUraXea pour lea Beekerchea Afiihropologiquea 
(Anatomic et Fhysiologie).— " M<m. de la Soc. d'Anthrop./' Par., rol. ii, in 
the press. 



DIDICATIOH. Til 



of being introduced to you, by our late lamented col- 
league. Dr. Robert Knox, I held, as you may remember, 
the office of Honorary Secretary to the Ethnological 
Society of London. Most heartily did I welcome the 
birth of your society, on behalf of that of which I was 
then an officer, believing at that time, the SociStS cPAn- 
thropclogie de Paris to be merely an Ethnological So- 
ciety under another name. In watching the develop- 
ment of your Society and tracing the vastness of its 
extent and objects^ under the administration of yourself 
and your illustrious colleagues, I soon perceived that 
pure Ethnology merely formed a part of the grand science 
then inaugurated by you. With the most intense plea- 
sure and admiration, I witnessed the gradual establish- 
ment and progress of yomr Society, endeavouring at the 
same time with all my power to incite the Ethnological 
Society to similar efforts. This attempt^ however (truth 
compcJs me to record), proved a signal failure — ^a circum- 
stance which caused me disappointment at the moment, 
but which I now consider fortunate ; for I soon became 
aware that Anthropology and Ethnology could never be- 
come synonymous terms, inasmuch as the latter merely 
constitutes a part of the comprehensive science of An- 
thropology. 

I am glad to state that^ at the present time, this 
profound distinction is fully admitted by unbiassed 
persons in England. My &ilure, however, in arousing 
the Ethnological Society from its torpor, was not attri- 
butable to this confusion of terms, the matter not having 
then received public attention in this country, but 
arose entirely from the opposite views held by myself 
and my colleagues as to the objects of the Ethnological 
Society, and its duties as a scientific body. 



YUl DIDIGATION. 



The stand-point claimed for the science of Ethnology 
by the late Dr. Knox, by Captain R F. Burton, the 
present senior Vice-President of the London Anthropo- 
logical Society, by mjrself, and by some others, was that 
of a grave, erudite, and purely scientific study, requiring 
the most free and serious discussion, especially on anat- 
omical and physiological topics, for the elucidation of 
the many difficult problems arising out of the subjects 
brought forward. This, however, was far from being the 
opinion of a large and powerful section of the Society, 
headed by my venerable friend, Mr. John Crawfurd. 
The party under his leadership desired to place the 
Ethnological Society on a footing with the Boyal Greogra- 
phical Society, and to render its meetings fashionable 
and popular by the admission of ladies. You will, doubt- 
lesSk smile at the strange idea of admitting females to 
a discussion of all Ethnological subjects. However, the 
supporters of the '' fair sex'' won the day, and females 
have been regularly admitted to the meetings of the 
Ethnological Society during the past three years. 

Even now the advocates of this measure do not admit 
their eiror, nor do they perceive how they are practi- 
cally hindering the promotion of those scientific objects 
which they continue to claim for their society. On the 
contrary, tiiey rejoice at their victory, and Mr. Crawfurd 
has publicly on more than one occasion ascribed the suc- 
cess which attended the Ethnological Society under his 
rigime to the admission of ladies. 

Apart from this fatal mistake,you will readOy understand 
that other important, and indeed vital differences, existed 
as to the mode in which such a society should be conducted. 
Finding myself, therefore, unable to give my cordial sup- 
port to a society whose apparent objects were so utterly 



DXBICATION. IX 

at Tariance with my own views — ^views in which I was 
not without supporters — the idea occurred to me of 
establishing in this country a really scientific society^ 
which, taking yours as a models might become worthy of 
a great nation. 

Here, my dear sir, I will pause : what we have achieved 
is already known to you ; what we hope to do I trust 
you will live to see in a great degree accomplished. I 
cannot however, dismiss the subject of the formation 
of our Society, without a hearty acknowledgement of 
the kindness and encouragement received by myself and 
my fellow-workers, from you and your able colleagues 
when our plan was first mentioned to you. As a body, 
we shall not easily forget the valuable assistance you then 
rendered us ; and frt>m myself, personally, your kind and 
friendly advice on all occasions calls for a stUl warmer 
acknowledgment 

I am aware that in France, and, indeed, throughout 
Europe, an impression prevails that the science of Anthro- 
pology is now formally recognised in this country. 
That this is correct to a certain extent, is proved 
by the flourishing condition of the London Anthropo- 
logical Society. Still, after what I have before stated, 
you will not be surprised to learn that there are 
some eminent scientific men in England who believe, 
or profess to believe, that the sciences of Anthropology and> 
Ethnology are identical I feel ashamed to mention, that 
at the last annual meeting of the British Association 
for the Advancement of Science, at Bath, it was not only 
contended that Anthropology and Ethnology were syno- 
nymous terms, and that both sciences had the same aim 
and object^ but recognition was denied to Anthropology 
as a science, on the plea that Ethnology was an older 



DEDICATION. 



and a prettier word ! These were the profound reasons as- 
signed for the exclusion of a science represented by a 
society^ which numbers nearly five hundred members, 
from the yearly scientific congress of the country. 

Tou will thus perceive, my dear colleague, that as yet 
this country is behind your own in the appreciation of our 
science, although some progress has been made in this 
direction during the past few years. We shall, therefore, 
still look to you for encouragement and assistance, and 
so long as we receive your sympathy in our work, we 
shall not fail to labour. We shall not, of course, rest until 
a formal recognition of our science is afforded to us by the 
British Association, and I know we may rely on your 
kind assistance to promote this end. We are confident 
that a full recognition must come in time, but we would 
gladly be spared the contention and ill feeling which are 
both prejudicial and derogatory to scientific men. 

I will not enlarge here, xby dear sir, either on your 
futur^trork or our own. May you long live to further 
the cause of science, and to deserve the gratitude and 
esteem of your fellow-workers, and especially of 

Your faithful and obliged Colleague, 

JAMES HUNT. 

Ore House, near Hastings, 

November 28th, 1864. 



EDITOK'S PKEFACE. 



The great reputation which Professor Vogt enjoys in 
Germany as a naturalist and as an independent thinker, 
and the favourable reception of many of his works* by 
the scientific men of Europe, has induced the Council of 
the Anthropological Society of London to publish, with 
the sanction of the author, a translation of his recent work 
entitled " Vorlesungen uber dm Menschen, seine Stellung 
in der Schbpjung und in der Geschickte der ErdeJ' 

• As none of Ftofeasor Yogi's works haTe« to my knowledge^ been trans- 
kted into English, it nuiy« perbsps, not be out of place to giro here a bio- 
gnphioal sketch of our anthor, which is condensed from M^er^s " OrocMt 
Convtfrfaiumf Lemieon :" — 

Carl Vogt, the eminent natoralist and parliamentary orator, was boni at 
Giessen, Jnly 5, 1817. He received his education first at the Gymnasinm, 
and sabsequently at the UniTersity of Oiessen, where he studied chemistry 
nnder liebig. In 1885, he foUowed his &ther— the celebrated author of 
FharmaeO'Dynamie^^to Berne, where he studied physiology under Valentin. 
Having taken his degree as Doctor of Medicine, he repaired to Neufchitel, 
where he pursued the study of xoology and geology in coxyunction with 
Agassis. He then, on the recommendation of Liebig, became Professor of 
Zoology in the Ux^iyersity of Giessen, which he left on the breaking out of the 
revolution of 1848. Having been elected a member of the Gterman Parliament, 
where he always voted with the opposition, he fled, after the failure of the 
Baden insurrection, to Switserland, settled at Berne, until he was, in 1862, 
appointed P^fessor of Geology in the University of Geneva. Besides 
numerous contributions to sdentifio journals, Plrofesscr Vogt is the author 
of many sterling works, among which are the following : — Bechtrchea but 
VmnbryoghM d€ Salmofiet, 1843; Im Oebirg uf%d auf dea QleUcKtfm, 1844; 
Ls^rfrttcA der Gtologie tind Peh-^akUnhtndB, 1846; Ocean und MitMmeer, 
1847; Unierawhungtn Uber Thiergiaaien, 1851; ZootogiBehe Br%rf9: LehHmck 
der Zooloffie, 1853^1, 2 vols. ; Bilder aiM clem ThierUbm, 1852; KGhlerglaube 
und Wi$mueh4rff, 1855; Die KUnemehe Fiteheuehi, 1859; OrundriBt der OeoU 
offie, 1860. 



zu sditob'b pbefacs. 

One of the great objects coDtemplated by the An- 
thropological Society is the publication in the English lan- 
guage of all important foreign works bearing on the present 
state of the science of man. It was considered by the 
Council of the Society that this work a£forded a good illus- 
tration of the popular treatment of Anthropology in Ger- 
many» and that it contained facts so useful to the student 
as to warrant its publication. And here it may be stated, 
that whilst the presence of so-called sceptical opinions will 
per 86 never induce the Anthropological Society to publish a 
work under its auspices, neither will such views, according 
to the catholic principles upon which the society is founded, 
prove a bar to the introduction to the public of a work 
otherwise valuable. It is especially necessary to men- 
tion this, on account of the polemical character of parts 
of the present work. The author is not simply a fearless 
writer, but his tonewill, I imagine, occasionally be offensive 
both to the general and scientific reader. I had some 
conversation with Professor Vogt on this subject, and he 
gave his sanction to such alteration being made as I 
thought most desirable. I accordingly omitted a few pas- 
sages which I did not think in good taste. On pro- 
ceeding with my labour I found that to cancel all the 
passages which might offend, would be entirely to 
alter the character of the work ; these few passages have 
therefore been printed as an appendix. I, moreover, 
felt that the author had entrusted me with a most 
dangerous power, which, if abused, would, render the 
translations published by the society comparatively 
useless. The Fellows of the Anthropological Society 
of London are happfly neither women nor children; 
and 1 have not^ therefore, felt it my duty to encumber 
the work with notes expressive of my views on matters of 



xm 



opinion, and thus become, in addition to editor, critic and 
commentator. If the work had not been published under 
the auspices of the society^ I might have felt it my duty to 
state where I differed from the author ; but under actual 
circumstances^ I have only done so when I considered there 
was an absolute necessity, or where the discoveiy of new 
facts had invalidated the author's conclusions. 

Nor do I think it necessary here to advance my own 
views respecting some Anthropological questions i\pon 
which this work treats. I need only say that I am willing 
to accept such of the facts as shall on future inquiry 
prove to be true. Possibly, no man will agree with all 
the conclusions arrived at by Professor Vogt, but I am 
quite ready to accept such of his opinions as can be 
logically deduced from well-ascertained &cts. 

While, however, I hold both myself and the society 
entirely free from any responsibility as to the author's 
asserted facts or deductions, I should not be doing my 
duty as Editor if I were not to make some excuse 
for the attacks made by him on theological dogma& In 
Oerma|^y men of science and theologians look upon one 
another with a mutual contempt, while in this country 
scientific men entertain respect for theologians, and the 
latter fortunately have a profound admiration for students 
of science, and (when properly educated) have not the 
effrontery to combat the teachings of pure inductive 
science. In Germany, too, science is used as a political 
engine to overthrow the arrogant assumptions of kingcraft 
and priestcraft, fiiom the evil influence of which we now in 
England suffer little. 

If M. Vogt had been an Englishman I should certainly 
have highly censured a man of such profound and 
extencdve views for wasting his energies in attacking 



sir bditob'b pbkfacx. 

the opinions of theologians (as such) respecting scien- 
tific facts or scientific deductions. 

Sometimes the author conveys the impression that he 
writes merely with a view of destroying belief in generally 
received theological dogmas. I cannot think this impres- 
sion to be well founded, and the list of his published 
writings will show that M. Vogt has really been a hard-work- 
ing scientific student Scientific men naturally have a con- 
tempt for those who study theology with a view to attack 
the deductions of men of science : but it is equally con- 
temptible for a man to study and write on science with 
the view to overthrow theological dogmas. The search 
after truth is the only object the scientific student ought 
to keep in view. 

The author of this work will have the misfortune to 
find opponents amongst those who agree with, and those 
who differ from, him. M. Vogt expresses himself with 
very great freedom when he happens to differ from any 
of his scientific brethren, and the exposure of the foibles 
of his fellow-workers seems to afford him infinite 
pleasure and satisfaction. But all who know the author 
will entirely acquit him of malice ; and his conduct, un- 
like that evinced in some of the quarrels of scientific men 
in this country, is not the result of bad temper. 

At the same time I cannot but express my regret that 
the accomplished author has spoken of our much respected 
countryman,Professor Owen, in the manner he has done. I 
equally regret his remarks on Dr. Fruner-Bey and M. A. de 
Quatrefages, and dissent from his interpretation of the 
conduct of Dr. Falconer respecting the Abbeville jaw. I 
think, also, that Prof Vogt has not sufficiently acknow- 
ledged his obligations, to many English men of science, 
amongst whom I would especially name Mr. Frestwich, 



KDITOB'8 PBBFACX. XV 

Sir Charles Lyell, and Mr. John Evans. Had the work 
assumed a more systematic form, this, perhaps, would 
not have happened. 

In Lecture X it will be seen that the author has un- 
fortunately accepted the wild speculation of Professor 
Huxley respecting the resemblance of the Neanderthal 
calvaria to that of the Australian. The important observ- 
ations of Dr. Barnard Davis respecting the synostotic con- 
dition of this fragment bid fair to solve the question by 
showing that the Neanderthal skull is merely an abnormal 
relic, and that aU the theories founded thereon as to 
the extreme savage state of the primitive inhabitants of 
Europe are utterly worthless. 

Prof Vogt acknowledges that, to a great extent^ he is 
willing to accept the conclusions of England's great modem 
naturalist, Charles Darwin ; but^ unlike many of that pro- 
found observer's followers in this country, he entirely 
repudiates the opinions respecting man's unity of origin 
which a section of Darwinites in this country are now 
endeavouring to promulgate. The author's views on this 
point I hold, in the present state of science, to be 
eq)ecially sound and philosophical: and I hope that this 
work may help to counteract the inconsistent and an- 
tiquated doctrines now being taught by one of our 
government Professors respecting the small distinction 
which exists between the members of the genus Homo. 

Nor is the author, like some of our fellow countiymen, 
afraid to accept the logical consequences of his opinions 
respecting transmutation and development On the con- 
trary, none can chaige M. Vogt with ambiguity as to his 
real sentiments. From his opponents I hope he will 
receive the credit of being honest and open in the ex- 
pression of his opinions^ although few may agree with 



xvi unroB'B PBirACi. 

the tone he adopteu I think, moreover, M. Vogt is a leas 
dangerous foe to the generally received theological 
opinions of the day, than some other men of science, who 
express themselves with more reserve, but with far less 
honesty. 

The scope of the present work is great, and the 
author treats his subject with such a comprehen- 
sive grasp, and in such an interesting manner, that he 
can scarcely £Edl to elicit the admiration of both friend 
and foe. 

It must be strictly borne in mind that this work is not 
put forward as a text-book on the subject, but simply as 
a specimen of the popular treatment of Anthropology in 
Germany, and, in my opinion, it contrasts very favour- 
ably with anything of a similar nature which has ap- 
peiured in this country. 

The woodcuts are chiefly those used in the original, the 
exceptions being a drawing of the Abbeville jaw, which 
in the German version was taken from the sketch of M. 
Oswald Dimpre, but which has now been cut from 
a photograph presented to the Anthropological Society 
by M. A. de Quatrefages. The delineation of the sutures 
in the woodcut of the Neanderthal calvaria in Lecture 
XIII, has also been altered to agree with the description 
sent by Dr. Fuhlrott to Dr. Barnard Davis. 

In the present translation, the German text (with the 
exception of some corrections and additions by the author) 
has been followed as closely as possible : but there were 
some forms of expression, so utterly intractable when at- 
tempted to be rendered into English, that when intelligible, 
they have been sometimes adopted in preference to the 
removal of all traces of foreign idiom and colouring. In 
works of this description it is advisable to render, not 



editor's fsifacx. zvii 

merely the substance of the author's opinion^ but also, 
to some extent^ the mode in which he conveys thent 

In conclusion, I would beg to remind the reader that the 
present translation is one of a large and extensive series 
of works, some of which contain opinions diametrically 
opposed to the conclusions of this book. The Council of 
the Anthropological Society, having allotted to each Fd- 
low who is willing to undertake the task, a volume for 
translation, it has a£forded me great pleasure to assist in 
such a vast project^ which cannot fEul to give considerable 
impulse to the study of Anthropology in this country. 
I am aware theie are some men in England who totally 
object to this free-trade in science, and who believe 
tjiemselves authorities on certain scientific questions, 
and that no one eke should dare to enter upon what they 
consider to be their preserves. I hope that this book 
may help to demolish such feudal ideas, which are totally 
unworthy of the lover of truth and science. 

I hope that my readers will agree with me that Pro£ 
Vogt has produced a most interesting, suggestive, and 
useful volume ; and one which I trust may assist in the 
elucidation of some of the great problems of Anthro* 
pological Science. 

4, 8t. Martin's Place, Trafalgaar Square, 
London. December let, 1864. 



CONTENTS. 



PAOS 

Dedioatioii - - - - - . -t 

Editor't Ptoikoe - . - - . - zi 

Contente - - - - - . - ziz 

Anthor't Fteflkoe - - - 1 

LECTUBE I. 

Introdncfcioii.— Diffiooltiet of the Bnldect.^Materia]B.— CoDeetionB of 
Cnnia. — Skeletons. — ^Anatomy of the Bacei. — Mui to be etadied 
like any other MammaL — Oljoetioiia of Theologiaaa. — Morton and 
Baohman .— ComparatiTe Study of Domestic Awimala — Antiqnity 
of the Homan Species.— Olgeotions of Katnzalists.— Beseazches of 
Boacher de Perthes - - - - - 6 

LECTUBE n. 

Method of inTestigation.— Mixed l^rpes.— Arerage Man and SknlL— 
Use of the French Metrical System. — Schener and Sohwars's 
System of Measurement. — Craniometry. — ^Fixed Points in the 
SkolL— Chooce of the Thinnest Places.— Bosk's System of Mea- 
surement. — ^Aeby's System. — Horizontal and Vertical Planes. — Be- 
lation of the Skoll to the Face.— Camper's Facial Angle. — Mea- 
sorement of the Base and Vanlt of the Cranium. — ^Welcker's 
System of Measurement. — Cranial Angle ; Sknll; Ket. — ^Yon Baer's 
Komendatore for Cranial Forms.— Coronal "View: Longheads, 
Medinm Heads* and Short Heads.— Profile View: Prognathism 
and Orthognathism. — Anterior and Posterior View : Tower Heads* 
I^ramidal Heads, and Boof Heads. — Scherser-Sdiwan's Scheme. 
— ^Tables of Cranial Meaanrements after Yirchow* Weloker* Y<m 
Baer, and Bosk • - - .10 

LECTUBE m. 

Pictorial re pr e s e ntations.- Ethnic portraits generally Caricatores. — 
\ Photographic Drawings. — ^Perspectiye delineations. — Geometrical 
Drawings after Looae. — Instruments reqoired.— Casts. — Casts of 
the internal Cranial snrfiuse. — ^Proportions.—- Sexual diiferenoes in 
the formstion of the Cranium.— Examination of the Brain. — 
Weight.— Weight of the Brain in relation to the body.— Estima- 
tion of the Cranial Ciq»aoity.— Method and results.— Brooa's 
r os oa r ohes on Parisian Skulls. — Licrease of Cranial Ci^iacity in 
relation to Cirilisation ... - 78 

b 



XX C0NTSNT8. 

LECTUBE IV. 

StniotaM of the BndiL— Elementuy ConatitaentB of Bnun-Ribstaaoe. 
— Gerebelliim. — The prixniiiTe Brain. — The Cerebmm the seat of 
inteDeotoal aetiTity. — Loolieation of indiyidnal ftmctioiifl. — ^Ap- 
plicatioiito Phrenology.— The Cerebral Lobes.— The Conyolutlons : 
their relation to the Intellect and the Siae of the Body.— The 
development of the Conyolutions, and their arrangement aooording 
to Gratiolet and Wagner.— Hnaohke't Opinions.— GomparatiTe In- 
restigation of Tarioos Cerebral Forms.- The Cerebral CavitieB.- 
Dispute aboat them, espeoiaUy in England - - 93 

LECTUBE V. 

Examination of other parts of the body.— The Pelvis : the Extremities. 
— ^The Skin; its coloration, stracture, perspiration, and hair. — ^The 
soft parts.— The Ikoe.— Eyes, nose, month, lips, cheeks, ears, and 
chin.- Internal organs • . . . • 118 

LECTUBE YI. 

Comparison of the Stractore of Man with that of the Ape. — ^Diifer- 
ences. — Defenoelessness. — Erect position. — Eqnilibriiim of the 
SknlL — ^Free mobility of the Anterior Extremities. — ^Formation of 
the PeWis. — Ptopor U ons of sereral parts of the body. — ftoportion 
of the Craninm to the Face. — ^Development of the Jaws. — Propor- 
tion of the Cranial Angles.— Cubic c^taoity of the skulls of Men, 
Idiots, and Apes.— Herr Bischoif and the Idiots.— Nose, inter- 
maxillazy Bone, and Teeth. — Signification of the Diastemata. — 
Stmctnre of the Pelvis. — ^Pftyportions of the Limbs.— Hands and 
Feet. — ^DiiTerences in the Form of the Brain. — Dispate between 
Owen and Huxley.- Besearches of Gratiolet and Wagner.— Bela- 
tions of the Transition Convolations and the Operculum. — Devel- . 
opment of the Brain. — Form of the Brain in MiorocephalL - 182 

LECTUBE Vn. 

Comparison of Negro and Qerman. — Bodily prop o rtions of the Kegro. — 
SkulL — Pelvis. — Roport i ons of extremities : arm, hand, leg, foot. — 
Internal Parts. — ^Brain. — ^Faoe. — ^Deviations from the normal type. 
— ^Differences of Colour. — ^Insensibility of the Kegro. — ^Babiea, and 
their development — ^Bemarkable change about the period of pu- 
berty.— Mental Inferiority of the Kegrow-^^onstanoy of diiferr 
ences. — BesemUance to tiie Brute. — ^Intermediate form between 
Man and Ape.— MicrooephalL— The Astecs • - - 171 

LECTUBE Vni. 

Comparative Examination of two species of monkey, CAu» aUifironM 
and C«6tti ep^Ua.- Skull and Brain.— Other parts.— AiBnities in 
Nature. — ^Families. — ^Definition of Spedes, Variety, and Baoe. — 



CONTENTS. ZZl 

Inlneediiig of BaoM and Speoiei.— MutabOil^ of Speoiei.— Olaad- 
fioation of Mukind.— Belation to the Ape.— The Homaa Kfagdom 
aoooiding to Geoftroy Saint-Hjlaiie and Qnatrefiiges.— Olgeotiona 208 

LECTIJBE IX. 

Primeval period of Mankind.— DisooTexy of Hnman RemainB aasodated 
with thoae of Extinct Animala.— Cnviei^t Olti®<^<'>ui*^S^u°'A ^^ 
mains in Cavexna. — ^Formation of Caverns. — Stalaotites. — Osseous 
brecdsM — I^osor r a tion of Bones.— Mode in which the Caverns were 
filled.— The Extinct Cavern Inhabitants.— Extinct and Living 
Species. — ^Extinction of some species within the Histoxieal Period. 
— Sohmerling's Discoveries. — ^Tlie Cavern of Engis. — Caverns of 
Lombrive and Lhermc^Chrottoes of Aroy, — Grotto in the Keander 
Valley.— Ofotto of Aniignao - - - - 282 

LECTUEE X. 

Hnman Bemaiws from Denise, near Pdy. — Frandnlent speculations. — 
Dihivhim inthe SommeVsIliy. — ^Flint Implements. — Hnman Jaw. 
— ^Dilnvinm of Jdnville. — Diluvium of Hoxne. — ^Brasilian Caverns. 
— ^Alluvium of North America. — Civilisation of Primitive Peoples. 
— Sknlls of Engis and the Neander Valley. — ^Proportions of these 
CraniA oon^Mured to those of living races of Mankind and Apes - 262 

LECTUBE XI. 

The Dihivial Period. — ^Revolutions and Transitions. — Glacial forma- 
tion. — ^Boulder-Clay. — Old AUuvium. — ^Terminal Moraines and Er- 
ratic Blocks.— Slate-Cosi, and its Formation.— Ice-sea and Glacial 
Formation in the North — In England. — ^Table of Diluvial Strata. 
— ^Length of Time.— Chronological Calculations in the Deltas of the 
Mississii^i and the Nile.— Impossibility of a Universal Deluge. - 806 

LECTURE XII. 

Stone Period in the North.— Refti8e-heaps.—Peat-bogs.— Graves in 
Denmark and Mecklenburg. — Grotto of Chanvanx. — Pile- works .on 
the Swiss lakes and moors. — Civilisation of the Stone Period. — 
Agriculture of the Pile-builders.- Skull of Meilen.— Pile-works 
in Italy. — Chronological Calculations of Morlot» GiBieron, and 
Troyon. — ^Pious Fancies of the latter ... 888 

LECTURE XIII. 

Distinctive CBteaoters of the Cavern- and Stone-Period.— Skulls of 
Denmark.— Arching of the Forehead.— Apostle-Skulls of Switser- 
land, and their Age. — ^The Jaw of Moulin-Quignon. — SkuUs of 
Lombrive compared with those of the present Basques.— Danish 
Stone-Skulls compared with the present Lapps. — Skull of MeOen. — 
Relation to the present Swiss Skulls.— Romanic Short-Heads. — 



XXU CONTENTS. 

BeUifcion to the EtrascanB.— The Oldeit Domestic AnimalB.— The 
Dog. — Swine.— Wild Hog, and Marsh-Hog.— Honied Cattle : Urus, 
Biaon, long-fronted, and oaxred-homed Cattle. — The Sheep. — 
The Ooat.— The Horse.— Cnltiyated Plants - - - 87C 

LBCTUEE XIV. 

Transmission of Characters.— Natnisl Baoes.- Theory of Nathnsins. 
— Oljections to it.— Distinction between Baces and Species.— 
Transformation of Varieties into Baoes and real Species.- Influ- 
ence of Time.— Baoeless Animals.— Mongreto and Hybrids.— Their 
Propagation.- Wolf-Dogs.—Back-Sheep.— Babbit-Hares. -Their 
Breeding.— Condusions and Inferences from the preceding fkots - 402 

LECTUBE XV. 

The Tradition of Adam.— Geographical Distribution of Human Baoes. 
— Constan<7 of their Characters in the course of time. — Fliabilitj 
of Baoes. — Development of the "Skull by Civilisation. — Degenera- 
tion of Baoes. — An Example fi*om Ireland. — Modifications of Ne- 
groes in America, Yankees, Jews. — ^Time requisite for such modi- 
fications. — ^Intermixture of Baoes. — Difiterences in Prolificacy in 
▼arious Mongrels. — Intermixture of White Baoes between them- 
selTes. — ^Mulattoes in South Carolina and Louisiaaa. — Hombron's 
Bemarks.— Indians and Whites.— Whites and Malays.- Whites 
and Polynesians. — Whites and Australians. — Inteences regarding 
the Original Dirersity of the Human Baoes, and the Products of 
Intermixture. — Direct Divine Infiuenoe, according to Dr. Sagot - 423 

LBCTUEE XVI. 

Origin of Oiganic Nature. — Differences between the Organic Kingdoms 
and their sub-Divisions. — Origin of Organic Cells. — ^Theoiy of 
Darwin. — ^My change of Opinion. — Creation of Species. — Muta- 
bility of l^pe.— Consequences of this Theoiy. — Adaptation and 
Fixation of T^ypes.— Practical Conception of Species. — ^Variation 
in Adaptation and Slowness of Transformation. — P^resent and 
Former Transition Types.— Cebus. — Bears.— The Greek Monkey 
of the Tertiary Period. — ^Exclusive Views of Cnvier and Agassis. — 
Barity of Transition Forms. — I^ogression and Betrogression. — 
Fundamental Plan in the Structure of Animals. — No single Original 
Organic Form. — ^Derivation of the Human from the Ai>e T^pe. — 
Derivation of the three Anthropoid Apes from three different 
Families. — ^The various original Human Baoes miist be derived 
from different Ape Families. — Lamentations of Moralists* - 448 



AUTHOR'S PREFACE. 



Ovx of the objects of the XJsefiil-Ejiowledge Sodeiy of the 
canton of Nenfch&tel is to advance popular education by meana 
of public lecturea, which are defivered daring the winter, not 
merely in Neufch&tel — ^the chief town — but also in the in- 
dustrious Jura, in Loele, Ohaux-de-fonds, and the valley of 
Travers, as well as in the villages on the wines-producing slopes 
of the lake, in all which places they are attended by intelligent 
and attentive audiences. Natural science, the history of Switaser- 
land, political economy, and social life, are the chief subjects 
treated of. In localities where. spacious rooms cannot be ob- 
tained, the use of the church is readOy granted ; nor has it 
occurred to any one to consider this a desecration any more 
than the Icelander objects to the stranger finding a night's 
shelter in the church. The success of this XJseful-Ejiowledg^ 
Society, it is true, only dates from the period when Neuf- 
chAtel, having ceased to be a Prussian principaliiy, became a 
canton of the Swiss Confederation. It is veiy probable that, in 
that happy period when a Prussian general, with a few knights 
of the red eagle governed the countiy, die lamentations of 
those, who condemn every result of science which does not 
agree with the ancient Jewish lawbook, would have prevailed 
and suppressed this society. 

The invitation of the Society to deliver some lectures on 
subjects at present engaging my attention, induced me to give 
to my investigations the present form. The subject-matter is 
connected with those studies which, though with many intermp- 
tiQAS, I have continued since the time of the struggles to which 
Kdhlerglauhe und WisseMchafl* owes its origin. I cannot deny 

• B^ip0nHHcn and Science, a ocmtfovenial work l^ the aathor, wliidh had 
paated through four editioofl in Qermany.— Editob. 

B 



that since that time some of my views have nndergone a 
partial change, not on the main points, bnt only npon second- 
ary qnestionSj which in their very change bnt confirm former 
results. 

Whilst preparing the first part of these lectures for publica- 
tion, I had an opportunity of making use of two recent works 
treating of the same subject. The one. Sir Charles Lyell's Antu 
quUy of Man, the other. Professor Huxley's instructive and at- 
tractive treatise, Man's Place in Nature. Lyell's book afforded 
me the pleasure of seeing the Glacial theory, which at Gtittingen 
is to be buried again, revived and acknowledged by such high 
authoriiy. There is also found in it a collation, though a some- 
what imperfect one, of facts which undeniably establish the 
high antiquity of man upon the globe. I have been enabled in 
the second part of this work to offer additional facts, owing to 
the steady support of my scientific friends, Aeby, Clapardde, 
Desor, Fuhlrott, Gastaldi, His, Huxley, Morlot, Pictet, Quatre- 
fages. Spring, Valentin, Broca, Busk, CoUomb, Keller, Messi- 
komer, Schild, and Schwab. It was, moreover, my good fortune 
to be permitted to examine and to take the outlines of the only 
two perfect skulls which have hitherto been found associated 
with the reindeer and the aurochs in caverns. I am indebted 
for the use of these invaluable relics to the kindness of their 
discoverer and owner. Dr. Garrigou, of Toulouse, who was so 
obliging as to bring the skulls to Geneva himself. 

As the printing of this work, which was published in Ger- 
many in parts, was somewhat delayed, opportunity was afforded 
me to correct it and render it more complete in several parti- 
culars, partly by further researches of my own, partly by further 
communications from my friends. The additions and remarks 
thus rendered necessary in the German edition have been in- 
corporated in the text of the English translation. 

But during this time attacks have not been wanting — ^we must 
always be prepared for them. If they g^w out of a scientific 
soil, they cannot but be useful, by laying bare weak points and 
stimulating to their correction ; but if they proceed from that 
soil, from which the lilies of innocence and the palms of con- 
ciliation should spring up, where, however, nothing but the 



AUTHOE'B PBIFACI. 8 

manh-trefoil of crednlitj and the poiflonons water-hemlook of 
calumniation grow, they deaeire no attention. 

M. Frederic de Bongement, one of the champions of Pmasia, 
in NenfchAtel, has relieyed his oppressed heart by an in- 
dignant ontciy, under the title, Mwn amd the Ape, or Modem 
MateridUem. This publication has, I believe, been translated 
into Oerman, and published by the Missionary Sodely of Neuf- 
ch&teL Whoerer takes an interest in it, may read the history of 
a storm in a tombler of water, and how the indignation of the 
&ithfnl of Neufch&tel, caused by my lectures, subsided after 
hearing the prelections of Bougemont. 

Bongemont and myself are old acquaintances. More than 
twenty years ago I saw him mount the rostrum — '' the Deluge'' 
under his arm — to refute Dubois de Montpereux and Agassis, 
who looked upon Noah's flood as a locd phenomenon of 
Armenia. I then heard him at a public lecture explain the 
creation of Eve from Adam's rib, and why Ood, in his infinite 
wisdom, had selected the rib in particular, and no other part 
of Adam's body. ''He took no piece of the head — ^woman 
would then have had too much intelligence ; he took no piece 
of the leg^s — ^woman would haye been too much on the move ; 
he took a piece near the heart, that woman should be all 
love"! 

It would, perhaps, have required more profound inves- 
tigations than Bongemont can command to refute my views 
from a sc'entific standpoint. He preferred, therefore, to make 
an attack on MateriaUiBm on general grounds. The description 
of the monstrous doctrines of this modem aberration is taken 
from the book of a certain Boehner. At first I imagined this 
to be a misprint for Buchner, when, to my astonishment, I 
found that it was the production of a parson, directed against 
Materialism. This appears to me as if one were to take Luther's 
doctrines from the works of Eok and then proceed to confute 
them. 

It is written altogether in the old manner. The world, 
history, morality, the whole structure of moral order perishes— 
just as during the ages of superstition ; only rattling skeletons 
have by M. de Bougemont been advantageously replaced by 

b2 



4 authob's pbbfacb. 

offensive corpses, wluch the Materialists trade in and make 
manure of. I see no other difference. 

M. Schleidenj who so snccessfhlly combated Materialism in 
Dresden, that he converted his whole andience to it, also felt 
bonnd to read a lecture on man. In spite of all the trouble I 
took, I derived no instruction from it, merely finding in it some 
newspaper paragraphs seasoned with Fries' philosophical sauce. 

The reader will observe that I have strictly confined myself 
to the animal kingdom, and specially to such animals as stand 
next to man, and have entirely omitted the veg^etable kingdom, 
with which I confess I am not so conversant. Had I included 
plants, I certainly should not have neglected to mention two 
most important treatises which have recently appeared in 
favour of Darwin's theory. I allude to A. de CandoUe's 
Treatise on Oaks, and Naudin's prize essay on Hybridity in the 
Vegetable Kingdom. Both arrive at the conclusion that species 
have arisen, and still arise, from each other by modification. 
Naudin expressly states, that variety, race, and species aro 
merely different terms designating progressive changes, the 
intimate connection of which is undeniable. When one of the 
greatest experts in the investigation of species, after a most 
careful examination of the various species of oak, and sup- 
ported by colossal materials, arrives at the same conclusion as 
an industrious naturalist who has tried thousands of crossings, 
and specially devoted himself to the production of hybrids, the 
Darwinian theory must be more than an ingenious dream, and 
less destructive of science than certain zealots are apt to believe. 

The Anthropological Society of London, on the publication of 
the first part of these lectures, did me the honour of nominating 
me one of its Corresponding Members, and subsequently ex- 
pressed a wish that the English edition of the book should 
appear under its auspices. To this Society, which prosecutes 
important scientific subjects with such great zeal, I feel bound 
to express my warm thanks, and more especially to its Presi- 
dent, Dr. James Hunt, and its Foreign Secretary, Mr. Alfred 
Higgins. 

C. VOGT. 
London, April 4th, 1864. 



LECTUBE I. 

Introdnofcloii.— BiiBooltiM of the sa1geot^lCateria]B.--Cdn6etioiifl of Czuia. 
—Skdetoitf.— Anatomy of the Baoes.— Haa to bettadied lika any other 
MammaL— Otjeetloiifl of Thedlogiaiia.— Morton and Baohman.— Comp*- 
ratiye Study of Domeetio Animals. — ^Antiquity of the Human Speoiea*— 
OlQ'eotiona of Katnndiats.— Beeearohes of Boucher de Perthea. 

OnTLiiciH, — Surely there is not a more incitiiig snbject 
than the stady of man himself. Inyolmitarily we apply to all 
our actions the knowledge of man^ long ago insisted npon by 
the oracle of Delphi. It is the starting-point fix>m whidi 
we proceed^ and the standard by which we measure the phe- 
nomena occurring in nature. But as it frequently happens 
to the inhabitant of any particular region, that he neglects 
the curiosities of the spot where he was bom and nurtured, 
to which the stranger pays especial attention; so most per- 
sons neglect to &thom their own nature, and thus fail to 
establish a basis for further progress. There are but few who 
search out man; not, indeed, like the ancient philosopher, 
lantern in hand, and only in the market-place, but eveiywhere ; 
and there are still fewer who dare to give a candid and unvar- 
nished account of the results of their investigations. Most 
men look upon themselves as incarnations of the generic 
idea man, and remain under the delusion that they know 
themselves. The same phenomenon occurs in the history of 
science. In ancient times, the science of man was limited to 
the inquiry into some particular Sanctions of his organism and 
the action of the brain. The material basis was only occa- 
sionally and superficially considered, like the region in which 
man lived. It is only with great trouble that we can collect 
from ancient authors a few scattered notices, which may throw 
some light on questions now deemed of the greatest import- 
ance. The opening of a single grave containing a well-pre- 
served skeleton, arms, and ornaments, affords more information 



* LXCTUBE I. 

as regards the physical and mental condition of the people to 
which the exhumed belonged^ than ten authors of antiquity 
who may have described that people. It is only by degrees 
that we have been led to search for a proper basis on which to 
found the science of man. 

The object which I have proposed to myself in these lectores 
is, to make yon acquainted with the latest results obtained 
from the study of the natural history of man, with his relation to 
other animals, his antiquity upon the globe, and the primitive 
state of the human species. Many of these questions I have 
already aphoristically touched upon in a polemical treatise, 
published some years ago. If tlus treatise had no other merit, 
it at any rate opened questions which are intentionally passed 
over in silence, or made party questions. As is well known, 
an Athenian legislator imposed a fine on any citizen who did 
not profess to belong to some political party. Similarly there 
occur periods in the history of science, when public opinion 
forces the inquirer to espouse a party, and neglect is followed 
by punishment. For inquiry per $e, yielding neither results 
nor increase of the knowledge of mankind, seems to me as 
little meritorious as the digging of a hypochondriac which has 
for its sole object to equalise the circulation of his blood. It 
is only when digging the soil leads to the production of fruit, 
that it becomes meritorious. 

The questions I intend to discuss offer peculiar difficulties, 
to which I must draw your attention, lest from the pauciiy of 
the results you should hastily draw the conclusion that insuf- 
ficient pains have been taken to elucidate certain points. The 
study of the natural history of man, like a giant with a thousand 
arms, embraces almost every branch of human knowledge, and 
the deeper we penetrate, the more intricate appear the paths 
which may lead to the goal. The subject is not man, con- 
sidered as an abstract being : the inquiry extends to millions 
of men scattered over the earth, their physical peculiarities, 
their present and former relations to each other, and stretches 
back to a time when man scarcely left more traces of his ex- 
istence than the savage beast which inhabited the same region. 
From the results obtained we must, then, draw inferences con- 



UCTUBl I. 7 

oerning the rektioiiB of the races of mankind to each other, 
their intenniztore, their descent and propagation, their relation 
to other creatnres, especially to the higher mammals; and 
also, the changes which air, climate, and mode of life, have pro- 
daced in man in his struggle for existence. 

It is dear that the difficulties attending an investigation of 
this kind are very great, so that in spite of all efforts we are 
only on the threshold of our inquiry. Man is scattered all 
over the globe, and everywhere, even in the remotest regions, 
numerous intermixtures have taken place, by which the pos- 
sibly original purity has been more or less impaired. More- 
over, a science, if it is to draw unimpeachable inferences, re- 
quires fimdamental principles mathematically certain, and these 
can, in this our field, be but very slowly obtained. Direct inves- 
tigation can only be applied to individuals. If we have to deter- 
mine the characteristics of a tribe, a people, arace, a species, we 
can only ascertain them by taking the mean of numerous observa- 
tions and measurements of individuals. We all know that the 
characteristic peculiarities of a people, the Grermans and French, 
for instance, cannot be determined from a superficial acquaint- 
ance with single individuals at a table d*h&te, but that a long 
intercourse with all the various classes of a nation is requisite 
for the formation of a proper estimate. And yet here we have 
only an individual .perception of peculiarities for which there is 
no certain standard, the estimate of which frequently depends 
on the disposition of the observer. But when, as in our case, 
we have to do with physical peculiarities, actual measurement 
comes into play, and it alone can lead to useful results. The 
first step is to examine the whole physical conformation, espe- 
cially the most characteristic parts ; head, skull, brain, hand, 
and foot: notinafew,butinagreatmanyindividuaIs,andinthis 
way to eliminate individual peculiarities, and give prominence to 
Budi as are common to the great nugority. Now, anyone who 
knows the difficulties we meet with in this respect, even in our 
civilised countries, where the materials are at hand, will readily 
conceive that they are increased when such inquiries are to be 
carried on in distant regions among savage nations. QuAtelet, 
the eminent director of the Brussels Observatory, has been occn- 



8 LEGTUBB I. 

pied majij years in investigating, with meter and balance, the 
laws of human growth in Belgium, and in thus constructing, so 
to speak, what he calls " the average man,'' as obtained firom the 
mean of a great number of individual observations. And yet 
these measurements and weights apply only to a small stock, in- 
habiting but a little comer of the globe, and exhibiting but 
few of the relative proportions of the bodily organs. 

Very recently. Professor Welcker of Halle has attempted to 
construct, from a comparatively small number of crania, the 
normal skull of the Oermanic stock, or in other words, to find 
out the peculiarities belonging to most Oerman skulls; and 
though thirty normal male, and as many female skulls have 
been measured and registered, still this number is not sufficient 
to yield an absolutely certain average. Recollect, now, that 
investigations of the same nature as these, which required 
years, though confined to a small district, are to be extended 
to all parts of the globe, with a view to the acquisition of 
such data as we possess with respect to Belgian recruits and 
Oerman skulls, and contrast with this the inadequacy of the 
means we at present posseds of obtaining the materials needful 
for our inquiry. The travelling naturalist, even when he sails 
in the Novara, under the Austrian flag, may congratulate 
himself if here and there soldiers, porters, sailors, or loose 
women offer themselves for examination, or if the chiefs of 
some tribes allow themselves to be photogpraphed. In southern 
parts, where nakedness is not deemed indecent, observation is 
in this respect facilitated ; but in the north, where the climate 
forces man to cover the body with skins night and day, as among 
the Esquimaux, Samoiedes, andTschuktshes, permission to view 
the naked body is not so readily conceded. And finally, where 
shall we find naturalists dwelling for many years among foreign 
races,inorder to secure opportunities for comparative researches? 

We shall see in the course of these lectures, that the cranium, 
the most important part of the osseous system, containing 
as it does the organ of the mind, deserves the closest examina- 
tion. Many naturalists, like Blumenbach at Gtittingen, Morton 
in America, and others, have devoted much of their time to the 
formation of collections of crania, representing the various types 



LSCTUBI I. 9 

ind noes of mankmd. Even here the difflcnlties we meet with 
are great. It is hardly feasible in the tunes we live in to cut 
off the heads of the living ; and to despoil the graves of the dead 
is in most civilised countries considered a crime^ and severely 
punished. Fioos ignorance even now declaims against dissec- 
tion^ and it is not so very long since English anatomists were 
driven to employ resurrection-men^ and were indirectly the 
cause of murders being committed. We must^ therefore, not 
wonder that the procuring of skulls in uncivilised countries is 
not unattended with danger, and that we succeed only in ex- 
ceptional cases in collecting a sufSdent number of skulls of any 
stock to enable us to draw just inferences from comparison. 

The industry and perseverance of some observers have brought 
together comparatively large collections of crania, of which, 
however, the origin is frequently doubtful. Thus, for instance, 
it is frequently impossible to say definitely whether the skull is 
that of a msle or female ; and yet the differences between the 
male and femsle skull are not insigrnificant. In the more civi- 
lised races the difference is as great as between the skulls of 
the same sex in different races ; and, as there is but little 
difference in this respect in the Negro and other inferior races, 
the determination of the sex becomes more uncertain as we ap- 
proach the inferior races of humanity. 

As regards the rest of the skeleton, the materials become 
still more scanty. It is easy to carry off skulls, but a skeleton 
requires more care. Nine out of every ten sailors still believe that 
a i^eleton or a cofSn on board brings bad luck, and under such 
circumstances they are apt to mutiny if a storm breaks out. 
And yet many parts of the skeleton require to be examined, 
such as the structure of the hands, feet, the form of the pelvis, 
— all these can only be determined by numerous observations. 

The skull is chi^y important from its investing the brain so 
closely, that its chief features are impressed on the inner sur&ce 
of the cranium. The brain deserves, above all, a dose investi- 
gation, in eTaTniuiTig the organisation of thinking beings. It 
has even been proposed to classify mammals according to their 
cerebral structure. The ideal of an anatomy of races, which 
Professor Wagner, of Gottingen, promises the public in the 



10 LICTUBI I; 

preface of every new work he publishes, but which seems not 
to hare advanced further than a collection of materials, snch 
an ideal, I repeat, would undoubtedly comprise a dose exami- 
nation of all racial brains, founded on minute dissection. But 
we are as yet far from such a consummation. Here and there 
some European anatomist succeeds in obtaining a black sub- 
ject for dissection, but want of acquaintance with his genea- 
logy, which can only be traced through one or two generations* 
of slaves imported from Africa^ may give rise to the suspicion 
that transportation into another climate, and the change in 
mode of life and civilisation, may already have modified the 
original structure of the body, and specially of the brain as the 
org^ of mental activity. 

You will from these few remarks easily form some concep- 
tion of the difficulties under which the naturalist labours, in 
the process of determining not merely the physical but also the 
psychological nature of man. The material is only obtained 
in scanty fragments, and these are capable of elaboration in 
so many different ways, that the labours of predecessors cannot 
always be appropriated. 

When, having overcome these difficulties and procured some 
materials, we try to apply the results obtained, there rise 
from the depth of society other phantoms which must be com- 
bated. The whole inherent pride of human nature revolts at 
the idea that the lord of the creation is to be treated like any 
other natural object.f No sooner does the natoralist discover 
the resemblance of some higher mammals, such as the ape, to 
man, than there is a general outcry against the presumptuous au- 
dacity that ventures to touch man in his inmost sanctuary. The 
whole fraternity of philosophers, who have never seen monkeys 
except in zoological gardens, at once mount the high horse, 
and appeal to the mind, the soul, to reason, to consciousness, 
and to all the rest of the innate faculties of man, as they are 
refracted in their own philosophical prisms. This mode of 



• And eren tb«n with BO osrUinty.— Bditob. 

t This, no doubt, U quite true of the mniwicg of mankind; but moh feel- 
ing»are not thttred in by either the philoeophio or the truly edentiflo mind.— 
EonoBk 



LBCTUBI I. II 

xmsonixig resembles tliat of my old teiusher Wilbrand^ in 
GieBsen^ who uitil Iub deaths whiph took place aboat twenty 
years ago, protested against the droolation of the blood. 
" Which,'' he asked, on examining a candidate for honours, 
'' is more preferable— -the mental or the physical eye T'' Woe 
to the candidate who replied '' the bodily eye :" he was plucked 
at once. Of necessity the candidate answered the mind's eye. 
''Well, then," continued the professor, ''mental inspection 
must be superior to physical inspection ; if, therefore, you say 
that you have, by the aid of the microscope, seen the circula- 
tion of the blood with your bodily eye, and I tell you that I 
have seen the impossibflity of the circulation with my mind's 
eye, it follows that I am right and you are wrong." In the 
same way our philosophers observe with the mind's eye, and 
when they csll to their aid the imagination, which, according 
to Carriire, "is a direct inspiration. from above—which per- 
ceives the divine thoughts in nature, and represents a transi- 
tion of universal thoughts into the thought of the individual :" 
when, I say, these imaginative philosophers, come forth as G-od- 
inspired prophets, we, ordinary mortals, must bow down our 
heads, and confess that our results are only the fruit of human 
labour, aud not the emanations from a supreme being entirely 
unknown to us. 

These idle speculations have had the effect of confusing and 
perplexing even unprejudiced inquirers, so that we meet with 
the most striking contradictions, and must tske eveiy possible 
care that we do not fall into them ourselves. A kind of system 
of double entry, much lauded formerly though with small suc- 
cess, makes again its appearance under a different form. Thus 
we find that the same naturslist debbures in the same page, 
that the physical differences between man and the ape are just 
sufficient to constitute mankind a family which must be placed at 
the head of the order of apes ; whilst, on the other hand, man's 
intellectual faculties are so essentially distinct, that he must form 
a separate kingdom, like the animal and vegetable kingdom.* 
In order to show you the contradictions that arise in this 

• Qaatrefog6t.-^BDiTOB. 



12 LBCTUBE I. 

matter, when we abandon the basis of exact sdenoej I will 
. jnst qnote the opinion of another not less celebrated natora- 
\ list, who opines that the mental faculties of a chimpanzee 
compared with those of a Bosjesman* exhibit only a difference 
in degree, bnt that the structure of the human brain differs 
greatly from that of the ape.f These opposite views pro- 
ceeded solely from the desire to place man above the ape.^ 
The one of these inquirers has forgotten to tell us how it is 
possible that man with a monkey brain could conceive human 
thoughts ; and the second has not told us how a human brain 
can produce apish thoughts. If the brain be the organ of the 
mind, the function must always be consonant with the structure. 
This is only one aspect of the question. If the human spe- 
cies, as it is scattered over the globe, be considered as a 
whole, we are immediately struck by the differences which the 
various races exhibit. There can be no doubt that the investiga- 
tion of these differences is within the province of the naturalist, 
and, however much our pride may revolt against it, there is no 
other method than that followed in zoology. The degree of the 
variations is very important, as it furnishes us with a standard 
for ascertaining the relations in which the various races stand 
to each other. This we shall illustrate by an example. Cats, 
like the human race, are found in all parts of the world ; every 
where, excepting in the extreme north, we find beasts of prey 
belonging to this iype. But at the first glanc^we perceive that 
they greatly differ. No man will confound lions, tigers, panthers, 
cats, and lynxes, and it is just as impossible to confoundNegroes, 
Mongolians, and Caucasians. On close examination, however, 
there occur in the feline family, as well as in the human family, 
intermediate types, which engender doubts. The spotted cats. 



• This 18 an aUmion to a note inserted by Prof. Owen in the/cmmol ofih€ 
Proeeedingi qf the LituMon Society for 1867, p. 20. The author's words are that 
we are unable to "sOTreciate, or oonoeiye of the distinction between the 
psychioal phenomena of a chimpansee and of a Bo^esman, or of an Astec with 
arrested brain growth." The comparison is therefore made between the 
psydioloffical phenomena of the chimpansee and the Boqesman "with 
arrested brain growth," and not between the chimpanzee and the Boajesman 
in a normal state. — ^Editob. 

t R. Owen. — ^Editob. 

{ An anthor may hold snoh opinions withoat any "desize" to place man 
abore the i^.— Editob. 



UBCTUBl X. 18 

which were formerly inclnded in tiie panther ijpe, ran into a 
variety of forms, which differ, more or less, in the nomber and 
arrangement of the spota, the length and hairiness of the tail, 
theyariations in the dental system and the skoll ; in short, by a 
Tariety of marks known only to the minute obserrer, which, 
however, enable the inquirer with more or less certainly to 
determine whether they are merely accidental variations or 
permanent forms. Let us confess at once, that, in all wild 
animals, the estimation of these variations, and their conse- 
quent classification, depends much on the predilections of the 
observer, so that what one declares to be a species another takes 
to be only a variety. The accumulation of facts leads generally 
to the result, that some decidedly different forms are laid down 
as species, round which the less differing forms are grouped as 
varieties. Though the yalidily of many species is still dis- 
cussed, and though many definitions of species have been given 
without any satisfactory result, still these discussions stimulate 
the progress of science. 

It is somewhat different as regards the science of man : here 
was a field in which the result at which science was to arrive was 
prescribed. One Adam, one ancestor, one Noah with three sons as 
secondary ancestors — ^these were the premises forced upon scien- 
tific inquiry, without the assumption of which the naturalist was 
unceremoniously sent to a place we need not mention. In the 
former case we had to do with philosophers, who in their acade- 
mical gowns only talk to a select audience, but here we had 
against us the whole clergy, with their faithful sheep and butting 
rams — a state of things which can only be appreciated from expe- 
rience. Do not think that I only speaJc from my own experience. 
Dr. Morton, an eminent name among naturalists, an es- 
teemed physician of Philadelphia, devoted himself to the study 
of American craniology. After numy years study he arrived 
at the conclusion that the human family consisted of distinct 
species, and could not possibly have descended firom the same 
Adam, and this result he published. A parson, the Bev. Dr. 
Bachman, in Charleston, took great othnoe at this. As is the 
custom with priests, Bachman first writes a friendly letter 
to Morton, informing him that, being of a different opinion, it 



14 LXCT1TBI I. 

will be his duty to write against hiniy but hoping that this will 
not interrapt their fnendshipy as he still considers his friend 
Morton an ornament to science. Dr. Bachman straightway 
publishes a work in which he clearly betrays the greatest 
ignorance of the subject. But what is this to a man full of 
faith? In spite ofhisignorance^ his reverence arrog^tly attacks 
Morton^ as his biographer says^ in a bombastic and dedamatoiy 
style. Morton replies in gentlemanly dignified terms^ repeating 
his arguments^ and sustaining them scientifically. This greatly 
irritates his reverence; he now accuses Morton of being at the 
head of a conspiracy which had its branches in four cities of the 
Union, and whose sole object was the overthrow of a doctrine 
closely connected with the faith and hope of the Christian for this 
world and for eternity. Infidelity, he continues, was the neces- 
sary result of Morton's views, which must be energetically op- 
posed. This took place in 1850. Morton's death in the following 
spring put an end to the dispute ; but do we not hear similar 
sounds from Goetting^n, and are they not the echo of the 
priestly objurgation wafted across the Atlantic Ocean T 

The question with regard to the differences of human races 
not merely affects the basis of theology, but the most interest- 
ing and di£Scult problems of natural history. When we have 
to decide whether these differences are orig^inal, or acquired 
in the lapse of time, the closest examination is requisite, 
not merely as to num's historical development upon the globe, 
but as to the influence of surrounding media. We must 
ascertain what may be the effect of the climate and the mode 
of life to which man may be exposed in his migrations ; how 
far deficiency or abundance of aliment, certain habits, the 
gradual elevation to a higher civilisation may have changed 
the original character, or entirely effiiced it, so as to be no 
longrer recognisable; how &t intermixture between several 
races, intentional or accidental, may have given rise to new 
forms. Here it is not man alone who is to be considered, but 
other creatures, specially the domestic animals which are im- 



* For paiticiilan of these statements see Dr. Ffttterson's Memoir of Morton* 
in 2Vpm €f Manikind, p. 58. — ^EDrroa. 



UBcrmsi J. 15 

mediatdy under man^a control, and the forms of which he 
endeaYoors to alter according to his wants. 

Thifl part of the qnestion — perhaps the most interesting'-' 
has given rise to the greatest controversy. Vexy recently this 
snbject has again been handled by Darwin, the eminent natn- 
lalist, and we shall in the sequel have to treat of his theoiy of 
the origin of species. Here I may say this mnch, that, 
though I do not adopt this theoiy with all its inferences, it 
yet appears to me to be nearer the truth than any other, and I 
do not hesitate to say that I accept it with regard to nearly 
allied types. 

I have already observed that our question has also its his- 
torical, or, if you like, its geological side, which cannot be 
neglected, although we again run the danger of turning the 
milk of human kindness into poison, and Christian love into 
grim hatred. When we desire to study the influence which 
tiie natural conditions exercise upon man, we must go back as 
far as possible into thehistoiy of the human race, since the lapse 
of time is a (ac(or which must always be kept in view. Wemust 
necessarily form an alliance, not merely with the historian 
and antiquary, but with the geologist ; we must, appropriate 
their results, and apply these to the solution of our problem. 
Here, also, the difficulties are numerous. The delusions and 
mystifications to which antiquaries are exposed, have yielded 
materials to the novelist. But in this mase the right path 
has been detected ; and as the testimony of Egyptian antiquities 
shows that the civilisation of mankind reaches furllier back 
than the period assigned to Adam by the Jewish lawgiver, 
we are at once justified in declaring that the antiquity of man 
readies back to a period when extinct animals peopled our 
continent, and that this period exhibits a state of civilisation 
which can scarcely bear comparison with that of the aborigines 
of Australia. 

One might suppose that the question regarding the anti- 
quity of man on the globe concerns science only ; such, how- 
ever, does not seem to be the case. The Christian theologian 
immediately discovers that it is a mere presumption of the 



16 LICTUBX I. 

layman to assign to the Mosaic Adam a recent period in his- 
toiy^ and to assert that there had existed a prerioos dvilisa- 
tion, in which man knew not the nse of metals, and prepared 
his tools and weapons from flints and bones. 

We mnst not, however, lay the blame altogether on theolo- 
gians; the reproach most also be extended to the representatives 
of science, though in a lesser degree. In consequence of the 
dicta of some eminent naturalists at the time when the facts 
were less numerous, the opinion generally prevailed that man 
belonged to the most recent geological epoch, and had only 
existed in the present condition of the globe. The remains of 
extinct animals intermixed with human bones, had, no doubt, 
been found ; but these facts had either been ignored, or very in- 
differently investigated. To such an extent did the belief in the 
late appearance of the higher animals prevail, that the existence 
of fossil apes in the tertiary strata was denied. 'i' Soon, however, 
the facts accumulated, and they were all the more readily accepted 
as they were thought to relate to apes only. Just read the lamen- 
tations of that enthusiastic inquirer Boudier de Perthes, as to the 
trouble he had to induce some few unprejudiced naturalists 
merely to inspect the beds from which he extracted flint 
hatchets. '' Practical people,'' he observes, '' smiled, shrugged 
their shoulders^ and would not look at the implements ; in one 
word, they were afraid of a heresy. And when the &cts 
became so patent, that each could verify them for himself, I 
met,'' says he, ''with a greater obstacle than opposition, 
sarcasm, and persecution — ^the silence of contempt. The facts 
were no longer denied, they were buried in oblivion. Then 
followed explanations more wonderful than the facts them- 
selves ; the stone hatchets, it was said, were the products of 
fire ; they had been thrown up by a volcano in a fluid state, 
and, falluig into water, had, in cooling, asstimed the shape of 
hatchets. Others said it was intense cold that burst the flints 
into fragments resembling knives and hatchets. Then, again, 

* Bron by CuTier. It waa not until fonr yean after hift deatli that tlie 
first ib«il apes were diaoorered. — £ditob. 



LXCTUBB I. 17 

tbat the workmen liad chipped the flints and imbedded ihem«* 
All these objections I did not much care for^ but what yezed 
me most was, the obstinate refusal to examine the facts, and 
the nse of the expression, ' It is impossible I' before people had 
taken the trouble to ascertain whether it was actually bo" 

The distrust with which antiquarian researches are fire- 
quently receiyed by physicists, may hare had its share in the re- 
ception which gare rise to these jeremiads. But science has no 
written code, and every fact finds a way for itself if zealously 
advocated. Boucher de Perthes at length succeeded in inducing 
some g^logists to visit the valley of the Somme, when he showed 
them the flint implements in sUu. These observers created some 
sensation in the learned societies of Paris and London ; the sub- 
ject was discussed, and the facts verified, so that there exists no 
longer any doubt. But in theology, Tubal-Cain still occupies 
his place as the first worker in metal, and whoever does not 
believe it is not only now and for ever lost, but is publicly 
brandedf as an infidel. 

The great antiquity of the domestic animals, and their rela- 
tions to man, are of particular interest, as they exhibit more 
than man the influence of nature. As man can act upon them 
by breeding and aliment according to his will, he is enabled to 
alter the given forms in a manner which it seems scarcely possible 
could happen by natural means. If, then, in tracing the changes 
they have undergone since the most remote times, it could be 
proved that the various races into which our domestic animals 
are divided, are either the descendants of one original stock, 
or the products of intermixture between several original spe- 
cies, we should no doubt obtain analogies of as much value 
as many of the conclusions derived directly from the human 
si>ecies. 

You observe then, G^tlemen, that the field of these in- 

• See on tliis eiiMeot the AmiOiropologieal S^niew, roL U V- 80.— Bdxtob. 

t ItUoeiieiiilyiittle to the credit of oar'' enUghtened'' ego, that mm 
■olence we* even in our own ooontrj* etffl expoeed to ooene mthete and the 
imputation of ecndid motiTee, if they adTaaoe any doetrinee at Tarianoe with 
meoonoeiTed ideaa. Lihe the Brahmin who amadied to pieces the nnoffend- 
fng mioroeoope, which showed him lifing heinge in his yegetahle floods ao 
the Tehemenoe of such lelf-eiilBoient ■awiillanta liaee in proportion aa the 
ftieta advanced cannot he dieprored.— Bditob. 



18 LIOTirBB I. 

qviries Ib more extensiye than might be sapposed. It will be my 
object not, indeed, to toach upon all the facts, but merely upon 
those possessing real importance as regards the inferences to be 
drawn from them. In fulfilling onr task we shall care veiy little 
abont the dost we may raise, or about religions and political 
prejudices which we shall, perhaps, be obliged to take by the 
horns and cast aside. It concerns us very little whether the 
existence of Adam, Tubal-Cain, and Noah is, or is not, verified 
by our researches. It is indifferent to us whether the Democrats 
of the Southern States find in our investigations a confirmation 
or a refutation of their assertion,'!' that slavery is approved of 
and ordained by God ; or whether the Yankee can fairly infer 
from our inquiries that he is quite justified in his proud refiisal 
to sit in the same room, or to ride in the same railway carrisge 
with the Negro, though he does not refuse to eat what the 
Negro has cooked. We shall advance straight forward, heed- 
less of the yelping behind us. 

* There U no doubt that the greater iMurt of the democrats look upon aUyezy 
u a diTine imtitatioii. Many beliere that it ii supported by the histoiT 
and teanhing of the Bible. Most, howerer, of the aUYeholderB of the South 
look upon uieir aUvee as a great charge which they have inherited from 
their foreftithers. They believe that the Negro is mentally only a chOd, and 
quite incapable of living happily and natnrally in juzti^xMition with the 
white European, except m a state of complete subordination and subjection. 
Many slaveliolders assert they would be very glad to part with their slaves, if 
they could be taken entirely away; but they reftise to "free" them and 
allow them to become a nuisance, and an ^esore. — Editor. 



19 



LECTURE 11. 

Mothod of InTertEgfttioii.— Mixed l>pet.— Aren^e Kmi and BknlL— Ute of 
the Franoh Meirioal Sjitem.— Sohener and Sohirui's Sjitem of Me*. 
■nzMiieni. — Cnmiometiy. — ^Fixed Pointe in the SkaU. — Choice of the 
Thizmeet Flaoea.— Bosk's System of Measaxement.— Aeby's System.— 
Horisontel and YertioAl Planes.— Belatioii of the SkoU to the Face.— 
Camper's Facial Angle.— Measurement of the Base and Vault of the 
Cranium.— Wdcker's System of Measurement.— Cianial Angle; Sknll; 
Net.— Yon Baer's Nomendatnre for Cmnial Forms.— Coronal View: 
Longheads, Medimn Heads, and Short Heads.— Profile View: Pro* 
gnathism and Orthognathism.— Anterior and Posterior View: Toirer 
Heads, P^framidal Heads, and Boof Heads. — Scherser-Sdhwan's 
Scheme. — ^Tables of Cranial Measurements after Virohow, Welcker, Von 
Baer, and Bosk. 

QwxThEMXS, — ^A proper method of inveBtigation is freqaently 
of gpreater value than tiie investigation itself. This axiom emi- 
nently applies to natoral sdenoe. A fixed plan^ which will 
prevent digression and enable other inquirers to pnrsne the same 
path, is of special value. In speaking therefore in this place 
of the methods which ought to be followed in order to arrive at 
any results in the study of the natural histoiy of man, I do so 
under the firm conviction that only an insight into the 
methods of investigation can enable us to estimate its re- 
suits. We must, however, confess that it is only within a 
veiy recent period that investigations on a proper system have 
becoi commenced, and that some inquirers have agreed upon 
uniformity of method. 

There can be no doubt that the object of our inquiry is sub- 
ject to a variety of changes, resulting partly from individual 
disposition, from the lapse of time and from external influ- 
ences, so that eveiy investigation has necessarily many defects, 
arising from a variety of sources. The original disposition 
which parents transmit to their offspring, varies extremely even 
in children of the same father and mother — ^the more so the 

c2 



20 LSCTUBi n. 

longer the interval between the births of the oflbpring. The 
development of life from birth to death depends on many 
conditionB, which, though following a certain law, are still 
subject to many oscillations. Not merely the body as a 
whole, but each part indiyidually, every bone and every organ 
has its own law of development and decay. Sex, climate, 
dwelling-place, alimentation, and occupation, all have their 
influences. In proceeding further, other important sources 
of error arise which increase the di£Sculties. Let us, for 
instance, assume that we are investigating the question of 
human races, and that we confine our researches to the skull ; 
that we take the German skull as a standard for measurement 
and comparison, as we have many of these at our disposal. But 
where is the guarantee that this skull, which every Grerman ana- 
tomist may declare to be a well formed German skull, belonged to 
one of pure Grerman blood ? Where is the spot on German soil 
where there has not been, or at least might not have been, an in- 
termixture of the most various races ? Have not, from the most 
remote times, Ajnatic and European peoples chosen Germany 
as their battle-field ; and, as Venus always accompanies Mars, 
have they not left their traces in the blood of their descend- 
ants? And, independently of these invasions, are there 
not many districts in Germany where for centuries different 
tribes dwelt side by side, until both became fused, or the 
weaker were absorbed in the stronger ? Have we not the most 
evident proofs that the Germans, of whose habitation in the oak 
forests our patriotic songs speak, were only the third invaders, 
who subjected and absorbed two peoples, the previous occu- 
pants of the German soil ? Do not the Sclavonic historians 
claim two-thirds of Gennany as their inheritance, from which 
they have been displaced by cunning and violence ? Where, 
then, in that historical or antediluvian mixture now called 
Germany, is the spot where we may find the genuine, unmixed, 
pure German square head — ^the tSte carrfe as the French call it ? 
Certainly no one can give a definite answer to this question, 
and every one will admit that the possibility of intermixture in 
preceding generations cannot be denied. 

As with the Germans, so it is with eveiy people on the 



LiernBi n. 21 

globe. TiuditionBj historical tacts, physical pecoHaritieBj point 
to extensiye intermixtares, which either affected the puriiy of 
the original stockj or perhaps gave rise to a new race. How 
are we to get ont of this maze f Can we possibly discorer a 
method which may diTninish the sources of error, and lead to 
more certain results f 

Natoral philosophy, and its allied sdencesj have long since 
solved this problem, and it only remains to apply the same 
method to onr investigations. Where inquiries necessarily in- 
Yolye many sources of errors, these can only be redaced to their 
minimnTn by frequently repeating the observations and measure- 
ments, so that we obtain from the mass of experiments an aver- 
t^go representing a law. The greater the number of individual 
facts accumulated, and the more strictly they are defined, by 
selecting, for instance, cases of the same sex, age, and condi- 
tion, the more exact will be the results. Let us illustrate this 
by an example. In countries where conscription is in force, all 
males, excepting cripples, are measured during their tweniy-first 
year, and those are excluded who do not possess the prescribed 
militazy height. We can thus determine the average height 
of the males of twenty-one years of age in certain countries. It 
is clear that great errors would arise if only a hundred recruits 
were measured ; for these may be, as for example, in France, 
either from Alsace, Brittany, or Provence, which are inhabited 
by three different stocks vaiying in stature. But after the mea- 
surement of a thousand recruits from different regions, the 
calculation of the mean height will be less liable to error; and 
by further measurement of all the conscripts of a certain 
year the result will be singularly near the truth. StOl, even 
such a proceeding may prove somewhat fiallacious, as a parti- 
cular year may be distinguished by special peculiarities. Thus, 
it is a fisMst that during a famine fewer children are bom, and 
these are, on the average, weaker and less developed than those 
bom during other periods. But by extending the measure- 
ments to a number of years, even this source of error will be 
greatly diminished, and the result very nearly approach the 
truth. 

I have purposely selected this example to show what striking 



22 LBCTUBI II. 

refiolte may be obtained by the moat impromimng means^ the 
moment we know bow to gronp and bandle a number of data 
properly. It is from the recruiting tables of Franoe that one 
of the most ingenious writers on the Natural History of Man^ 
Paul Broca, has deduced the distribution of the large-sized 
Kimri or Graels, and the small-sized Celts in France^ and 
indicated the districts where these tribes have preserved their 
purity, and those where they have become intermixed. 

You thus perceive, gentlemen, that in examining either in- 
dividual characters or separate races, we must apply the prin- 
ciples adopted in physics, meteorology, and the allied sciences. 
Exact measurements and weights, expressible in figures, and 
applicable to numbers and masses, can alone afford a basis for 
scientific accuraqr. Everything that rests merely upon personal 
predilection or individual conception must only be added as flesh 
and skin to the skeleton, afforded by measurement and weight. 
In ordinary cases, measurement and weight form the generally 
received standard ; in others, the standard has yet to be found. 
Attention has rightly been called to the necessity of devising 
a table of colours for the estimation of the coloration of the 
skin and hair (b'ke the c^anometers for the sky), in order 
to obviate the confusion prevailing among naturalists as regards 
the shades in the different races, some of which are, by one 
writer, described as of oUve colour, and by another, as of dark 
coppeiy-brown.* It must, however, be admitted, that there 
are many difficulties in the preparation of standard colour- 
tables calculated to lead to satisfactoiy results. 

If we are to devote our attention, before all things, to what can 
be measured and weighed, the living man is the first object which 
demands our investigation. The '^ average man'' of Europe hav- 
ing been determined by Qufttelet, his system is now applied to 
races. Hitherto, such observations have only been made 
during three voyages in distant parts of the world. Burmeister 
applied this method, to a limited extent, to the Negroes in 

• The Anthropologioal Society of London, aoting in concert with the Puis 
SociiU d'Anthr&polo9%€, are aboat to bring out gome tables of tiiie description ; 
and these wiU be accompanied by some general inetaractiona which are to be 
■ent to all the fellowa, correepondenta, and local aeoretaries of the aodety 
in diiferent parts of the worid. — ^Editok. 



UBCTUBB U. 28 

Brazil; Dn. Sohener and Sohwarz^ on a large Boale^ during the 
YOTage of the Novara; and the brothers Schlagintweit in 
India. BnimeiBter has published the results, if not the details, 
of his measnrements ; the obserrations of the latter travellers 
have, to my knowledge, not yet been published in their en- 
tirety. Since the stoiy of the colossal idols of Thibet, the 
scientific reputation of the brothers Schlagintweit is not such 
as to warrant impUdt fiuth in their conclusions ; so that we 
must adopt the Novara expedition as the starting-point of a 
scientific investigation of human races in distant regions. 

It is a matter of primaiy importance to establish a uniform 
standard of measurement, so that we may compare the results 
obtained by a variety of obserrers, without any necessiiy of 
reduction. Most observers, with the exception of the English,'!' 
now use— and quite properly — ^the French measure and weight, 
the metre and the kilogpramme; and it is surprising that so dis- 
tinguished a naturalist as Karl Ernst von Baer should adopt the 
English standard, which is not even fixed, some dividing the 
foot into ten, others into twelve, inches. By the way, gentle- 
men, the great reputation of the English, as practiced people, 
rests on as small a foundation as any other flatteiy, and it is 
precisely the things of common life that prove tlds most evi- 
dently. During the Crimean war, we saw the stiff and formal 
ESnglish perish from frost and hunger, though they had abundant 
provisions at a small distance ; whilst the more handy French, 
with much scantier material at their disposal, contrived to make 
themselves exceedingly comfortable.f It is just the same in 
social life. There is not a more senseless metrical and monetary 
system than the English. Without calculation yon cannot re- 

• mie Kngliih hare oertainly hitharto uMd their own mmmaxtmi hat the 
ineoBTeiilflaoe of this ooone ii lo ftiDy appredAted by iimelf and farotliar 
memben of the Coondl of the Anthzofwloffioel Sode^ of Londoiit thftt we 
hsre dedded to do all we can to introcuioe French meaanremente, into 
aU our roeearehca and inTestigatSona. The author la not;, a{»pai«nt^, aware 
of the difflcoltgr of obtaining any mutoal aotion on the part of Kngliah 
men of aoienoe. The Anthropologioal Sode^— aa a yoong inatitotion— ia 
fortonately free ihnn the trammda and hereditary prq|ndioeBwhidi too often 
are ■nooeaiftil bazriera to the introdnction of fordgn methoda. — ^Eniron. 

t Thia in* to a great extent, trae; bat the oanaea of the great mar- 
tality of tike Fpg^^*^ troopa in the Gzunea are alao in aome meaanre to be 
aaonbed to the want of training of onr young aoldierv, a large proportion of 
whom beaidea were soffeEing from the effeota of i^yphilitio diaeeae.— Sdztob. 



24 LiCTuu n. 

dnce lines to inbhes^ and mches to feet. The foot has no de- 
finite relation to the mile^ nor the latter to the degree of lati- 
tude. Pounds, ounces, and scmples vary for different objects, 
just as formerly apothecaiy and market-weight were in use in 
Germany; and they, also, cannot be reduced without cal- 
culation, and have no relation to the measurements of solids 
and liquids. This nonsense even extends to the thermometer, 
the Fahrenheit scale being the only one in use. How simple, 
compared with all this, is the French system 1 How easily is it 
applied in making calculations and noting the results. 

After this digression, let us return to our subject. It is no 
small task to measure a living man. On looking at the sys- 
tematic scheme made use of by Scherzer and Sdiwarz'i' in 
the Navara expedition, we find that it takes several hours to 
note in the register the seventy-eight data required. In the 
general part, the age, name and sex of the individusl, colour and 
structure of the hair, the growth of the beard, colour of the eyes^ 
and other peculiarities, are noted first ; then the number of pul- 
sations, the strength, by means of Begnier's dynamometer, and 
finally, the weight and height of the naked body, are deter- 
mined. Next follow the measurements of the head, the trunk, 
and the extremities ; twenty-one of them relate to the head, 
seventeen to the trunk, and twenty to the extremities. I can- 
not particularise them here; those who wish to render them 
more complete, or criticise them, must make themselves 
familiar with them by practical manipulation. This much 
may be said, that the scheme gives a tolerably complete repre- 
sentation of the body measured, and thus attains the object in 
view, as far as is practicable. 

The first requisite for eveiy measurement is that fixed points 
should be discovered, whidi nwy easily be found in all objects of 
the same kind, and to determine the lines and planes from which 
further points may be determined. Such requisites seem at first 
sight very easy to obtain ; but on examination they will be found 
attended with so many difficulties, that we need not wonder at 

* I hftve added to thia leofcore Meaara. Sohwan and Sdhener'a tcheme^ 
which ia so ananged that eveiy inatroment U only laid aaida after it haa 
aoawered aU ite pnrposeB. 



LBCTUU n. 25 

the difference of opinion in the matter. Meaanrement on the 
living individnal is, of conrsej only external^ and we all know 
how hnman beings differ in dimensions, owing to aliment^ 
condition of life, and constitation ; as fieur as possible, the 
measurements on the living body must be confined to those 
parts where the bones are nearest the skin, or where aper- 
tures eadst which either lead to internal organs, or present 
fixed positions. Let us apply this first principle to that part 
which is of the greatest importance to as, namely, the head. 
In most cases, the sknll and the lower jaw are so near the skin 
that their shape may easily be felt. The base of the craninm 
alone is inaccessible, and its important proportions can only be 
determined on the prepared sknll. Of the various apertures in 
the cranium, the external auditory opening is the one which sup- 
plies all the conditions required for a central point. The aperture 
of this canal is sufficiently narrow to render it easy to determine 
its centre, and it corresponds very nearly with the aperture 
in the dried skull, so that all measurements fix>m this point 
may be transferred fix>m the living individual to the cranium, 
and vice versd. We nwy, therefore, boldly assert that any 
system of measurement which does not indude the external 
auditory opening as one of its most important fundamental 
points, is faulty and imperfect. 

The external margin of the orbit, corresponding to the outer 
angle of the eye; the centre of the process to which the muscles 
of the neck are attached; the root of the nose; the junction be- 
tween the septum of the nose and the upper lip, which bears a cer- 
tain relation to a bony process called the anterior nasal spine; the 
terminal point of the upper jaw between the two middle incisors ; 
the central point of the projecting chin, so characteristic of 
mBn;^ — all these points are easily deteimined in the cranium, 
and form a net of triangles, by means of which all other mea- 
surements may be effected. I merely indicate the principle 
without giving details ; but you will agree with me lliat it is 
to be regretted that many recent measurements are of such a 
kind as to preclude their comparison with measurements on 

* Asd MBue IndiMi iiionkflijB.— Editob. 



26 LBGTUBI n. 

liTing men. Thus wliile yod Baer, for instance, with many 
others, measores the diameter of the skull from the lowest 
point of the forehead, the so-called glabella, to the most pro- 
jecting point of the oodput, Welcker takes the frontal emi- 
nences, which are sitnated higher up and cannot be exactly 
determined either in the living or the dead skoll, as his start- 
ing-points, so that both these measurements are liable to 
great objections, both on the score of usefulness and accuracy; 
this much, moreover, is certain, that, even if they could be 
accurately determined, they are not comparable with each 
other. 

There is another circumstance, as von Baer justly observes, 
whidi must be attended to in cranial measurements, namely, 
the unequal thickness of the skull in various parts, so that in 
order to obtain an approximative idea of the internal capacity of 
the cranium, we must select the points where the bone is thin- 
nest, and avoid the prominences, which are espedaUy liable to 
be modified by the action of the attached muscles. 

On each side of the human skull there is a curved line, the 
so-called temporal ridge, which marks the limits of the tem- 
poral muscle. The more this muscle — ^the chief masticating 
muscle — is developed, the higher up is the line, and the broader 
the space between the zygomatic arch and the cranium. The 
development of this muscle is sometimes so great that in many 
animalfl its fibres have no room for attachment to the side of 
the skull, and a crest is formed on the vertex to serve for at- 
tachment. The development of the temporal ridge and the 
breadth of the zygomatic arch are, therefore, in direct propor- 
tion, both depending on the development of the temporal 
muscle. Now, it is this muscle which especially effects the 
perpendicular action of the jaw ; whilst the lateral motions of 
the jaws, for the grinding of the food, are effected by other 
muscles. The latter are greatly developed in vegetable feeders, 
such as ruminants, whose lower jaw acts like a millstone. The 
perpendicular motion especially obtains in camivora. We thus 
necessarily arrive at the result, that nations living chiefly on 
animal food exhibit more developed temporal ridges and broader 
curved zygomatic arches than vegetable feeders ; the latter pos- 



LICTUBB II. 27 

aesaingj also^ flatter qrgomatic arbhes^ and therefore narrower 
tBiOOB, and perhaps also longer Bkolls.* It is clear, therefore, 
that the advioe, to a^oid prominences and to select the thinnest 
parts of the shall, shoold certainly be attended to in estimating 
the internal capacity of the cranium j whilst, on the other 
hand, the derelopment of lines and crests is of importance, 
as affording indications for distinguishing races. For the ques- 
tion may also be asked, has any given race strongly developed 
temporal ridges because it is camivorous ? or, is it carnivorous 
because of the great development of these ridges and of the 
muscles of mastication ? 

StQl, it is veiy difficult practically to follow Yon Baer's 
well meant advice. The thinnest part of the cranium is just 
the centre of the temple, which is covered by the temporal 
muscle : but this point, though well known even in common 
life from the danger attending a blow on this spot, can neither 
in the living nor the dead subject be determined with that 
accuracy requisite for measurements; whilst those spots 
nearest the skin generally correspond with the ridges and 
muscular projections. The objection which may be made to 
so many methods, viz., their inapplicability to both the 
living and dead subject, applies also to the otherwise ra- 
tional method lately proposed by Professor Busk of London. 
This mode of measurement is based essentially upon a fixed 
vertical line passing through the centre of the auditoiy open- 
ing, and drawn from the vertex at the point where the 
sagittal and coronal sutures meet. The selection of the ex- 
ternal aperture of the ear as the starting-point of the radii 
and angles is unobjectionable ; but the perpendicular line can 
hardly be determined with accuracy. In many skulls the exact 
point can only be guessed at, as the sutures are frequently 
denticulated to such an extent that the exact spot in which they 
meet may be outside the central line, and consequently either 
before or behind the point. It is, moreover, impossible 
to find this point on the living head ; and as all other lines 
depend upon the vertical. Busk's method of measurement can- 

^ ^ndb U a YBTj ingeniQiiit thaoiy, bat moit be pronounoed to ba m yet 
mere ■peonlaHmi. — ^Bditob. 



28 LICTTJBI n. 

not be applied to the liying body. It is^ moreover^ difficult to 
apply this method, as the explanations are bo brief and imper- 
fect^'i' not?nthstanding the illnstrative figures. I, however, give 
tiie table and some illostrations, as the method contains the 
germ of a rational system of measurement. 

A new method of cranial measurement, proposed quite re- 
cently by Prof. Aeby of Berne, is founded on the use of a 
base line, the posterior end of whioh coincides with the central 
point of the anterior margin of the foramen magnum. The 
other extremity of this base line must be sought for at the 
anterior margin of the plate of the ethmoid, which is easily 
accessible in a skull sawn through longitudinally, but is more 
difficult to determine in the entire skull on account of the 
hidden position of the ethmoid bone. '' Externally,'' says 
Aeby, " this point generally corresponds with the lower mar- 
gin of the frontal bone, where it joins the nasal process of the 
superior maxillary bone ; still it must be bome in mind that 
the suture in question m&j remore higher up or lower down in 
different indiyiduals. The point may be obtained with great 
certainty by connecting the/oratntna ethmaidalia by a straight 
line, tmd producing it in front until it intersects the suture be- 
tween the above-mentioned process and the lachxymal bone. 
Regard must be had to the possibly abnormal course of this 
suture. Here, then, we have the anterior end of our base line, 
which embraces the whole space where the cerebral and 
the faciiBl portion adjoin each other.'' The base line obtained 
in this way is produced backwards and forwards, and the whole 
system of measurement is founded upon it. A plane placed 
perpendicularly upon it, longitudinally bisecting the skull, is 
called the median plane, and in this plane various ordinates 
are measured which run upwards towards the surface of the 
cerebral portion, or downwards to points of the facial portion 
of the skull. Upon both the terminal points of the base 

• ThiskscacoQly aiUvariticismof PlraliBaiorBiiBlc's 
em on aoooant of it« diAueneBS and prolizity. The author does not aeem 
to be aoqnainted with the tables oiroolated by Measn. Qaekett and Boik 
many yean ago ; or with Mr. Bnak'a paper on "A Systematic Mode of Gra- 
niometcy/' in TrtmaoetUmM qf Bihnologiedl Society, toL 1, new series, p. 
841.— EniTOB. 



LICTUBI n. 29 

line, the absolate meaBuxe of wliich is in comparison always 
assumed as nnity, two perpendicnlar ordinates are erected, 
and the space between both extreme points eqnslly divided by 
two other ordinates. Other perpendiculars are th^ drawn 
through the most prominent points of the frontal and occipital 
boneSj and also through the posterior border of the foramen 
magnum, so that we have upon the base line, at various dis- 
tances, seven perpendiculars, by which the contour of the 
curve, described by the median plane on the sur&ce of the 
skull, can be determined with sufficient exactness to be used for 
graphic delineation. Less attention is paid by Aeby to the facial 
portion; it is determined by three lines which are drawn to the 
points of the nasal bones, to the upper jaw abore the roote of 
the incisors, and to the posterior border of the bony palate. 
The development of the skull in breadth and height is repre- 
sented by three transverse sections perpendicular to the base 
line. The hindmost of these is placed at equal distances be- 
tween the external auditoiy opening and the articulation of 
the jaw; the central one at the point of greatest constriction 
behind the orbite, while the anterior one joins the zygomatic 
processes of the frontal bone, where they join the frontal pro- 
cesses of the zygoma. All these planes are measured by equi- 
distant ordinates, like the median plane. All measuremento 
being reduced to the base line as unity, Aeby obtains compsr 
rable numbers ; and by multiplying the measuremento he eli- 
minates individual deviations, and reducing them to an average, 
obtains for each race, for each species, a definite mean number, 
and also comparable reduced normal skulls, capable of being 
arranged in series. 

Aeby gives the foUowing resumS of his measuremento and 
calculations in the Trans(ietian8 of the BmU Society of Na^ 
twraJieU : — '' I expected to obtain from the median plane in 
particular, definito starting-pointe for the scientific division of 
human races ; I was therefore not a little surprised to find just 
the contrary. If a close examination of more than five 
hundred skulls finom aU parte of the earth entitles one to ex- 
press an opinion, then I must say, most decidedly, that the 
normal skulls of all races essentially agree with one another as 



30 LBCTUBX n. 

regards the median plane^ and that in this respect the ez- 
tremest dolichocephaly and brachyoephaly show no difference 
whatever. The Yariations to which the occipnt is subject are 
in some cases so abnormal and so greats even within individual 
limits^ that they cannot be regarded as influencing the general 
law. Opposed to this constancy of the median plane^ the dif- 
ferences in the frontal planes are the more striking. Here the 
cranial forms decidedly separate into narrow and broad. Each 
is distributed into particular regions ; the former belonging to 
the southern^ the latter to the northern^ hemisphere. Africa 
and Polynesia^ with New Holland^ offer the narrowest. En- 
rope, with Northern Asia, the broadest, forms of skulls. 
Southern Asia is intermediate between both divisions, not 
merely because its inhabitants (Chinese and Javanese, for 
instance) possess generally a medium breadth of skull; but 
also especially because some districts repeat the type of the 
most decided narrow skulls (6. g. Hindu), others, that of the 
broad skulls (some islands in the vicinity of Java). It is re- 
markable that the Oreenlanders, though a high northern people, 
possess the most decidedly narrow skulls which exist. How 
it is in the rest of America I am unable to say, as I had not 
sufficient nwterials at my disposal. Both types seem repre- 
sented. Some, at least, of the Brazilian peoples are narrow- 
headed ; whilst the Botocudos and the Indians of the North are 
more or less decidedly broad-heckled. The measurements, as 
already stated, all refer to the reduced skull, and are, therefore, 
independent of absolute size. I have not succeeded in finding 
a definite law of development for the latter. 

''AU differences, therefore, of the human cranial form de- 
pend essentially on the difference in the development of breadth. 
Platycephaly stands opposed to leptocephaly, though connected 
with it by gradual transitions. The uniform development of 
the median plane in the whole human species, appears to me a 
fact of the greatest interest. Not less important seems to me 
the observation that ethnic differences do not much obtain in 
childhood ; for between the infantile skulls of Negroes and Eu- 
ropeans I find the gpreatest accordance. Median planes and 
frontal planes cover each other completely ; an important fact 



LICTURK n. 31 

in ihe estixiiation of narrow and broad aknlls : both originate 
from the same pointy bnt in sncli a manner that whikt the 
growth of the latter proceeds at a uniform rate in all directions^ 
that of the former is confined to transverse expansion. In 
this we find an accord with the iype of development of the 
lower creatures. I have already elsewhere drawn attention to 
the similarity of all foetal cranial forms. I am now prepared 
to lay it down as a general law^ that a cranial form occupies a 
higher rank accordingly as it advances by uniform peripheral 
development firom the fcetal form; and that it stands lower^ 
accordingly as the growth is confined to certain directions and 
points. From this point of view^ the narrow skull must be 
considered as a lower type. Of course^ no inference must be 
drawn from this as to the mental capacity of the possessor of 
such a skuU. We will not leave unmentioned that possibly 
the same position may be assigned to the most decided broad 
skulls. Some of these^ at least (0. g. the Tunguse)^ have a 
tendency to vertical flattening. But if this be considered as 
arising from the predominance of the growth in widths we have 
the reverse of the type of development of the narrow skuU. 
The most perfect form would accordingly be the intermediate 
one ; and it is^ perhaps, not without significance that this form 
is the inheritance of those peoples who have accomplished 
most in the province of intellect.'' 

I must fi'eely confess that I do not perfectly understand one 
point in this deduction. If '' the uniform development of the 
median plane'' means that the area of the vertical section is, in 
proportion to the base line, the same in all normal skulls, the 
result would be of considerable importance, and might be ex- 
pressed in other words, — ^that the diminution of the frontal 
part, for instance, is compensated by the occipital part, and 
vice vend. It appears to me, however, that the estimation of 
the median plane, from the few ordinates measured, must pre- 
sent considerable difficulties. But if the meaning is, that the 
individual ordinates, calculated upon the base line, are equal to 
each other, then I must express my disbelief, and should re- 
gard it as a fundamental defect in the whole system of mea- 



82 LSCTUBi n. 

Burement^ that it cannot show suoh differenoes as are found in 
the development of the forehead and the vertex. 

If we retom firom this digression to the investigation of the 
normal base line^ upon which measurement must depend^ we 
find the same difficnlties in determining a universal horizontal 
plane^ as in determining the normal vertical one. In perfect 
repose the head is balanced upon the topmost vertebra^ the 
so-called atlas^ but as is easily seen^ this equilibrium is dis- 
turbed both in the living subject and in the dead skull^ in the 
most various ways. If^ however^ the above position is assumed 
as the normal^ then selecting as the starting-point the aperture 
of the ear^ the horizontal line passes nearly through the centre 
of the nasal aperture^ a little above the point of the nose^ in 
the living man. A horizontal line must^ therefore^ be assumed 
(its importance will be seen in the sequel)^ which can be de- 
termined by its terminal points^ though it causes the head to 
deviate slightly from the natural position. 

The half-dozen anthropologists who met at Oottingen^ in the 
autumn of 1861^ had a lively discussion with regard to the 
line^ or rather the plane^ which ought to be assumed as the 
horizontal. One proposed the zygomatic arch ; another^ a plane 
passing across the occipital foramen ; a thirds a line from the 
auditoiy aperture to the base of the nasal aperture. The zygo- 
matic «rch is never quite straight; the direction of the hori- 
zontal line passing through it must frequently be taken more ac- 
cording to the feeling than actual measurement. Even if we 
could succeed in laying a plane exactly across the occipital fora- 
men — a task of considerable difficulty on account of its form — 
it cannot be determined in the living head^ and as this plane 
is so shorty eveiy error would be magnified by the necessary 
prolongation of it. The only horizontal plane which can be 
termed rational is that between the two aural apertures and 
the bottom of the nasal apertures, and which may be deter- 
mined both on the living head and on the skull. The hori- 
zontal line drawn in this way, between two fixed points, 
easily determinable both on the living head and dead skull, has 
moreover the advantage of representing one of the lines of Cam- 
per's facial angle, which has been long in use, and although defec- 



LBCTUBB n. 88 

tive in many respects^ does not at all deserve the neglect with 
which it has been treated in some recent works. As regards the 
estimation of this angle^ as well as of some others which can 
only be taken on the dry sknll^ it will be necessary to make 
some farther observations. 

Fig. 1. Cranium of an Australian in profile, after Luoae. 




The osseous framework of the head is composed of two 
intimately connected parts : the crtmiam proper^ containing 
the brain^ and forming a firmly closed box with a few aper- 
tures only^ throngh which the spinal cord^ nerves^ and blood- 
vessels obtain access to the brain; and the foM, containing 
spaces for the more important org^s of sense and the en- 
trances to the respiratory and digestive organs. On compar- 
ing the formation of the head in man and brate^ we see^ at the 
first glance^ that in the former the skull-cap^. and consequently 
the enclosed braan^ predominates considerably over the face^ 
which appears like an appendage to the skull. For we must bear 
in mind^ that in normal skulls a plane drawn from the upper 
margin of the eyebrows through tiie aural apertures^ passes to 
the posterior edge of the occipital foramen; that is to say^ 
almost entirely within the internal cranial space, and that when 
the head is thus divided into two parts, the upper portion con- 



84 LsoTUBX n. 

tains the brain^ the lower the face. If the dried skull is looked 
at without the lower jaw^ the disproportion is still more strik- 
ing. The forehead^ which^ according to artistic notions^ con- 
stitutes so essential a part of the countenance^ belongs to the 
skull^ and not to the face; it is^ in &ict, one of the most 
important parts of the cerebral cranium^ and must be particu- 
larly attended to in investigating the peculiarities of the struc- 
ture of man. 

Let us now compare the formation of the human head with 
that of any other animal^ and we shall find two essential 
differences depending on the proportions of the two parts. 
The cranium proper is in man absolutely larger than in the 
brute^ in which the face frequentiy occupies more space than 
the brain-case ; in man^ too> the face is^ to a certain extent, a 
sort of appendage, fastened on under the cranium, whilst in 
the animal the cranial cavity lies rather behind the face. In 
man the roof of the orbits, upon which the anterior lobes of 
the brain rest, forms nearly a horizontal plane ; in the animal 
it may be nearly vertical. In man a perpendicular line drawn 
from the root of the nose falls usually upon the canine tooth ; 
in the animal upon the posterior molars. 

Fig. 2. SkuU of the Weeper Monkey* C«6iw apeOa, in profile. 




In man the forehead is arched forward ; in the animal, on the 



LBCTUBB U. 8^ 

ooniaraury^ the hoe projects in a muzzle^ whilst the forehead axxd 
the craninm recede. Camper endeayonred to express this 
relation by his facial angle. The more the muzzle projects and 
the forehead recedes^ the more acate most be the angle formed 
by two lines^ one of which is drawn from the anral apertore to 
the margin of the npper jaw^ and the other from the jaw to the 
most prominent point of the forehead. It is tme^ Gentlemen^ 
that the facial angle does not altogether answer its purpose ; it 
is tme that Camper did not definitely determine it^ so that 
some take the angle at the nasal spine^ others at the alyeolar 
margin. It is also tme that there are sknlls in which the pro- 
jecting snouts depend almost entirely upon the formation of 
the jaws. In many cases^ too^ the eyebrows are veiy promi- 
nent^ snch prominence depending not upon the development 
of the brain^ but upon that of the frontal sinuses^ which are 
connected with the nose. But^ granting all these objections^ 
it must be admitted that similar ones may be made to most 
other measurements^ and that condusions as to the general 
proportions of a skull cannot be deduced from a single measure- 
ment. Camper's angle alone cannot afford a valid standard of 
the relative proportions of skull and face^ still it fidrly repre- 
sents these proportions^ and should in no case be neglected. 

It must not be forgotten that all these observations^ which 
have for their object the determination^ not merely of the 
external form of the head^ but of the proportions of its parts^ 
have to be made chiefly on the dead skull^ and not on the 
living head. The real proportions can only be ascertained 
when the skull is bisected^ so that both the right and left 
halves may be inspected and measured internally and ex- 
ternally. Ab I cannot expect you to be acquainted with 
anatomical details^ I venture to offer a few explanations^ which 
I shall endeavour to make as short as possible. 

The basis of the cranium^ upon which the brain rests^ 
consists essentially of four bones: the occipital^ the sphe- 
noid, the ethmoid, and the frt>ntal. By the aperture in the 
occipital the spinal cord reaches the brain; the optic nerve 
passes through the sphenoid to the eye, and the olfactoiy 
through the ethmoid bone. We need not notice the frontal 

d2 



86 



LlCTUSl n. 



bone, as it merely assistB in sapporting tlie anterior lobes 
and can scarcely be considered as belonging to the base of the 

Fig. 3. Base of ■kuIL inner wfoaAee; oalTarimn remored. 




a. The fix>ntBl smuMs connected with the nasal caWtj. 6. The ethmoid bone, 

e. Anterior foBsa^ roof of the orbit, a. Frcmtalbone. «. Anterior dinoidprooeaB. 
/. Great wing of the sphenoid bone. y. Body of the sphenoid bone; dcnores- 
sion of the sella tnroioa. h. Posterior clinoid process, i. Squama of the 
temporal bone. i. Body of the ocdpital bone. I. Parietal bone. m. Petrons 
portion of the temporaL o. Oooipitiil foramen, p. Cerebellar fossa. 9. Occi- 
pital sqnama. 

brain. The central parts^ or bodies^ of the occipital^ sphenoid^ 
and ethmoid bones^ correspond to yertebrsB^ which^ however^ 
are considerably modified in their stractore. The ethmoid bone 
exhibits, though imperfectly, the form of a yertebra without 
peripheral parts ; the occipital bone, on the contrary, represents 
a perfect yertebra, haying not merely articulating surfaces for 
the succeeding yertebra, the so-called atlas, but forming the/ora- 
men magnum, by which the continuation of the spinal cord enters 
the cranium. The sphenoid bone finally represents an interme- 
diate shape, its body, on the one hand, being a continuation of 



LECTUBE U. 87 

the occipital bone^ and the wings^ on the other hand^ which 

assist in closing the orbits and the temporal fossae^ forming side 

pieces^ and at least tending towards the formation of an arch. 

Fig. 4. Base of BkuSl Tieiwed externaJly. 




a. The palatine process of the saperior nuudllaiy finrxns with d. the hoii- 
Bontal phfte of the palste bone^ the boay palate. 6. 2y0Oiiia4do process of 
the superior maxiUazy forms with e. the xygoroA, and g, the sygomatio pro- 
cess of the temporal bone, the srgomatio arch. e. Temporal fossa^ formed 
chiefly l^ the greater wing of the sphenoid. /. Posterior nasal spine. K. 
Vomer, i. Body of the basilar bone, formed of the confluent bodies of the 
sphenoid bone (m front) and the ocobital bone. i. Styloid process of the 
temporal bone. I. Glenoid fossa for tne condyle of the lower jaw. m. Tj' 
naSd of the petrous portion, n. Mastoid process of the temporal bone. 
o.Articolarsazbcesofthe occipital bone. p.Posteriorinfoziorangleofpazietal 
bone, q, Lambdoid sntore. r. Foramen ma^nm. «. Bqiiama of tne occi- 
pital b(me. i. Inferior cmred line. u. Oodpital crest, v. Saperior cmred 
line. fo. Occqdtal protaberanoes. 

. The yanlt of the cranium is completed by the arched bones 
termed the temporal^ parietal^ and frontal^ which are joined to- 
gether by sutores. It is important to know the coarse of these 
sntnres. On looking at the skull from above, there is seen on 
the vertex a transverse suture which separates the frontal from 



88 



LICTUBB n. 



the two parietal bones — the suiwra coronaKs.* The two parietal 
bones are separated by a longitadinal suture {the eutfwra eagit* 
talis). f In the earliest stages of existence this sntnre is oon- 
tinned to the root of the nose and thus divides the frontal bone 
into two symmetrical halves^ but in normal skulls the aperture 
is dosed before birth ; in some broad heads the frontal suture 
remains during life. The sagittal suture terminates in the oc- 
ciput^ where it touches a triangular suture which separates the 
occipital from the parietal bones^ and is called the lambdoid 
suture. 
The cranial bones are developed at the expense of a oartila- 

Fig. 6. OaUine of an adult sknU with penutent frontal sntiire, top view, 
after Welcker. The positions of the two fontaneilles aare marked by dotted 
Hnea, aa well aa the oatlinea of the bonea aa they aare developed in we new- 
bomdhild. 




a. Frontal sntore. 6. Coronal sntnxe. e. Lambdoid sntore. d. Sa^ttal 
sntore. «. Anterior FontaneUe. /. Poaterior fcmtaneUe. g. Frontal prota- 
beranoea. i. Occhntal pofeaberanoe (not Tiaible). k. Frontal bone. 4. Fto- 
rietalbone. m. Oodpital bone. 

• " Fronto-paiietal" satnre.— Editob. t " Interparietal" sntoze.— 'Editob. 



LBCTUBS n. 89 

ginoTis or taembraaona base from separate osseous points^ some 
of wliich are symmetrically placed on both sides of the median 
line^ others lie in the central line. Increasing in growth — the 
laws of which Welcker has recently established^ — ^the bones ap- 
proach each other and are finally connected by sntnres. 

Thus it is well known that in new-bom children the sutures 
are not closed on the top of the head : the openings are the so- 
called fontanelles. The anterior or the large fontanelle is of an 
oblong shape^ and corresponds to the junction of the sagittal 
and coronal sutures^ the posterior^ triangular in shape^ is situated 
at the junction of the sagittal and kmbdoid sutures. These 
fontanelles usually dose in the course of the first year. The 
frontal suture closes sooner. Synostosis of the sphenoid and 
occipital bone frequent^ takes place at maturiiy^ so that some 
anatomists* have described them as one bone. All these sutures 
are often closed in old age. Premature closing is frequently 
the cause of the arrest of cerebral development. The order in 
which the sutures dose appears to be connected with the 
development of individuals and races^ as we shall see in the 
sequd. 

Some of the osseous points from which the cranial bones are 
developed may be observed as prominences in the adult skull. 
This is not^ however^ always the case ; in some crania they are 
obliterated^ in others very perceptible. Sudi are the frontal 
eminences (tubera frontidia) above the eyebrows^ the parietal 
protuberances (tubera parietalia)^ and the ocdpital prominence 
(tuber oodpitale) in the centre of the squama occipitis. These 
prominences are veiy distinct in the infimt^ and ifj as is done in 
the annexed figures^ the outlines of the embryonal bones are 
marked on the adult skullj and the corresponding prominences 
superposed^ we obtain a good idea of the growth of the respec- 
tive bones from birth to adult age. 

The base of the head formed by the three cranial vertebrsB is 
of great importance, as it determines the development of the 
cranium, as well as that of the face; the oranimn, as regards 
development and interpretation, being only a radiation of the 
parietal parts of the base, and the face being appended to them, 

• Meokel espedAlly. — Eoitok. 



40 



LIOTUSl n. 



eveiy change in the development and jtmctme of these three 
fundamental bones most necessarily influence both parts of the 



Fig. 6. Side view of the skoU, m in ; 

BMHei' 



figure, a. to fffr. luiTe the 




irv 



n. Sqaama of temporal bone. 

apertore. g. Temporal xidffe. ^ . 

noid bone. i. Zysoma (oheek bonei^. u. XTg^ jaw, 



0. Mastoid procees. 
9. Temporal xidffe. r. Zygomatic arch. «. Wing of the aphe- 



p. External anditoKy 



10. Orbit, m. 



y. Nasal sntore. s. Glabella. 



«. Nasal sj^ne. 



head^ inasmuch as these in a certain degree represent the two 
arms of a lever which finds its central point in these bones. 
On inspecting a skull sawn through^ so as to divide these 
bones longitudinally through the centre^ we perceive that they 
do not^ at all events^ in normal skulls^ present a straight 
line^ but an angular surface^ the centre of which is in a depres- 
sion of the sphenoid bone called the ''Turkish saddle'^ (sella 
turcica). Upon this ''saddle'^ rests an appendage of the 
brain situated almost in the centre of the lower surface of the 
cerebral mass. In the same spot where the angle is formedj 
that peculiar cartilaginous body the chorda, terminates what 
served as the central point for the formation of the vertebrsa 
of the embiyo at the earliest period. It has been observed that 



LBCTUBS n. 



41 



in all liiglier yertebrate* exnliryos^ there is at this spot a oon- 
siderable cnrvatare of the cerebral azis^ by which^ at a time 
when scaroely the first foundation of the &ce exists^ the anterior 
part of the head is bent like the anterior phalanx of a finger 
when we dose the fist. Though this original curVatnre in the 
embryo is subsequently dipiinished both by the growth of the 
face and the brain^ there still remains^ even in mature age^ 
a trace of this formation so characteristic of the higher verte- 
brates. The region in the vicinity of the selb turcica^ 
and the bones connected therewith^ are, then^ in many re- 
spects the apex of the angle^ the central point on which the 
skull and face turn, and of the greatest importance in the study 
of them. To Professor Yirchow belongs the merit of having 

Ilg. 7. Verticsl seofeion in tlie median plane of the nkall of a yeiy ostho- 
gnathonB Oerman, after Welcker. 




a. Buietal bone. h. Oantle of saddle: e. TorklBh saddle (sella tnzoioa). 
d. Pommel of saddle (oEyazy pTooess). s. Frontal potoberanoes. /. Fnmtal 
dnna. g. Nasal bone, h, Nasal oatrxter. ^ Antenor nasal spine, h. Doital 
margin <ktte sapenor maxillary. I. Osseous palate, m. Foramen magnnm. 
n. OoGdmital squama, o. Body of oodpital bone. p. Cerebml oatity. 

Thelines continued beyond tbe skull by dots are measming-lines, wbidh 
are explained in the Tsble, and indicate at the same time the angles of the 
fiusial qnadxangle, they enclose — ^1. Fronto-nasal angle and line ne, 2. 
Bental angle and line b 0. 8. line n 0. 4. line 6 e and foraminal angle. 
Line ti h and nb = length of the cranial vertebne^ according to yizchow. 
See Table Ko. 6. 



42 



LIOTUSX n. 



first pointed out the importanoe of the 'relations of these bones 
to cerebral and cranial dfir7elopment^ and of having shown that 
the size and position of the so-called sphenoid angle are ab- 
solutely requisite for eraminiTig the skull and face — a truth 
which has been veiy recently confirmed by Welcker's numerous 
measurements. 

In fikctj Welcker has shown that the more the sphenoid bone 
IB bent^ that is to say^ the smaller the sphenoid angle^ the more 
perpendicular is the position of the teeth^ and that the sphenoid 
angle becomes larger in proportion to the greater obliquity of 
the incisors produced by the enlargement of the facial bones. 
Besides this^ Welcker has proved that the measurement of this 
angle^ which is determined by three pointSj namely^ the root 
of the nose at the juncture of the nasal and frontal bone^ the an- 
terior margin of the occipital foramen^ and the " pommel of the 
saddle'' (olivary process); he has proved^ I say^ that this angle 
and its development in man is an excellent corrective of Cam- 
per's facial angle^ as well as a distinctive character between 
vntm and ape. I wiU explain the matter further. 
In the infantj the head and cranium are proportionately very 
Fig. 8. Yertioal seGtum of the Bknll of a new-bom dbild, after Weldker. 




DeeGt^tkni the same aa in the 

fontaaaUe^ r 



. ezoept» in addildon, 9[, anterior 
fontanePe. 



LXCTUBB n. 43 

largOj the forehead is arohed, the brain more developed, bo to 
speakj than any other part of the body ; the jaws especially are 
remarkably slightly developed, the teeth are absent. Dnring 
the first year, the growth is accordingly greater in the face 

Fig. 9. Vertioal seotion of the sknU of Celms apeUa, natural size. De6orii>- 
tion the same aa in the twopreoeding figuree. 




than in the craninm. Hence it follows that Camper's facial 
angle is larger in the child than in the adnlt; and if the facial 
angle were to be the sole measure of cerebral development and 
of intelligence, the child would be intellectaaUy in advance of 



44 i;BCTnBx n. 

the adult. But it is diflferent with the angle of the sella^ which 
is more obtuse in the child than in the adnlt^ bo that in this re- 
spect the correct proportion is established. But according to 
Welcker's researches^ there is a great difference as regards the 
formation of this angle between man and even the ape nearest 
allied to him. It is well known — and we shall subsequently re- 
vert to this point — ^that in the most anthropoid apes^ the cfaim- 
panzeCj gorSla^ and orange the young animal in every respect 
resembles man more than the adult^ and that this relapse 
to the semblance of the brute^ consists essentially in the fact 
that the cranium remains stationary as regards cerebral capa- 
city ; whilst the jaws and the whole face are greatly developed^ 
and project in the form of a muzzle. In correspondence with 
this^ we find that^ e. g., in the orang the angle of the sella is 
the more obtuse the older the animal is; whilst^ on the contrary^ 
in man this angle is smaller in the adult than in the child. 
"If/' says Welcker^ ''the skulls are arranged according to 
Camper's angle^ the skull of the infant^ contrasted with that of 
any animal^ occupies a higher place than the skull of the adult; 
but if the skulls are arranged according to the increasing 
size of the angle of the sella the series stands : man^ womauj 
child^ animal.'^ 

If a fourth point be added to the three which mark the angle 
of the sella, namely the nasal spine, and if these points are 
connected by lines, we obtain an irregular quadrangle, which 
pretty nearly circumscribes the whole face, exclusive of the 
lower jaw, and the form of which depends on the development 
of the bones and their curvatures. The four comers of this 
quadrangle might be termed the sella-angle, the nasal-angle, 
the dental-angle, and the foraminal-angle ; and we may, by 
comparing these angles in different individuals and races, 
discover important and constant proportions in direct relation 
to the development of the &ce and the base of the skull. A 
diagonal of the facial quadrangle, drawn from the anterior 
margin of the occipital foramexx to the root of the nose, and of 
which the length can be easily estimated in either opened 
or unopened skulls, is so far important, that it corresponds 



LBCTUBS n. 45 

with the axis of the carved cranial base^ and thosj by its rela- 
tiye leng^ or ishortneBB^ indicates the curTatore of this axis. 

Whilst by means of the facial qoadranglcj and a few trans- 
verse diameters^ the face can easily be characterised in its chief 
features^ the difficnliy is much greater as regards the craninm 
proper. This hollow case presents so many deviations from 
the oval form^ the various points on which the measurement is 
based are so easily misplaced^ that it is extraordinarily difficult 
to establish a system of diameters^ radii^ and angles universally 
applicable to all crania. Huschke^ in a big book containing 
much that is valuable as well as much that is singular^ has not 
only proposed^ but carried out on several specimens^ a formal 
triangulation of the skull^ by means of which he endeavours 
to calculate the area of the cranial bones and their relative 
development. His object was to find the superficial extent of 
the three cranial vertebrsB^ which, in accordance with a natural- 
philosophical idea which Carus has specially defended, bears a 
special relation to the intellectual functions. No one has 
hitherto followed this path, and we doubt whether any one 
will pursue the same method by reason of the irregularity of 
the cranial bones, and the numerous sources of error incidental 
to the system, nor does the development of the individual 
cranial vertebrsB stand in constant proportion to that of the 
brain and its lobes. 

Welcker has selected for the designation of the measure- 
ments of the skull a geometrical construction, which he terms 
the cranial net, resembling the reticulated designs used in 
TnAlHtig paper and pasteboard figures of crystals. 

Though a figure composed of triangles and squares cazmot 
give a correct representation of the skuU and face, the cranial 
nets still exhibit such characteristic forms and peculiarities, 
that they afford us considerable assistance in determining 
cranial measurements. 

At the meeting of anthropologists in Gottingen, Yon Baer 
justly observed, that however many measurements are tabu- 
lated, they cannot stand in the place of general impressions 
made by the skull itself examined from various points of view, 
and that it would be well to agree upon the designation of 
definite characteristic forms, as is done in botany with regard 



46 



LBCTUBB U. 



Piff. 10. GranUa not, after Welcker. The meAmres are taken from an 
aoy^etrieal sknlL The linee of which the aiamm ia oompoaed have the 
aaxne namea aa in the table at the oonolnaion of the leotnie. 




6. Lateoral trapeaia. 6. Superior^ 7, infenor, 8 and 9, lateral, oodpi^ilttianglea. 
to lihe shapes of leares and flowers. Welcker also admits that 
rnanj important peculiarities of parts situated between the 
points of measurement, can only be determined by a rery com- 
plicated process, e. g., the shape of the firontflJ profile, the 
degree of elevation of the various eminences, the circumfer- 
ence of the skull, &c.; and that, for all these particulars, 
pictorial representations and full and lucid descriptions must 
supplement the measurements. 



MCTXJBB n. 47 

According to Yon Baer the following diaraoteiistic relations 
with regard to form^ maj be pointed out in the 'aspect of skulls 
from different points of view : 

TmB VEBTicjAL 7IEW (norma verticaUa) was designated "by tihe 
yenerable Blmnenbach as highly important and characteristic^ 
although, strange to say, there is not a single figure of this 
kind to be found in his decades of views of the cranium. 
''Very frequentiy/' says Von Baer, " the form of the cranium 
viewed from above, is oval, if the transition from the frontal 
bone to the zygoma is kept out of view. The shape is some- 
times veiy like that of a common hen's egg, that is, simply 
oval, sometimes broadly oval, sometimes longer, narrowly oval. 
In the broad form the rounded part in front is frequently 
wanting, the forehead is not arched transversely, but is broad 
and flat ; in others, especially the short-heads, this form occurs 
in the occiput; there are anteriorily and posteriorily shortened 
oval shapes ; and if forehead and occiput are equally flattened, 
and the sides slightiy compressed, there results the form 
which has been termed quadrate.^' But sometimes, especially 
among the long-heads, the occipital regipn is found as pointedly 
arched as the forehead, so that no true broad end exists, a 
form which Baer designates not qtdte correctiy as elongated 
oval. And, finally, there are forms very closely resembling the 
elliptical, though the largest transverse diameter is always a 
Utile behind the centre. 

But this vertical view is of special importance, as exhibit- 
ing, at a glance, the proportion of the longitudinal to the 
transverse diameter of the cranium. This proportion is, in 
fact, so important, that recent French authors* term it the 
cephalic index {inddce cipKaUque), and designate it by a single 
cipher, which is obtained by assuming the longitudinal dia- 
meter = 100, and reducing the transverse diameter to this 
denomination; cephalic index = 80, means, therefore, that 
assuming the longitudinal diameter to be 100, the transverse 
is 80. As Welcker observes, Blumenbach designated the 
Negro and the Galmuck skull as the extremes of cranial form, 
and he added, that a model, made of wax (better, now-a-days, 

* Especially Brooa. — ^Editob^ 



48 LECTUBB n. 

of gutta-percha) of the Oancaaian, would, by lateral pressure, 
assume a Negroid shape, whilst, by antero-posterior pressure, 
it would assume a shape like that of the Galmuck. 

Fig. 11. Top view of tlie Bkoll of an Australian, after Lnoae. D6lioho. 
oephalio, elongated ovifonn shape. 




Fig. 12. Top view of the aknU of a Little-Biiasian, after Yon Baer. Be- 
markablj braohyoephalio, qnadrate form of skoU. 




LBCTUBB n. 49 

Betzins made use of this cliaracter^ and founded apon it Ids 
division of peoples into long-heads (dolichocephali)^ and short- 
heads (brachycephali). This division was iSrst founded upon 
an examination of Swedish and Sclavonian sknlls^ and^ in these 
cases^ Betsdns gave the proportion of the two diameters as 
follows : in Swedes, the greatest length to the greatest breadth^ 
as 1000:778, that is nearly as 9:7 ; in Sclavonians/as 1000:888, 
or nearly as 8 : 7. It must, however, be admitted that Bet- 
zins' measurements were confined to a few skulls, which he 
selected as typical, and that he estimated the cranial shape 
rather from the general impression of the aspect of skulls 
than by exact measurements. It must also be kept in view, that 
though Betzius only applied these various forms to distinguish 
different tribes, e. g., Swedes and Sclavonians, Finns and Lapps, 
he expressly says that both these cranial forms are to be found 
in every^one of the assumed chief races, 

Welcker has more closely examined this question, and 
proved, by numerous measurements, that long- and short- 
heads represent the extreme forms, but that between these 
there are many nations presenting gradual transitions, so that 
a third group must be interposed, which might be called 
orthocephali.* Welcker has measured, as far as he could, a 
considerable series of skulls, with the interesting result, that 
the different stocks diverge constantly, and within somewhat 
wide limits, from one common centre, but that the variations 
are of nearly equal extent on both sides, and appear to be 
grreater in proportion to the commixture of the race. Thus, 
tiie variation among Lapps, Cossacks, jancient Ghreeks and 
Bomans, Hindus, Esquimaux and Australians, are but very 
slight; much greater among Italians, Germans, Bussians, 
and Finns ; and greatest among the Buggese and French, on 
whose cranial forms the Frankish invaders had a considerable 
influence. Broca's measurements of skulls, taken fit)m old 
and recent Parisian cemeteries, yielded similar results. The 
unquestionable intermixture of the inhabitants of Paris, from 

• This remark liBA been made by Brooa before Welcker; Bzooa proposed a 
better name, "middle-heada" (meaatioephali), which we ahaU use in pre- 
ference. 



50 LBCTUBE n. 

the earlieBt origrin of that city, is easily detected in the series 
of skulls, inclading long-, short-, and middle-heads, the oldest 
of which date firom the time of the Garlovingians. The ex- 
tension of the series may, in fntare measurements, afford a 
standard for the degree of intermiztore, and the confinement 
of variation in size within narrow Umits be regarded as 
a proof of the parity of a stock. Taking the tables of 
Welcker as a basis, and assuming the longitudinal diameter of 
the skull = 100, the following results are obtained for the 
various races : where the mean of the transverse diameter is 
below 72, they may be termed long-heads ; where it exceeds 81, 
short-heads ; where it varies between 74 and 81, middle-heads. 
Setting aside the old Peruvians, among whom the heads of 
children were artificially deformed, to such an extent that the 
transversal diameter sometimes exceeded the longitudinal, 
the series of decided brachycephali includes the Lapps, Macas- 
sars, Madurese, Bashkirs, Turks, and New-Italians ; among the 
dolichocephaZ% are comprehended the Nukahivans, Hindus, Es- 
quimaux, Negroes, Australians, Kaffirs, Bushmen, and Hotten- 
tots, who readi the highest standard of dolichocephaly, so that 
one of the skuUs measured exhibits the simian proportion of 63 
for the transverse diameter. The series of mesaUGephaU may 
be arranged as follows, those with the shortest heads first, and 
those with the longest heads last: Germans, Russians, Bug- 
gese, Sumatrans, Galmucks, Javanese, French, Cossacks, Jews, 
Gipsies, Moluccans, Indians, Chinese, Finns, ancient Greeks, 
ancient Romans, Brazilians, Dutch. One might almost be led 
to conclude from this table that the most favourable conditions 
for civilisation are to be found in the intermediate position 
between the two extremes, a conclusion which would be flat- 
tering to the French, as they form nearly the centre of the 
mesaticephali, just as they consider themselves as the centre 
of civilisation. But we shall see in the sequel that there are 
other conditions which exercise a definite influence. 

The LATXRAL VIEW or profile best exhibits a proportion 
which may also be observed firom above, namely, the relation 
of the cranium to the face, and especially the projection or re- 
trocession of the jaws. We have seen that ihe projection of 



LBCTUBB U. 



61 



the face impresses an animal oharaoter upon the physiognomy, 
a oircamstance which has long since been taken into considera- 
tion in craniology. 

Fig, 18. The skull of a Kegzo in profile aa a type of prognathiam. 




On looking at a characteristic Hottentot or Negro sktdl in 
profile, the face projects like a muzzle, and the incisors are 
obliquely inserted, so that their edges meet as at projecting 
angles. On viewing a German skull, on the contrary, we see 
that the incisors meet perpendicularly ; and that on closing the 

Fig. 14. The skull of a Tatar in profile^ after Von Baer. Orthognathons^ 
and at the same time a mesafcicephalio head of round shape. 




S2 



52 



LIGTUBS n. 



moath lihe lower incdBors are a little behind the superior, 
whilst in the Negro they are rather in advance. This forzna- 
tion, the orthognathous, has been accordinglj distingnished 
from the prognathous, and it has been observed generally 
that this development of the jaws is in direct relation to the 
intellectoal capacity of a people, the prognathous being con- 
fined to the lowest races of man. Welcker has subjected 
this difierence to measurement by taking the angle formed 
at the root of the nose by the central line of the base of the 
skull or the diagonal of the facial quadrangle, and the line 
drawn from the root of the nose to the nasal spine as the 
measure of the position of the jaws. 

Fig. 15. Ancient Helvetian skoll^ viewed from behind.* 




According to him, the following peoples are prognathous, 
all the rest being orthognathous : Elaffirs, Australians, Ne- 
groes, Bashkirs, Hindus, New Hollanders, Hollanders, Bra- 
zilians, Cossacks, and Sumatrans. I must also add that 



• This BknU, which was discovered with Boman antiqaitieB near Qeneva» 
belongs nndonbtedly to the Helvetian type. 



LECTTTRB n. 68 

Wdoker disting^hes the extremely orthognathoas as opistho- 
gnathoufi (or with retreating teeth)^ a distiiLotion which does 
not seem to me quite justifiable. 

Besides this position of the jaw9 whioh is connected with the 
ciuYatare of the cranial basis, the length of which seems to in- 
crease in proportion to the projection of the jaw ; the side view 
also gives ns a general idea of the roundness of the skull, tbe 
arch of the forehead, the development of the occiput, the eleva- 
tion of the vertex, and the proportion of the perpendicular to 
the longitudinal diameter. Just those points in which the 
human cranium differs most from that of the animal, as, for 
example, the projection of the brain and its anterior lobes over 
the face, in connexion with an arched and more or less per- 
pendicular forehead, are best seen in a side view, and this view 
must, therefore, in no waj be neglected. 

The FOSTBSiOB viBW {Norma ocoipUaUs) and the antiisiob 
vnw {N<yrTn^fr<mt(ili8) supplement each other, and I cannot do 
better them quote the words of von Baer on this point : '' If,'' 
says Baer, " We place a skuU so that the assumed horizontal 
line corresponds with the visual axis of the observer and ex- 
amine the skull at a distance firom behind, it wiQ sometimes be 
found that with a full development of the parietal eminences 
and a roof-shaped vertex, the outline assumes ihe shape of a 
pentagon. Althougb this pentagon never exhibits sharply 
defined angles, still the figure is often very plain, generally 
rather broad than high, and may be briefly described, accord- 
ing as the angles are rounded or sharp, the lateral planes 
straight, arched, shorter or longer. The rounding of the 
angles is, however, not unfirequently so g^reat that, leaving 
out of notice the mastoid processes, which often recede, or 
are elevated so as to be scarcely perceptible, the outline 
is elliptical instead of pentagonal. The ellipsis is usually 
rather high than broad, rarely the reverse, and stiU more 
rarely is the difference between the perpendicular and the 
horizontal axis so slight, that the aspect may be termed 
circular. This outline is as variable as it is perceptible, so 
that we must not expect to find it always similar, even in 



64 LBCTUBS II. 

Tinmixed races. The general proportions, however, are the 
same, and, regard being had to the variations, they will be 
easily recognised.^' 

The view from behind best gives the proportion between 
the height and the breadth of the sknll, which is specially 
important in the estimation of the capacity of the cavity. Not 
less important is the flattening or roof-shaped form of the 
vertex, which is best seen from behind. There are heads 
which tower np, and terminate either in a platform or a pointed 
roof. We sometimes meet with children in whom sknlls of 
this shape are evidently the result of some morbid process, 
which, however, does not seem to interfere with the health or 
intelligence of the individual. In some tribes such ^* tower- 
heads*' (pyrgocephali), are characteristic, and to be regarded 
as the result of normal formation. There are, also, pyramUdal 
heads, where the parietal planes meet in a point, whether the 
cranium be viewed from before, behind, or in profile. Prichard 
observed that such pyramidal heads are specially prevalent 
among the nomadic tribes of Asia and America ; but he also 
included among them, as von Baer justly observes, those 
peoples in whom the parietal planes do not meet in a point, 
but in a long ridge, and which might, therefore, be called 
'^ rafter-heads'* (tectocephali). It is true, a rafter-shaped head, 
such as possessed by the Esquimaux, for example, much re- 
sembles a pyramidal head when viewed in. frt)nt or behind, 
because the ridge coincides with the line of sight ; but a view 
of the side immediately shows the difference. Unfortunately, 
von Baer has chosen for this rafber-shaped skull the term 
cross-shaped, or rhomboidal, which does not appear to me 
suitable. 

The anterior view of the skull best indicates the relation of 
the face to the anterior lobes of the brain, as well as the various 
diameters of the face. The development of the fi*ontal eminences 
and of the ridges over the eyebrows, the form and position 
of the orbits, the shape of the nasal apertures, the prominence 
of the cheekbones — all these proportions appear to be of g^reat 
importance for the estimation of ethnic peculiarities. 



LSCTUBS U. 55 

Fig. 16. Skull of an AoBtzalian^ front view, after Lucae. 




Fig. 17. HelTetian aktill, viewed from below. 




The examinatioii of the skoll from below appears to be of great 
importance when we consider that the cnrvatnre of the basilar 
plane^ and the position of the occipital foramen indicate the 



56 LECTUBS n. 

(greater or lesser animal resemblance of a skull. The position 
of the foramen magnnm forward or backward, the distance of its 
anterior border from the posterior margin of the osseons palate 
and the alveolar margin of the lower jaw, the breadth and cnrva- 
tore of the ssygomatio arch, the distance of the articular cavities 
of the lower jaw, the distance and cnrvatore of the mastoid pro- 
cesses, ihe direction of the auditory openings, and the curva- 
ture of the petrous portion of the temporal, the height and 
breadth of the posterior nostrils — all these proportions deserve 
the fullest consideration. The veiy complicated structure of 
the base of the skull does not, however, admit of a definite 
terminology of the parts similar to that applied to the other 
views of the cranium. We shall have to recur to some points 
touched upon here in our next lecture. 



TABLE OF MEASUBEHENTS BY SCHEBZEB AND SGHWABZ. 

I. aunSBAL OB8XBVATION8. 

Name, Bern, Native C<m»try, Oeevpoiion, Shape and Qrowth of Bea^d, eU. 

No. of Um Sjt- 
tesuUloSa' 

1. Age of the individaal meaanzed . . . . l 

2. Colour of hair - > - - - - 2 

8. Colour of eyee ...... a 

4. Knxnber of pukationB in a minnte .... 4 

6. Weight 6 

6. FzeBgiog power (force mannelle) meaaured with the dy- 

namometer of B(6gnier ..... 6 

7. Liflang power (fbrto r6nale), ditto ditto - - 7 

8. Total height 8 

n. iDUBUBncxirTB wttb thx pifUioaT ahd xaraa-BOALS. 

9. Distance of the commencement of the growth of hair on 

the forehead ih>m the pezpendUmlar ... 9 

10. „ of the root of the nose from the peipendioiilar - 10 

11. M of the anterior nasal spine from the perpendiciilar 11 

12. „ of the point of the chin (mental process) from 
the perpendionlsr ..... 12 

18. „ from the root of the nose to its tip - - 18 

14. „ from the tip ofthe nose to the anterior nasal spine 14 



LSCTUBS 71. 57 

in. MMAsuBaaavTB with tbm oau^tbbb. 

No. of the syo- 
toniAtlo Miios. 

15. Difltaaoe from tlie point of the chin to the cominenoement 

of growth of haar ...... 17 

16. M from thepointof the ohinto the root of the noee 16 

17. „ from the point of the ohin to the anterior nual 
spine - -. - - - .16 

18. Bifltanoe from the point of the dhin to the Tertex . 10 

19. „ from the point of the chin to the orown of the head 21 

20. „ from the point of the dhin to the external ood- 
pital protnberanoe ...... 28 

21. „ from the point of the chin to the external an. 
ditory opening ...... 26 

22. „ horn the point of the chin to the angle of the 
lower jaw . - . . - . .27 

28. From the root of the noee to the Tertex . . .20 

24. Distance from the root of the nose to the crown of the head 22 
26. M from root of the nose to the external occipital 

protaberance ...... 24 

26. M ^m the nasal root to the external auditory 
opening . - . .. . .26 

27. M from the nasal root to the angle of the lower jaw 28 

28. „ from the place where the hair begins to grow to 

iite iiieinvra jugvlarU aterni - .18 

28. M from the external occipital protaberance to the 
seventh ceryioal Tertefora— the measurements 28 and 29 
must be taken with the head in the same position, i. e., 
the natural one ...... 66 

80. M from one external aaditory opening to the other 80 

81. „ of the nppennost points c^ attachment of the ear 81 

82. Qreatest distance between the sygomata^ or sygomatic 
,aidhes* . . . . . . .82 

88. Distaace between the external oQmers of the eyes . 88 

84. „ between the internal comers of the eyes . 84 

86. „ between the points of attachment of the lobes 

oftheearf. . . . - . - 86 

86. Breadth of the nose ..... 86 



* The following measorements may then be made. From the point taken 
by the callipers on the vygoma to the commencement of the growth <^ the 
hair on the forehead, in the median line, and also to the point of the chin. 
By this the most prominent point of the cheek bone in the &oial plane may 
be determined. 

t Measure also the breadth of the forehead in the horisontal line : — 

(a) From one part of the Unea §mmeireukinr%$, which may be felt like a 
eriHa beneath the skin, to the other. The spot where the conTexity in front 
is greatest should be selected. 

(ft) In the same horisontal measure the greatest breadth of the forehead, 
from the beginning of the growtii of the hair, from one temple to the other. 



58 LECTUBE n. 

No. of th« sjf- 

87. M of the mouth - - - - - 87 

88. IMstanoe between the ajigles of the lower jaw-bone - 88 

89. „ from the seventh Yertebra of the neok to the 
semi-lunar notdh of the stemom (yiydtiwra jugvkUuru 
itomi) ....... 40 

40. Transverse diameter from one middle line of the axilla 

above the maniTna to the other - - - - 48 

41. IMstanoe from the stemnm to the vertebral oolumn - 44 

42. M from one anterior superior spine of the ilium to 
the other .......40 

43. „ from one trochanter mi^or to the other - 50 

rV. mASmunEXNTB with THS mABITBIKO TAPS. 

44. Giroomferenoe of the head around the external oodpital 

protuberance ...... 29 

46. Circumference of the neck ..... 89 

46. From the greater tuberodtj of one humeros, in a horison- 

talline across the chest, to the other - - 41 

47. Distance from one middle line of the axilla^ above the 

mamma, to the other ..... 48 

48. Ciroomferenoe of the thorax at the same place - - 46 

49. IMstanoe from one nipple to the other - - - 46 

50. CirciimfSBrence of the waist - - - - 47 

61. Distance from one anterior superior spine of the ilium to 

the other ....... 48 

62. „ from the trochanter m%jor to the anterior supe- 
rior spine of the ilium (on the same side) - - 66 

68. „ from the most prominent point of the sternal 
articulation of the clavicle to the anterior spine of the 
ilium - - - - - - - 51 

64. M from the most prominent point of same articula- 
tion to the umbilicus - - • • - 52 

66. M from the umbilicus to the upper ridge of the sym- 
physis pubis - ' - - - - 68 

60. M from the fifth lumbar vertebra^ along the crest 

of the Hium and the inguinal foesB to the symphysis pubis 64 

67. M from the seventh vertebra to the terminal point 
of the OS cocoygis ----.. 67 

68. M from one summum humeri across the back to the 
other -- ....-66 

60. M from the sonunum humeri to the external con- 
dyle of the humerus - - - - - 68 

60. M from the external condyle of the humerus to the 
styloid process of the radius across the extensor side - 60 

61. M from the styloid process of the radius across the 
back of the hand to the articulation of the metacarpal 
bone of the middle finger .... 60 



LscTUBX n. 59 

No. of the tys- 
toniAtlo BcriM* 
62. Distaaoe fix>in the same artioiilAtion to the top of middle 

finger 61 

68. Bzeadthofhand 62 

64. Greete8tGir(raiiifiaienoeofthenpperarm(roimdthebioepe) 68 

65. „ ,, oftheforeann ... 64 

66. Smalleet dxooinfereiioe of the same - - - 66 

67. Diatance fix>xn taxxdiaater miQar to the external condyle 

of the femnr ...... 67 

68. „ from the external condyle of the femur to the 
external maUeolnfl ...... 68 

69. „ from the inferior margin of the qrmphyBis pnbia 

to internal condyle of femur .... 69 

70. • M from the internal condyle of the femur to the in- 
ternal malleolus ...... 70 

71. Greatest ciroumference of the thigh - - - 71 

72. Smallest droumferenoe of the thigh - - • 72 
78. Ciroumference of the knee-joint - - - .78 
74. Greatest ciroumference of tiie calf .... 74 
76. Smallest ciroumference of the lower part of the thigh 

abore the malleoli ...... 75 

76. Length of foot ...... 76 

77. CireumiSBzence of the foot around the instep - 77 

78. M of the metatarsal joints - - - 78 

For the better understanding of the following synoptical 
tables of the craniometrical systems of Yirchow, Welcker, G. 
E. Ton Baer, and Bosk, and of the accompanying figures^ I 
add the subjoined explanations. 

I have only cited systems requiring the simplest instroments^ 
such as a role about 25 centimetres in lengthy a measuring 
tape about 60 centimetres long^ a common pair of compasses, 
callipers^ a beam compass, arranged like a shoemaker's mea- 
surOj haying a horizontal bar of 25 centimetres in length, and 
two vertical arms one of which is fixed at the end, the other 
sliding along the beam. Such complicated instruments as 
those designated cephalographs or cephalometers seem to me 
too much of a good thing. 

As Welcker's system is but a further development of that of 
Yirchow, the middle column, which gives the determining 
points of the measures, refers to both systems, just as the 
measures of the figures refer to both systems. 



60 



LBOTUBX n. 



I have endeavonred by lines to represent in the figures such 
measnres as figures will admit of. Most of the circnmferenoes 
can^ however^ be only demonstrated on the sknll or on models. 
The letters and ciphers belonging to the measnres, as marked 
in the Tables, are always placed at the continnations of the 
resp^tive measurements outwards. 



Fig. 18. Side view of a HelTetiAii sknll from a Boman gprave near Geneva^ 
with Weldker-Yirohow meaBorementB. 

C. C. Camper's &oial angle after one method : ear, nasal spine, forehead. 




The figures 18, 20, 22, 24, 26, represent the measurements 
of Yirchow and Welcker. Welcker's measurements are plain 
in the figure, and dotted in the continuation towards the 
letters. YirchoVs measurements, in as far as they differ 
firom those of Welcker, are dotted in the figure and plain 
in their continuations. 

The fig^ures 19, 21, 23, 25, 27, represent the measurements 



LXCTUIUB n. 



61 



of yon Baer and Bnek ; those of the latter are plain in the 
figure^ a^d dotted outwards ; Baer's are dotted in the fig^ore 
and plain outside. 

Fig. 10. Side Tiew of a Negro BkiiU» with Baer-Bnak measareinentB. 

G. 0. Camper'B fiusial aaigle after the other method : ear^ alveolar margin of 
the npper jaw; forehead. 




LBCTUBE n. 



ViBOHOW. 



Welokeb. 



NUDM. 



B«f«r. 
to tbt 
AgurM 



Wanting. 
Wanfcmg. 



Longitadiiial 2 
Circnmferenoe. 

Frontal sntnre. 8 

Sagittal suture. 4 

Occipital 5 
squama. 



Length of tiie 
vertebral bodies. 



Coronal Iriffht 
suture, flet 

Lambdoid ) rigbtj 8 
suture. J left 



Wanting. 



Diagonal 
Circumference. 



DlTMtioii and PolnU d«t«niiliiing 
the 



Refer, 
to the 
Agaree 



CIBCUICFEKBIICES. 

Around tbe frontal and 
occipital protuberances. 

That part of the horizon- 
tal circumference which 
is enclosed within the 
coronal sutures. 

The central line of the 
whole skull. 

EVom the nasal suture to 
the coronal suture. 

Length of the sagittal 
suture. 

To the posterior margin 
of the occipital foramen 
in Yirchow to the ante 
rior margin in Welcker . 

Anterior margin of the 
occipital foramen to na- 
sal suture in a straight 
line. 

Anterior transverse cir- 
cumference. 

Posterior transverse cir- 
cumference. 

In a straight line from 
the margin of the zygo- 
matic process, over the 
aural aperture, to the 
same pomt on ike other 
side over the base of 
the skull. 

Between the same points 
over the skull. 

From the aural aperture 
to the anterior fonta- 
nelle. 



1. 



la. 



Horizontal Cir- 
cumference. 

Frontal Cir- 
cumference. 



Vertical longi- 
tudinal oircum. 



n.c. 



c.l. 



Lb. 



n.b. 



Namee. 



Portions of 
the vertical 
longitudinal 
ciroumfe^ 



ence. 



Wanting. 
Wanting. 



j.b. 


Ba-l 
sal. 


Trans- 


». 




verse cir- 

oomfer- 

ence. 


j.o. 


Up. 

per.J 






Wanting. 



LBGTUBB n. 



63 



Gabl Ernst voh Babb. 



Nmdm. 



Horisontal oir- 
omzif* WBiitixifir. 



Longitadmal 
circamferende. 



Chord of the 
longitudinal 
(nronniferGnce. 

Lenffth of cra- 
nial vertebrsd. 



Occipital dr- 
coinference. 



Internal drcnxn- 
ference. 



BafMT. 

tOtlM 

flgurM 



DinotloDt tad Potnta detannlnlnff 
the 



OIBCUMFBSlirOBS. 

Across the glabella and 
the greatest prominence 
of the occiput. 



As in Virchow and 
Welcker. 



6 a. From the anterior mar- 
gin of the occipital fora- 
men to the foramen csb • 
cum. 

From the posterior mar- 
gin of the mastoid, at 
the same height as 
the aural a^rture, to 
the same point on the 
other side across the 
vertex. 

In the bisected skull on 
the inner side, from the 
foramen ctBcum along 
the arch, to the foramen 
magnum. 



B«ftreneM to Boik't Sy^ 
tarn, and other remftrka. 



Horizontal circum- 
ference. 



Longitudinal ' cir- 
cumference. 



Wanting in all 
others. 



64 



LSCTUBB n. 



Fig. 20. Front view of the Helvetian skull— Weloker-Yirchow. 

2 




Longitadinal 
diameter. 



Longitadinal 
diameter. 

B. 

Wanting. 



Vertical dia- 
meter. 



Vertical dia- 
meter. 

B. 



10. 



11. 



12. 



13. 



DIAMBTSB8. 

From the nasal sntnre to 
the point of the lamb- 
doid satore. 

From the glabella to the 
greatest occipital pro- 
tuberance. 

From the middle between 
the frontal protuber- 
ances to the occipital 
protuberances. 

From posterior border of 
occipital foramen to the 
anterior point of the 
sagittal suture. 

From the anterior margin 
of the foramen magnum 
to highest pointof vertex. 



Wanting. 



Wanting. 



Longitudinal 
diam. Diamot. 
of horizontal 
oiroumference. 

Wanting. 



Vertical dia- 
meter. 



LICTUBI n. 
Fig. 21. Front view of a Kaffir BknlL Baar-Boak. 



65 




CaBL E1W8T YOK BaXB. 






■' 




.^ 


lUfer. 
to the 
flnrM 




BatarvooM to Bii^t STatm, 






PIAXBTBB8. 




Longitadizial 
diamster. 


9 


Same as Virdiow's lon- 
gitadinal diameter b 11. 


Length? 


Wanting. 








Vertical height 


10 


From the horixontal to 
the highest point of the 
▼anlt of the oraninm. 


The horizontal is 
the plane of the 


Height. 


11 


Same as Yirchow and 
Welckep. 


HeightP 


Width. 


12 


Extreme breadth. 


Breadth? 



66 



LSCTUBI n. 



ViROHOW. 



WlLOKlR. 



MunM. 



lUfer. 
the 
flgnrM 



to 



Transverse dia- 
meter. Lower 
frontal. 

Upper frontal. 

TemporaL 
Upper parietal. 
Lower parietal. 
Occipital. 
Mastoid. 



U 



16 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 



DirMtton and Polnta dMarmlnlng 
the 



to the 
flgoree 



Z. Z. 



Between the margins of 
the zygomatic processes 
of tlie frx>ntal bone. 

Between the frontal pro- 
tuberances. 

Between the points of the 
alisphenoids. 

Between the parietal pro- 
tuberances. 

AboYe the middle of the 
sqnamons sntnre. 

Betw. the posterior infer, 
angles of parietal bones, 

Between the points of the m.m* 
mastoid processes. 



f.f. 



p. p. 



Wanting. 



Transverse 
diameter. 
Wanting. 



Fig. 22. Top view of the Helvetian skull. Weloker-Yizohow. 



J.. 




OlBL 



LSOTUBB II* 

Bmnrr Yok Bakb. 



67 



HamM. 



B«r«r. 
t6tb« 
flgiirM 



DirwHooi iad Poioti dttmniiiiiig 



Rafcnaoei to Buried Qyitim, 
•ad oihor nmaiki. 



Greatest width 
of forehead. 

Least width of 
forehead. 

Parietal width. 



Occipital width. 



18 



DIAXBTBBS. 

In the coronal sntnre at 
the widest spot. 



Greatest frontal 
width. 

Least frontal width. 



Kg. 



14 Anywhere. 

15 Same as Welcker and Parietal widthP 
Virohow. 

16 Between th0 two points Occipital width, 
of the mastoid thron^h 
which the occipital oir- 
oumference 7 passes. 

28. Top view of Negro ikan. Baer-Buak. 

W 




J 2 



68 



LBCTUSB n. 



ViROHOW. 



Wblokxb. 



NunM. 



to the 
ftgnras 



Direetion and Points dotannlnlng 
the 



Safer, 
to the 

flgOTM 



Wanting. 



Names. 



OBLIQUB HBASUBEMBNTS, 
To be taken on both right A left aldea. 

From the frontal prota< 
berances to the parietal 
protaberanoes. f. p. 

fVom frontal protuberan- 
ces to zygomatic process, f. z. 

From masikoid process to 
parietal protuberance, m. p. 

Srom mastoid process to 
zygomatic process. m. z. 

From parietal protuber- 
ance to occipital pro- 
tuberance, p.o. 

From mastoid process to 
occipital protuberance. m.o. 

The lines //, pp, Bndfp, on 1 Upper cran 
both sides form the . . ./ quadrangle 

The lines //, z «, and /«, on 1 
both sides form the . . . j 

The lines ««, mm^ and mz on 1 
both sides form the . « J 

Fig. 24. Baae of the Helvetiaii skuIL 



cranial 
ngle 
Frontal 
quadrangle. 
Baaal quad- 
rangle. 




LSCTUBB 11. 



Cabl Ernst ton Bans. 



tOtlM 

flgam 



Dirsotlon and Point* detormlDlng 



RafaraneM to Bvak't Byitem, 
tad other xwnaAM. 



Foraminal 
radius. 



Frontal radins. 



Occipital radins. 



17 



18 



19 



RIDII. 

Froxn the anterior map- 
gin of the foramen mag- 
num to the point where 
the occiput is arched 
most. 

From the meatus audi- 
toxiuB to the glabella. 

From the meatus audi* 
tonus to the point of 
^^eatest arching of tho 
oodput. 



Frontal radius P 



Occipital radius. 



Fig. 25. Base of Kaffir skulL 







70 



LSOTUSB n. 



VlECHOW. 



WlLOKBB. 



Bete, 
to the 
flgnree 



Not more de- 
finitely fixed. 



DlraeUon end Points deterainlng 



AN0LB8. 

Between a line drawn 
from tlie anterior bor^ 
der of the foramen mag- 
nnm (b) to the root of 
the nose (n), and a se- 
cond line drawn from 
the nasal spine (0) to 
the root of the nose 
(n). 

The three points, 5, n, «, 
give the . . . . . 



Between two lines drawn 
from the points h and 
n to the qoMppium (e). 

The three points, &, e, n, 
give the 



Bete, 
to the 



At the root of 
the nose. 



(Nasal angle.) 



Facial triangle. 

Anele at the 
ephippium 
(sella angle). 

Basal triangle. 



Fig. 26. Oodpital view of the Helvetiaii BkulL 



Z 

! 




LBCTUBl n. 71 

Fig. 27. Vertical Beotion of the Bknll of an Aiifltralian, after Lnoae. 




Busk's Ststem of Mbasubixbht. 
Seeflgoree 19, 21, 28, 26, 27; pages 61, 66, 6t, 69, 71. 



Dinotlon and Pointo dcUmSnliig tlM VMnn 
B«te«Do« to YirDbow tad Wdektr. 



aBOUlCFBBBHGBS. 

Giromnferenoe. 
Longitadinal arc. 

Frontal tranfiyerae arc. 
Yertioal tranByerse arc. 
Parietal transverse arc. 
Occipital transyersearo. 
Longitadinalfrontalaro. 
Longitad. parietal arc. 
Longihid. occipital arc. 



Nasal sntnre to the posterior margin 
of the foramen magnmn. • 



The two meati auditoriL 

• • ' • • 

A]l &e8e drcoin&rencee of aros are 

taken in ihe direction of the radii 

of Qxe aame names. 



2 
8 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 



72 



UCTTTBI n. 



Vamat. 


Batewioea to ViNbow an^ Walokar. 


lUte. 

toth. 
Stan. 








Iiezurtih. 


...... 


10 


Breadiih. 


. 


11 


Height. 


, . . . . 


12 


Least frontal breadiilL 




IS 


Greateetfiontalbreadth. 




U 


Parietal breadth. 


Upper parietal diameter, Y. pp. ; W. P 


15 


OccipTtal breadtL 


Oodpital diameter, Yirchow P . 


16 


Orbital breadth. 




17 


Zygoznatio breadth. 




18 


Ethmoidal breadth. 




19 


• BADit 


All radii are taken from the meatns 
anditorins. 




Frontal radius. 


CfldbeUa. .... 


20 


Yertioal radius. 


To anterior point of sagittal satm^. . 


21 


Parietal radios. 


• . • • ... 


22 


Oodpital radius. 


. 


23 


Fronto-nasal radius 


To naaal Bofcnre. 


24 




To alTOolar maigin of the apper jaw. . 


25 


Horizontal phine 


Through the floor of the naaal cavity. 


H. 



78 



LECTURE III. 

Fletoclal ropiroienUitioBa.— Btfaaic portnlte g«iurally Caziofttarefld— Photo- 
gnphio Drawlngt.— PmpeofciTe deUnefttioiiB.— Geometrioal DrawingB 
after Lnoae^—Iiiitnimeiiti zeqidied. — Oaitt. — Caste of tlie Intenial Cra- 
nial ■oxfluM. — Pfcopo rt lona.— Seroal diflbrenoea In fhe fbnnation of the 
Cianiiimd— Bzamination of the Brain.— Weight.-~Weight of the Brain 
in relation to the body.— Eatbnation of the Cranial Ci^aoitj.— Method 
and reaolta.— Brooa'fl roaearchea on Fariaian Skolla. — ^Inoreaae of Cranial 
Capaoil^ In relation to CJviliaation. 

OmTLiJCiNj— -Before prooeeding to those inv estigatioiui which 
lelote to the intemal capadty of the craninm^ and to the 
central organ of the nexrooa STgtem^ I have to offer some 
observations on pictorial and plastic representations^ which, 
in addition to descriptions and measnrement, form essential 
elements in instmction. Much discussion has recently taken 
place as to the mode in which the skull should be portrayed, 
and as the principles of cranial delineation apply to other 
objects of natural history, a few words on this subject may not 
be out of place. 

It cannot be denied that most ethnic delineations which 
have recently appeared, whether of living men or of skulls, 
have yery little or no value. Many of the drawings from 
living individuals are perfect caricatures unconsciously per- 
petrated by the artist, since even the practised painter, in 
order to give prominence to the individual resemblance, ex- 
aggerates the features peculiar to the individual These 
features are frequently not those characteristic of the race, as 
such; often, too, just those features which belong to the race, 
and which strike the painter, are too much exaggerated; and 
frequently the race })eculiarities are suppressed in order per- 
fectly to effect the resemblance to the individual. 

Independently of these disadvantages, the position in which 
the head, or the cranium, is to be portrayed, is of special 



74 LicruBi m. 

importance. For pnrposeB of comparison (and all pictorial 
representations used in natural historical researches most be 
comparable inter ae), strictly geometrical drawings are reqni- 
sitCj as they admit of the object which is to be compared with 
the delineation being brought into the same position in which 
the drawing has been taken. 

For the delineation of the living head there are mostly only 
two aspects which can be relied upon^ viz., the profile and the 
full front yiew^ and these the artist rarely selects. With 
regard^ then^ to ethnic portraits taken from life^ we may boldly 
assert that most of them have no scientific value^ but are more 
likely to mislead and to direct our attention to subordinate 
points.'!' I say thisj not only with regard to the position of 
the subject, but also to the management of the light which, in 
photogpraphy, constitutes the most essential element, and by 
means of which prominent parts may be entirely suppressed, 
and insignificant parts rendered prominent. The travelling 
naturalist who undertakes such investigations, should, there- 
fore, be a very expert photographer to overcome such diffi- 
culties. If this be efl»cted, there can be no doubt that photo- 
grraphy is the best means of obtaining ethnic pictures in great 
numbers ; as science requires, in order to establish the mean 
type, not individual characteristic faces^ but a multitude of 
them. 

Photography^ in which the ray of light, subject to un- 
alterable physical laws, takes the picture, and not the err- 
ing hand of man, is the only means of obviating one of 
the greatest obstacles in the study of anthropology, by en- 
abling us to compare objects separated by time and space. 
The soft parts of the head and the whole body are, in many 
cases, of considerable importance. I need only mention the 
shape of the nose, the lips, the aperture of the eyes, the posi- 
tion and shape of the ear and the lobule, as well as of the 
beard and the hair. But most of these parts are perishable, 
and cannot be preserved in their original form. Without 



* With regard to Uving individaala, photography is undoubtedly one of 
the moet invaliiaUe aids to itady, pxovided it u akillUly used. 



LBCTUBl m. 75 

photography, it is only the sabjeotiye oonoeption of the de- 
signer which can ser^e as a means of comparison. Generally 
we cannot place races side by side. Nataralists sail or steam 
round the world ; they observe one race or tribe, then, after 
weeks, or perhaps months, they see another, and, from memo- 
randa and sketches, try to discover resemblances and to in- 
stitate comparisons. The zoologist, who is required to institute 
a comparison between two similar animalfl — ^the one from 
Africa, the other from Asia — and to determine fi*om memory, or 
from notes and drawings, whether or not they belong to the 
same species, shrugs his shoulders and says, " Show me the 
animals side by side, or at least the skin and the skeleton, but 
do not ask anything unreasonable.'^ Nevertheless, this demand 
is frequently made of the anthropologist. Though photography 
cannot place the races themselves side b^ side, it, to a certain 
extent, supplies the want of them by the exactness of its 
delineations. 

With regard to the delineation of the skull, there are two 
points of view, and the opinions of naturalists vary accord- 
ingly. K the object be to obtain fig^ures which are to repre- 
sent the character of the skull and its peculiarities, so as to 
strike us at the first glance, perspective delineation, which ia 
to be obtained most perfectly by means of photography, is to 
be preferred above all others, as it best renders the peculiar 
physiognomy of the original. But when a recent author re- 
commends, in the portraiture of the skull, positions of half or 
one-third profile, according as either of these positions is most 
characteristic, it seems to us a mistake, because one of the 
chief objects of delineation, via., comparison, is ignored. When 
Welcker, for instance, gives a skull with an open frontal 
suture and widely-distant orbits four-fifths frill face, and some- 
what inclined to the left side, we cannot see that such a dis- 
torted ])Osition better represents the peculiarities of formation 
depending on open sutures, the position of the eyes, &c., than 
a frdl fr*ont view. If we compare with these the excellent 
photogpraphic delineations of Von Baer, it can easily be seen, 
that even in strictly geometrical positions, the characteristics 
of cranial formation can be better rendered than by the method 
just mentioned. 



76 LICTURB in. 

Bat if it be requisite to have drawings which are not merely 
comparable bat measorable,* then the geometrical method 
recommended by Dr. Lncae^ of Frankfort, most be applied. 
This conaists simply in this, that the object is not drawn from 
a fixed point of view, so that the rays of light emanating 
from it meet in the eye as in the sommit of a cone, bat that, 
on the contraiy, the eye constantly changes its position, and 
forms the representation of the object by means of the parallel, 
horizontal, or yertical rays emanating from it. In per- 
spectiye delineation, which is also that of the photog^raphio 
instrament, the individual parts of the body to be depicted 
are greatly foreshortened, according as they form projections 
or depressions ; in the geometrical delineation everything is in 
the place which it occupies in the original, with regard to the 
plane upon which the image is projected. The various cranial 
measures reducible to a plane, may certainly be measured on 
such geometrical drawings with compass and meter-scale ; but 
only these — and when Lucae asserts that these measurements 
can supply the place of actual measurements on the skull itself, 
we can only ascribe such an assertion to his exaggerated 
predilection for a method which certainly is not without its 
advantages.f 

It must also be admitted that geometrical drawing offers 
very great difficulties to any one who is accustomed to ordinary 
drawing, and that in practising it one must abandon all the 
rules one has hitherto followed, and consent to become a mere 
machine, which does nothing but mark with pencil or pen the 
point which indicates the perpendicular ray. Lucae has re- 
commended two instruments, one construcfed by himself, the 
other by a Herr Wirsing. In both the fundamental principle is 
the same : a diopter fastened to a perpendicular arm is placed 
upon a horizontal glass plate, beneath which is the object. 

* Compare CrolL, JDe Cranio ^jmque ad fadem raiion$, Bvo, GrOningeii, 
ISIO.— Editor. 

t Lucfte does not propose to snbstitQte meMoremeiits from geometrical 
drawiflffs for measurements taken on the skoll itself; he mere^ sajs, speak- 
ing of the diiBoalty and nnoertain^ in obtaining several necessary cranial 
dimensions^ " that they can be taken on sach drawings with greater rapidity 
and certainty than in very fnany easet from nature itself/' See Morpholep 
der Ba$§ 0i uMdel , Frankfrirt, a. BL, 18S4, part ii, p. 8.— Editob. 



LICTI7BS III. 77 

In Lacae's inBtmment the perpendionlar ray is given by the 
inteneotion of two crosaed threads^ the point of the pen having 
to be pLM3ed in the same vertical line aa the point of the olgeet 
to be delineated. In Wiraing'a inatrnment the point of the 
pen ia fixed perpendicularly under the minute aperture of the 
diopter. The glaaa plate being adjuated in the horizontal 
plane, and the akull ao placed that the plane upon which the 
delineation ia to be projected, mna parallel with the glaaa plate, 
we draw the linea and pointa upon the glaaa plate, by moving 
the inatrnment thereon in the requiaite directiona. 

I poaaeaa Lucae'a inatrnment, and having practiaed with it 
for aome time, muat aay that one nmy, in a comparatively abort 
time, obtain by it a correct outline, which ia, however, aome- 
what coarae, aa the glaaa plate but imperfectly takea up the 
liquid whether it be oonmion or lithographic ink. In the prac- 
tical uae of thia inatrnment it ia eapecially requiaite to pay 
attention to the diatribution of the light. Whilat for otiier 
drawing pnrpoaea a aide light ia preferred, and atudioa have 
only one large window for the proper diatribution of light and 
ahadow, geometrical drawinga, on the other hand, ahould be 
taken in a glaaa honae, where all ia light, and there ia no 
ahadow. The fine aperture of the diopter, too, through which 
we look, cuta off ao much light, that when the light comea in 
from one aide, the black threada, or the point to be drawn 
on the darker aide of the object ia inviaible, and we thua have 
an imperfect drawing. To obviate thia, I have often artificially 
illuminated the dark aide by meana of a candle or a lamp ; but 
thia ia only a poor expedient, and beoomea fbrther objection- 
able on account of the glaaa plate often becoming heated. 
A miiTor conveniently arranged will, aa Lucae rightly obaervea, 
serve the aame purpoae. Though geometrical drawing, ao 
long aa it ia given in natural aize, admita of aome meaaure- 
menta being taken aa eaaily aa on the object itaelf, it cannot 
be denied that, to common obaervation, it preaenta an appa- 
rently incorrect image, and that our common mode of viewing 
objecta correaponda more to the perapective than the geo- 
metrical. Strictly apeaking, it correaponda to neither, and 
atereoacopic viewa alone can render the image of the akull aa 



78 LicTUSi in. 

we see it with our eyes. Many years, however, will elapse 
before they will be used for sdentifio purposes; until theuj 
nakiralists must agree to apply photography for ordinaiy 
delineation, and the geometrical method for drawings which 
are required to be comparable by measurement. 

Casts, as well of living persons as of dried skulls, if they 
are carefully prepared, may, in many cases, entirely supply the 
place of the originals. In the case of nations who shave the 
whole, or nearly the whole, head, complete casts of the head 
may be taken from the living. The masks are generally less 
useful than the casts of the head, as the forced positions of the 
closed eyes and lips, as well as the unpleasantness of the con- 
traction of the drying gypsum, contorts the features. 

It cannot have escaped you, that the various cranial measure- 
ments by compass, measuring-tape, and rule, give but an 
imperfect idea, and indeed only some of the principal dimen- 
sions of the head. If both the exterior and interior of the skull 
are to be represented completely by measurements of this sort, 
a veiy great number of measurements must be taken, which 
would be objectionable, owing to the necessary indefiniteness of 
their terminal points. Other means had therefore to be contrived 
to measure the internal capacity of the skull, with a view to the 
formation of conclusions as to the development of the brain 
and its component parts. The various substances used for 
this purpose may be divided into two categories: such as 
serve to indicate the capacity of the skull, irrespective of the 
size and shape of individual parts; and such as show this 
shape and the proportion of the individual parts to each other. 
Tiedemann closed the apertures of the cranium with ¥rax, 
placed it upon the vertex, and then filled the cavity with 
millet seed, shaking them till they were at the level of the 
occipital foramen. He then weighed them, and using them 
for other similar measurements, he obtained weights which, 
though comparable with each other, could not be adopted by 
other observers, there being no certainty that the millet-seeds 
used by them were of the same size or degree of dryness^^ as 

* Sondf of a reooffiiiBed apedflo mTi^, and careftilly dried* ia the sab- 
■tanoe moat freqaentiy empU^ed in England. — ^Editob. 



LICT0B1 m. 79 

those used by Tiedemaxm. Morton used pepperooms or shot, 
sad, instead of weighing, he measared them, by which he 
obtained the advantage that measure corresponded to measure 
and not to weight. Hoschke used water, measuring the 
quantify requisite for filling the skull; here, of course, the 
temperature of the water must be attended to. The results 
thus obtained I shall presently indicate. 

There can be no doubt that skull and brain exercise a reci- 
procal influence as regards derelopment ; that they grow with 
each other, but that the details of the superficial formation 
depend on the mechanical action of the brain. The inner 
surface of the skull represents, therefore, the impress of the 
surface of the brain, but, be it understood, of the brain invested 
with its integuments. Now, the hard, external membrane of 
the brain, the so-called dwramcUer of anatomists, forms a cover- 
ing, which passes above the inequalities and the convolutions 
without entering into the depressions which separate them. A 
cast, filling the cranial cavity, and preserving its shape after 
removal, will therefore represent only the coarser features of 
the brain, but not the minute details. There has been a great 
deal of dispute as to the substance best fitted for this purpose. 
To supply, says Husbhke, the want of brsins of various na- 
tions, I have made wax models from the crania of a Carib, 
Cossack, etc., which afford some idea of the convolutions. 
Wagner used gypsum, Lucae glue; the latter is of opinion 
that there is no substance more suitable for rendering the 
form, siae, and circumference of the brain.* Gypsum has, 
however, the advantage of retaining the form of the effusion, 
whilst glue only retains it for a few days. Both sub- 
stances have the disadvantage of uniting with water in dif- 
ferent quantities, and consequently vaiy in weight. Hence, 

• Compwe Flower <m " The Bfain of Biemang," NaL fliUI. JUo,, 1868» for 
detaik or the method employed by him in the pxeMimtioii of the Mries of 
OMte in ibe Boval CoDege of Surgeone 1^ the nee m % eo mp oe i t i on of glue 
end treede. — Edttom. 

bi the eeoond pert of Zur Marphologi§ ^m JioMfiifdUUMy Fmnkftnt, 1864, 
lioeee leoommeiidB the nee of eeed, ea he finde that the ^edflo grvritj of 
the glne-oeete Teriee to g r o a t W, eren when taken from the aame liquid maaa, 
that it ia quite impoariblo to determine the Tolume of the brain by meana of 
andh caata with aaytUng like aoonxai^.— Bditob. 



80 LiCTxrBB ni. 

the different parte of the same plaster, or glue, caste may be 
compared with each other, bat not different gypsum, or ghie, 
casts, made at different times and with different materials. 
The most nnobjectionable substance in this respect would be a 
metallic alloy which melts at the boiling-point of water. We 
could then obtain, not merely the external form, but also the 
weight, the specific gravity of the alloy having been deter- 
mined. I do not, however, intend to take out a patent for the 
disooveiy of a material for taking casts of the skull cavity; 
for, if we go a little further into the matter, we find that it was 
not an anatomist, but a physicist, who deserves the credit of 
having first made use of such a substance. Liditenberg, in 
the fiunous auction catalogue of the curiosities of a deceased 
gentleman, mentions a butter-dish in the form of a skull, 
having the inner Boihoe of the cover so modelled that it im- 
pressed upon the butter the exact form of the brain f 

The measurements of Welcker have shown that, in the 
structure of the skull, a tendency general^ prevails to estab- 
lish, even when there is a considerable variation in total mass, 
a nearly equal internal capacity. There also exists a certain 
proportion between the sise of the skull and that of the bo^, 
although the proportion is not always the same for different 
degrees of stature. Thus, though giants have general^ a 
larger skull than dwarfs, it is proportionally smaDer in the 
former than in the latter. Besides, the laige skulls incHne 
rather to length, at the same time decreasing in width ; while 
small skulls become more rounded, thus acquiring that form 
which, for a given external suiftoe, aflfords the largest internal 
space. From long skulls of considerable sise we may^ there- 
fore, generally infer that their possessors were tall^ muscular 
men, and it is known that among the Negroes, who are 
diaracteristicaUy long-headed, we frequendy meet with strik- 
ing athletic forms. 

Tliis will be the proper place to make some remarks on 
sexual diffisrences which occur within the same species and 
variety, and which have hitherto not received the attention 
they deeerve. You are aware that, in the animal kingdom, 
there are many iustancee in which this diflerence is so great. 



LBCTuas ni. ' 81 

that boih 86X68 would not be incladod m the same gentiSi xtmck 
less in the same species^ if their relations to each other were 
not ascertained. It woold have occarred to no naturalist to 
associate the beautifully decorated cock pheasant or peacock 
with their plainer mates^ if their sexual relations were not 
known, and I might quote hundreds of instances occurring 
among mammals and the anthropoid apes, in which su£Bcient 
sexual differences occur to justify their arrangement in dif- 
ferent species. Thus it is with the orang, the baboon, howling 
monkey, and other apes, more or less approaching man in struc- 
ture. When, therefore, Welcker justly observes, that the skulls 
of man and woman are to be separated, as if they belonged to 
two different species, and that they differ in their proportions 
more than many typical or race skulls, he giT68 expression to a 
fact in nowise peculiar to the human species, but one that finds 
its counterpart in the mammalia, and especially in the anthropoid 
apes. According to Welcker, the female skull is smaller, both 
as reg^ards horizontal circumference and internal capacity, and 
the weight of the brain corresponds with this. The female 
skull ei^ibits, according to Welcker's measurements, the fol- 
lowing proportions, assuming the male ==5 100 throughout :— 
circumference — 96*6; capacity = 89*7; weight of brain = 89'9. 
The outlines of the female head are rounder; the facial portion 
of the skull, especially the jaws and the base of the skull, 
smaller, the latter being especially narrower in the posterior 
section. The base is at the same time more extended, the 
sella-angle larger; and there is deyeloped in the female a 
striking tendency to prognathism as well as to dolichocephaly. 
We mjg ^^OTefore, say that the typa<^ thes|nnale skull ap- 
proaAes ^ in m any fBBp8cS,''tB&t 6f tM'.fiffiSiQandTxra^sGll 
greater degree'^lBat ofthelow^ andTwith this Is cra- 

nect6fl1ihe remukable clrcumstttiice, that the difference be- 
tween the sexes, as regards the cranial caviiy, increases with 
the development of the race, so that the male European excels 
much more the female than the Negro the Negress. Welcker 
confirms this statement of Buschke from his measurements 
of Neg^ and German skulls; more observations are, how- 
ever, requisite before it can be accepted as g^erally true. 

o 



82 LSCTURS in. 

If it were proved to be oorreot, it would fbrniah an interesting 
indication of the influence of dvilisation and mode of life on 
the development of races. ]tt has long been observed that/ 
among peoples progressuig in dvilisation, the men are in advance 
of the women ; whilst amongst those which are retrograding, the 
contrary is the case. Jnst as, in respect of morals, woman is the 
conservator of old customs and nsages, of traditions, legends, 
and religion; so in the material world she preserves primitive 
fonns, which bat slowly yield to the influences of civilisation. 
We are justified in saying, that it is easier to overthrow a 
government by revolution, than alter the arrangements in the 
kitchen, though their absurdity be abundantly proved. In the 
same manner woman preserves, in the formation of the head^ 
the earlier stage from which the race or tribe has been devel- 
oped, or into which it has relapsed. Hence, then, is partly 
explained the fact, that the inequality of the sexes increaaes* 
with the progress of civilisation. To this must be added the 
circumstance, that the lower the state of culture, the more 
similar are the occupations of the two sexes. Among the 
Australians, the Bushmen, and other low races, possessing no 
fixed habitations, the wife partakes of all her husband's toils, 
and has, in addition, the care of the progeny. The sphere of 
occupation is the same for both sexes ; whOst among the civi- 
lised nations, there is a division both in physical and mental 
labour. If it be true that every organ is strengthened by ex- 
ercise, increasing in size and weight, it must equally apply 
to the brain, which must become more developed by proper 
mental exercise. 

Passing now to the brain itself, we have already remarked 
that an opportunity for comparative ethnological investigations 
is rarely met with. The organ is so soft, so dependent in its 
form on its integuments, that its general measurements can 
neither be taken from the fresh nor the indurated brain, but 
only from casts, with any degree of accuracy. On merely re- 
moving the calvarium, leaving the brain in the skull, we can 
only take measurements, such as the longitudinal and trans- 
verse diameters, which are just as easily obtainable from the 
calvarium. If the brain be removed, we find that it sinks and 



LiCTUBi m. 88 

beoomea flattened by its own weight; in shorty changes its 
form, despite of all efforts to support it. The mass is so rapidly 
decomposed, that, in order to study the variotis parts, it must 
be indurated in some ciach fluid as spirits of wine. In short, 
there are a variety of cironmstanoes which render comparatiTe 
investigations of this organ spedallj difficult, so that we must 
prooeed with the greatest accuracy and caution • 

The weight of the brain has been especially taken into con- 
sideration, and the investigations of the English have, in this 
respect, been conducted on a much larger scale than those of 
the French and the Germans. Thus Dr. Boyd )weighed not 
merely the brains, but also the other organs, of 2,086 males 
and 1,061 females of all ages; whence it resulted that in the 
adult the male brains varied from 1,866 to 1,285 grammes, and 
the female brains from 1,238 to 1,127 grammes, so that the 
highest cerebral weight of the female is much less than the 
lowest in the male. Among the insane (528 cases were inves« 
tigated) tiie variations in the weight of the brain are much 
greater than among such as died from other diseases ; and it 
seems to us Aat such investigations ought to be pursued on an 
extensive scale, and in detail. There are cerebral diseases, or 
psychical disturbances, such as mania, cozmected with great 
exaltation of cerebral activity ; whilst there are other mental 
states in which the cerebral activity is evidently diminished. 
Very possibly the greater variation in weight may depend on 
Budi alternate conditions; but this, however, can only be 
clearly ascertained from a great number of observations. Thus, 
in Wagner's tables of the weights of various brains we find by 
the side of intellectually gifted men such as Cuvier, brains of 
insane and hydrocephalic sulgects, in whom Hke cerebral sub- 
stance itself was evidently affected. 

Begarding the question of the possible development of the 
brain, it becomes important to note the relation of the size 
and weight of the cerebral mass to the intelligence of the in- 
diyiduaL It has been generally observed, that highly gifted 
individuals possess a comparatively large skull, an opinion 
which prevails among the people generally, especially in France. 
I have, hundreds of times, heard the expression, " a good head, 

o2 



84 LBCTUBI in. 

a capital head/' which did not apply to the performances of 
the person, but merely to the external shape ; and I have con- 
vinced myself, by actual inquiry, that the common people draw 
their inferences as to the intellectual capacity from the size 
and shape of the skull, and especially of the forehead. In 
fiftct, actual measurements have shown that many highly gifted 
individuals, among whom I may mention Cuvier, Schiller, and 
Napoleon I, possessed, in proportion to their height, very large 
skulls, and consequently highly developed brains. 

Wagner, of Gk>ttingen, has published a rather large table of 
cerebral weights, among which may be found those of many 
highly gifted persons; and he has based on this table the 
assertion, that there is no good ground for the above theory, 
inasmuch as the brains of Hausmann and Tiedemann, who 
occupied an eminent position in science, were under the aver- 
age weight. Exceptions, however, only prove the rule ; and 
besides, both the abovenamed philosophers died at a great age 
from exhaustion of the vital powers, in consequence of which 
all organs, and certainly the brain ako, became atrophied. 
Observations have not, however, been suffidentiy numerous to 
justify the positive assertion of the diminution of the brain in 
old age, though the possibility of such a thing in man, as well 
as in apes, is undeniable. I have before me two skulls of the 
same species of baboon ; one belonged to a male which perished 
at the period of dentition ; the other, to another male which had 
reached maturity. The internal capacity of the young skull 
is not only relatively, but absolutely larger than that of the old 
animal,* so that unless it depended upon individual variation, 
the old skull must have suffered a reduction. Such a reduction 
can, of course, only be positively established by a great number 
of measurements, for which I have not the means. The same 
relation seems, however, to obtain among other apes. Thus, 
Welcker gives delineations of three orang Bkull8,t which, on 
close examination, show that the youngest skull has apparentiy 
the largest internal cranial capacity. But if such be the case, 
there is no reason why the diminution of the skull, which com- 

* Similar initaneee amongst apes are very fireqaent. — Editob. 
t Compare Brooke, Owen, and Wallace.— Editob. 



LXCTUBi ni. 86 

menoea at an eariier period in the ape^ ahoold not take plaoe 
in advanced age in man. 

Parchappej who has made a number of cranial measurements 
on his own Bystem^ asserts that the cranium increases up 
to the fiftieth year^ but considerably diminishes after the 
sixtieth; that the diminution takes place espedallj in the 
frontal region^ corresponding to the anterior cerebral lobes, and 
that the frontal sinuses enlarge after the sixtieth year. Theile 
has observ^ed, that that sphere of life in which we especially 
look for intelligence embraces two classes of intellig^ce ; the 
one original; the other, acquired by education, and which, 
under lower social conditions, would not have risen abore the 
common leyel. A distinction must certainly be made between 
creative minds, such as that of Gktuss, which open new roads to 
sdenoe, and such minds as that of Hausmann, which proceed in 
the beaten path, and whose names, though occupying high posi- 
tions during life, soon disappear from the history of science. 
We must not foxget that the solution of this question is, as 
Welcker observes, to a certain extent invidious. Anthropo- 
logists, with large heads, may feel inclined to adopt one view, 
whilst those less &voured will accept the opposite theory. 

There is no doubt that, in eveiy race and species of man 
and animals, there obtains a definite law as regards the pro- 
portion and weight of the brain to that of the body ; but this 
can only be determined from numerous observations. At all 
events, it is certainly erroneous to lay down absolute rules as 
to the proportion between the weight of the brain and of the 
body. The weight of the body varies, as is well known, 
greatiy according to the nutrition and nutritive decomposition 
to which an animal is exposed. K the increase during &tten- 
ing, or the diminution during starvation, affected all parts in a 
similar degree, the proportion of the weight of the brain to 
that of the body woidd remain the same. We know, however, 
that such is not the case ; and the accurate investigations of 
Chossat have shown that the brain is just the very organ which 
proportionally loses least weight from starvation. The poorer 
the alimentation of an animal, the greater is the proportional 
weight of the brain, and the greater should be its intellectual 
function if it depended on such a condition. Hunger, no 



86 LiCTUBi m. 

doubtj aharpens the witB as well as the teeth, and according 
to Horace, gprowing fat is a mark of incipient stupidity. 

Formerly, the opinion prevaOed that man possessed a brain 
absolutely heavier than that of any other animal. This is true 
as regards most animals; but intelligent colossals — such as 
the elephant, and we may also add, the whale — soon proved 
the axiom to be unfounded. If, it was then said, it be not the 
absolute, it is the relative, weight. The weight of man's body 
compared with that of his brain is, on the average, as 86 to 1 ; 
whilst in the most intelligent animals it is rarely above 100 to 1 . 
Whilst in the former case it was the giants, it was now the 
dwarfs of creation which upset the axiom. The host of small 
song birds vary as regards this proportion, within limits 
which far exceed the normal proportion in the human race. 
The small American monkeys, too, exhibit a proportionally 
heavier brain than that of the lord of creation. If, then, the 
weight of the brain is to be compared with any other numerical 
factor in the body, it can only be a measure of length, which, 
although subject to variation, is so in a much less degree, and 
it might, perhaps, be best to adopt the length of the vertebral 
column as the standard. On adopting the whole length of the 
body, that of the legs is included, and it is just the length of 
the leg^ which exhibits the greatest variations. The trunk of 
man varies much less, and this offers a much more accurate 
standard. Moreover, measurements of the whole length of 
the human body can never be compared with those of mam- 
mals, none of them possessing an erect stature, but their pos- 
terior limbs forming invariably a greater or lesser angle with 
the axis of the vertebral column. 

We possess at present only the weights of the brains of the 
tribes of central Europe, — Germans, French, and English, — 
in any considerable numbers, and these are so arranged that 
they require further critical sifting. The table furnished by 
Wagner is a crude, undigested mass ; and those who would 
draw inferences from it must subject it to a close sifting, as 
sex, age, and diseases are curiously intermixed. This much 
may, however, be inferred from it, that although there is no 
definite mathematical proportion, there is an approximative 
relation between the weight of the brain and the development 



LiCTusB in. 87 

of inteUigence; and Bxoca has Bhown^ from Wagner's table^ 
Uiatj exoepting the brain of Hansmann, all the biaina of noted 
or celebrated individuals excelled the average weight of those of 
unknown persons^ and that the brains of Wagner's colleagues, 
weighed by himself, occupy the first rank in the series, if ar- 
ranged according to weight. This is a point of veiy great 
importance ; for after all, only such brains as have been weighed 
by the same observer, after the same method, can be compared 
with each other. A di£ference of fifty grammes or more may 
easily be caused by the way in which the brain is prepared ; 
and in most cases experimenters give no clear explanation of 
their mode of preparing the brain previous to weighing. Whilst, 
then, men occupying the same rank of intelligence may have 
brains of different weights, and privileged individuals may 
sometimes possess lighter brains than others who are noways 
distinguished from the common horde, it still remains an 
established hct that, generally speaking, there is an approxi- 
mative relation between cerebral weight and intelligenoe, and 
that the determination of this relation should on no account 
be neglected. 

The result of these investigations enables us definitely to 
assert, that a certain weight of brain is requisite for the mani- 
festation of intellectual faculties ; that idiocy and mental weak- 
ness begin below this weight ; and that this weight, as regards 
the white race, or central Euro}>ean nations, is about a kilo- 
gramme for the male, and -900 grammes for the female. We shall 
recur to this point when treating of the relation of idiots with 
arrested cranial and cerebral development to the simian type. 

I have purposely stated, that the lowest normal weight quoted 
only applies to the central European peoples ; whether to the 
white race in general is yet doubtfuL The more we specialise 
in such matters the better; and as it is scarcely determined 
whether the white race forms really a united whole, or is not a 
mixture of various species, it is as well to confine ourselves 
strictly to data before us. Direct investigations relating to 
other races, which no doubt have their peculiar standard, 
we do not yet possess. We are necessarily confined, for the 
present at least, to measurements of the internal capacity of 
the skull. Even with regard to this, erroneous results were 



88 



LICTUBB in. 



formerly propagated by Tiedemann. Supported by few and 
erroneonaly interpreted observationsj Tiedemann asserted that 
the cranial capacity of tbe Neg^ was not less than that of the 
European^ and this assertion was naturally turned to profitable 
account by monogenists. More numerous measurements are 
now available, and their results, as far as they are known to me, 
I hare arranged in the following table. They have all been 
taken according to Morton's method, by filling the skull with 
small shot, and ascertaining the measure in cubic centimeters. 

CRANIAL CAPACITT IN YABIOUS RACES. 



Mo. 



Pfopla. 



No. of 


Volnmo Id 


•kttllo 


euble oooU- 


moMd. 


noun. 


8 


1228-27 




1280 




1280 


a 


1288*78 


162 


1288-78 




1246 


2 


1268-46 




1296 


841 


1816-71 


12 


1828-90 




1828 


26 


1888-66 


1 


1840 




1846 


76 


1847-66 




1861 




1361 


64 


1371-42 


164 


1876-71 


85 


1403-14 


117 


1409-81 




1410 


116 


1426-G8 


1 


1427 


. 1 


1430 


80 


1448 


126 


1461-68 


7 


1474-66 


90 


1484*28 


17 


1617 


88 


1584-127 


1 


1540 


6 


1672-96 



BobuIm. 



1 
8 
8 
4 
6 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 

11 
12 
18 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 

21 



22 
28 

84 

25 
26 
27 

28 
29 

80 

81 
88 



AuBtnUiAm. 



itoto. 
•ff 
PeniTiMiB.* 

Ooesnk Nflgroet. 
MezioaiiB. 
Amerioanain ffenaral. 
Neffxoet bommAme* 

Halaji. 

Menoaas. 

Qreealaiider. 

Chinew. 

NegroM in general. 

Ancient Penrriaaa. 
Neffioeabomin Africa 
Wild Indiana. 
Fariaiana, from a 

common grave. 
Paririana from the 

Cimeti^ dea In- 

nooenta. 
Eaqnimanx. 
Panalaaa of the 12th 

oentoxy. 
Cancaaiana in general 
Halaja. 



of the 19th 
oentorj. 

Anfflo-Ameiicaaa. 

PanaSana ftom pri- 
vate gf»Tea. 

Pariaianaihmi La 
Morgae. 

Gennaaa in 

Bttt^oenhale« 
ffOm l&eadon. 

Bngliah. 



AitkenMeiga. 
Morton. 

AitkenMeiga. 
»» 

Morton. 
Aitken Meiga. 

Morton. 
AitkenMeiga. 



Morton. 
Aitken Meiga. 

Welcker. 

Morton. 
Aitken Meiga. 

Morton. 

AitkenMeiga. 
Broca. 



Morton. 
Broca. 

Aitken Meiga. 
Welcker. 

Broca. 

AitkenMeiga. 
Broca. 



AitkenMeiga. 
Broca. 

AitkenMeiga. 



• [TTithartiflcially 
oompreaaed akulla. 

— ^fiDZTOB.] 



SknUa of the 19th 

oentoiT. 
SknUa of the 12th 
to the 18th century. 

From a Yanlt. 



Sknlla of the 19th 

oentorj. 

Theaame. 



From a Dolmen. 



LICTUBS III. 89 

This list requires some explanation. The results arrived at 
by Morton and Aitken Meigs have been obtained^ to a great 
extent at all events, from the same skulls, namely, from Morton's 
collection of crania, which was purchased by the Academy of 
Science in Philadelphia, and has since then received but few addi- 
tions. Some of the differences between the above observers may 
have arisen from the circumstance that the measures origfinally 
given in English cubic inches, were differently reduced to cubic 
centimeters. These measurements, as well as those of Welcker, 
were made with small shot, with which the cranium was filled, 
and shaken until no more could be introduced. 

Broca has observed, that no exact measurement is obtained 
by this method, the differences arising when the same skull is 
measured several times, amounting to from twenty to thirty- 
five cubic centimeters, owing to the &ct that, in many skulls, 
some parts of the internal cavity of the cranium rise above the 
level of the occipital foramen, iiirough which the shot is intro- 
duced. Broca, therefore, by means of a long cuneiform in- 
Btmnient, presses the shot in every direction, until no more 
can be introduced. His results, though comparable with each 
other, present therefore somewhat higher numbers. Again, 
the skulls examined by the American observers were selected 
specimens, whilst those of Broca were obtained from disturbed 
churchyards. 

Broca availed himself of the rare opportunity of examining 
a number of skulls which were found in Paris, on laying the 
foundation of the new Tribunal de Commerce, in a vault, at a 
depth of three meters, at a spot which was already covered 
with houses at the time of Philip Augustus. The crania must 
therefore, at the latest, date from the twelfth century, many of 
these possibly from the Carlovingian period. They certainly 
belonged to individuals of the higher ranks, as they were found 
in dosed vaults ; and they present two distinct types, — ^long- 
heads and short-heads, as well as a larger number of medium- 
heads, which possess the least capacity ; whilst the long-heads 
occupy, in this respect, the middle position between the me- 
dium- and the short-heads, the latter occupying the highest 
position. All* these skulls are marked as Parisians of the 
twelfth century in the table. 



90 LBCTUBI III. 

A second series of skulls was obtained by Broca from an old 
clmrchTard^ Oimetiire des IwnocenU, which was opened under 
Philip Augustus in the twelfth centuiy^ and used up to the 
eighteenth century. Finally, a third series was obtained from 
a more recent churchyard, the OimeiQre de VOuest, used from 
1788 to 1 824. The skulls are indicated in the table as Parisi- 
ans of the nineteenth century. Both these churchyards served 
chiefly for the poorer classes ; but Broca was enabled to form 
three series of the skulls of the dmeiiire de V Quest ; namely, 
crania from the pit, in which the bodies were buried after 
haying been exposed in the Morgue^ and which consequently 
belonged chiefly to suicides, and unknown persons accidentally 
killed j skulls from the common pit where paupers were buried ; 
and lastly, skulls from private graves, for the proservation of 
which a fee was exacted, and which consequently wero the 
skulls of people of some means, who, it may be assumed, wero 
better educated than the others. 

On comparing Broca's rosnlts, we find first that the skulls of 
suicides exhibit the highest average, which may, perhaps, be 
explained by the fact that in most of these cases cerobral dis- 
eases may have been the cause of the act of self-destruction. 
But what is moro striking is the differonce between the skulls 
obtained firom the common pit and those from private graves ; 
for it amounts to above eighty cubic centimeters, — a large 
amount, considering that the total capacity does not amount 
to 1,500 cubic centimeters. We may hence infer that indivi- 
duals engaged in art and science possess a higher cranial capa- 
city than mero labourors, — a rosult which is confirmed by other 
observations to which we shall rocur. 

Broca's observations yield, moroover, the romarkable result, 
that the cranium of the Parisian population has, in the course 
of centuries, gained in capacity. On comparing the skulls of 
the twelfth with those of the nineteenth century, we find that 
the capacity has increased. This single fact may, perhaps, not 
be sufficient to establish a rule ; but it affords an index, and if 
supported by other facts, we shall be justified in inferring that, 
by progressive civilisation the cranial capacity of a race may, 
in the course of centuries, become gpradually increased. 



LBCTUBl m. 91 

It migHt be maintained^ tibat the variable oranial capacity 
preaented in these obsexrationa was the resnlt of the intermix- 
ture of Tariona tribes which have settled in Paris. No doubt 
there is nowhere a more mixed popnlation than in such a 
capital ; bnt a single glance at snch a popnlation is sufficient 
to show that the yariation pervades all ranks, and that the 
labouring population of Paris is nearly as mudi mixed as the 
higher classes. All the peoples of Europe furnish their quota, 
the losses of which are constantly supplied by fresh immigra- 
tions. As it is at the present time, so it was 600 and 1000 
years ago : Celts, (Germans, Slayonians, Romans, already then 
migrated to the Seine, and the cranial forms of the vaults of 
the twelfth century show that the intermixture was then the 
same as now. 

If the table be examined with regard to races, it exhibits 
the remarkable fact that all European nations, without excep- 
tion, have a cranial capacity of more than 1,400 cubic centi- 
meters; whilst, of non-Europeans, only the Esquimaux and 
Malays exceed that measure. The former stand near the line 
of separation; whilst the Malay skull measured by Welcker 
occupies an intermediate position amongst European nations 
very near the (Germans. Some doubts exist, however, con- 
cerning this measurement, since it differs more than 100 cubic 
centimeters from the measurements of Malay skulls made by 
Morton, — an amount of difference so laige that it can scarcely 
be attributed to individual peculiarity alone. Welcker's Malay 
skull may possibly not have been that of a pure Malay, but of 
a cross-breed who had European blood in his veins. In the 
environs of the Dutch possessions in the Sunda islands, there 
are, probably, few Malays whose pedig^rees do not exhibit the 
intermixture of European blood. 

Setting aside these minor exceptions, we find that there is 
an almost regular series in the cranial capacity of such nations 
and races as, since historical times, have taken little or no part 
in civilisation. AustraUans, Hottentots, and Polynesians, na- 
tions in the lowest state of barbarism, commence the series ; 
and no one can deny that the place they occupy in relation to 
cranial capacity and cerebral weight corresponds with the de- 



92 UBGTUBX III. 

gree of their intellectual capacity and civilisation. Oar table, 
no donbt, is yeiy imperfect and incomplete, for it neither ex- 
hibits the sex and age, nor the stature of the populations, the 
measurement of whose skulls is given. Still it is an index, 
and an important one, showing at the first glance that sudi in- 
vestigations form a basis for the superstructure of a scientific 
natural histoiy of man. 

I must not omit to draw your attention to a point worthy of 
particular notice. According to Aitken Meigs' measurements, 
the cranial capacity of Negroes bom in A&ica is considerably 
more than that of the American slaves. Is this the effect of 
that cursed institution which degrades men to the condition of 
chattel, and deprives them of that liberty which alone can lead 
to a higher development f As slaveiy exercises an equally in- 
jurious infiuence on the master, it might perhaps be possible, 
by a comparative examination, to show a similar relation as re- 
gards the cranial capacity of the inhabitants of the free and 
of the slave states of North America. The recent tremendous 
butcheries may afford abundant materials for such investiga- 
tions. Let the materials, then, be made use of before they 
find their way into the bone mills and manufactories of artificial 
manure. 



98 



LECTURE IV. 

StraetoM of tba Bnin.— EleniMiUcy Conititaeiiti of Bimin««iib«taiioe.— Oe- 
rebeUnin.— -The piiiiixliiTe Bnin.--TlieC8rebnii& the wmt of inteDeotnal 
actJTity.— Loe aH aation of indiridiiAl ftmetioM.— Applicntion to Fbieno- 
logy.— Hie Cerebnl Lobee.— The CkniTohitioiie : thefar zeltttioii to the In- 
teUeot and the Sise of the Bodj.— Hie derelopmeiit of the ConTohitioiifl* 
and their amuigeiiieiit eooording to Gimtiolet end Wagner. — Hoechke'e 
Opinions. — ComparatiTe Inreitigation of rtoAooM Oerehral Fonna. — ^The 
Cerebral Cafitiea.— Dispute aboat them, eepeoiallj in England* 

GiNTLKXXN, — ^Whateyer opinion we may entertain regarding 
the intellectoal functions^ whether they be regarded as the 
manifestationB of an independent soul by the intermediation of 
the nerFOUs system, or as the functions of the nerrons system 
itself and its parts, we are always reduced to the necessity of 
considering the brain as the organ from whidi the intellectoal 
functions proceed. Eveiy disturbance in the cerebral struc- 
ture, by whatever agency it may be produced, is immediately 
reflected in the intellectual functions; it may even be pre- 
dicted, in many instances, that laceration will be followed by 
certain effects, and eyen eyeiy change in the cerebral circula- 
tion immediately influences cerebral activity. If this be true, 
and no one can doubt it, for stupor and epileptic fits may be 
produced experimentally in any animal, we can easily imagine 
that* the structure of the brain and its component parts stands 
in the most intimate relation to the development of the in- 
tellectual function, and that this mode of relation may be, 
though at present only approximatively, ascertained. The 
structure of the brfdn is exceedingly complicated; there is no 
organ in the human body which, consisting of comparatively 
so few elementary constituents, possesses so great a variety of 
parts which, by their shape, internal structure, and position. 



94 



LBCTUBB IT. 



plainly proye that they exercise different fonotions, thongli we 
liaye not yet sncceeded in determining them. 

On turning our attention first to the constituent elementary 
formSj we find in the brain of man and animals two groups of 
substances^ a g^rey substance^ more or less blackish or yellowish, 
appearing to the naked eye as a uniform mass, and a white 
substance apparently distinguished from the other by being 
composed of fibres which run in yarious directions. The grey 
substance consists of cells containing nuclei and finely granu- 
lated matter, from which issue processes subdiyided into yery 
delicate threads, which either form delicate networks or are lost 
in the fibres of the white substance. These nerye-cells (see 
fig. 28) exhibit a yariety of forms which are probably connected 
with their respectiye functions, an hypothesis rendered more 
probable by the &ct, that the grey substance no doubt origi- 

Fig. 28. Multipolar Cells^ with Prooesses in the Homaii Brain. 




1. GeD, the prooeaa of which, a, beoomeg the cylinder-azifl of the sheathed 
primittre fibre, 6. 2. Two oella, a and b, connected by proceaaee. 3. Three 
oella, a, connected by commiaaoree, h, sending forth nerre fibree. e, 4. Mul- 
tipolar cells, with much more black pigment. 



LBCTUBI IT. 95 

DAtes nenroiiB actiyity^ whilst the white substanoe acts as a con- 
ductor. All the fibres of the white substance, all the nerves 
entering the brain, terminate in the grey ganglia and masses 
scattered in the centre of the brain or on its surface. It foU 
lows, then, that in the question of the relation of cerebral struc- 
ture to mental development, the grcT^substance and the parts 
chiefly composed of it, demand our special attention. 

Now it does not admit of a doubt that many of the grey 
nuclei in the interior of the brain, are not, strictly spealdng, 
connected with the mental functions, but only with the organs 
of sense. Just as in the spinal cord the grey matter has different 
functions, one mass presiding over sensation and another over 
motion, so are there in the brain grey nuclei whose relation to 
particular functions can be determined. In that part of the 
spinal cord whidi enters the cranium by the occipital foramen, 
and is then called the medulla oblongata, there are situated 
the grey nuclei which preside over the respiratory and the 
cardiac movements ; more in front are other parts which have 
been experimentally proved to be related to the movements of 
the body and to the organs of sense. These parts are in our 
investigations only so far interesting in that the senses may be 
more developed in some races than in others. Although, how- 
ever, the acuteness of the senses in some savage tribes excites 
our astonishment, it appears to be rather the result of train- 
ing than of an original endowment, since individuals belonging 
to civilised races, whose calling as hunters or mariners requires 
constant practice, soon acquire the same acuteness of per- 
ception. 

On examining a human brain at the base, we see in the 
centre a nearly white mass ascending through the large occip- 
ital aperture, which must be divided in order to remove the 
brain from the cranium. This is the medulla oblongtUa, in the 
interior of which we see several grey ganglia, and from the 
edges of which issue several cerebral nerves, as the vagus 
which proceeds to the heart, the lungs, and stomach. In front 
it is continued in a bridge-shaped structure termed the pone 
Varolii, composed of transverse fibres, and from which emerge 
&scife of white matter, which, entering the hemispheres, are 



96 



LXCTUBX IT. 



termed ihe crura cerebri. All the white parts^ with their cx>n- 
tinuations, in front and above^ and concealed in the cerebral 
mass, may be termed the primitive bradn, inasmuch as this is the 
original portion which is first of all deposited daring the de* 
Tclopment of the brain in the embryo. The g^reat mass of the 
brain consiists, as shown by comparatiye anatomy, of arched 
parts which gradually grow from the primitive brain and unite 
in the median line, so that in the interior of the brain there re- 
mains still a system of cavities, the size of which diminishes in 
proportion to the development of the cerebral mass. 

Fig. 29. Base of the Homan Brain. 




Base of the Brain. 1. Anterior lobe. 2. Middle lobe. 8. Posterior lobe 
of the cerebral hemiiphere. 4. HemiBpheres of the cerebelhun. 5. Vermi- 
form procees of cerebellam. 6. Floooolna. 7. Longitudinal fissore. 8. 01- 
fkctory nerree (first pair). 9. Exit of the olhatory nerre ih»m the brain. 

10. CroemngoftheoptionerveB. C%tasnia fMrvomm opiicorfftm (second pair). 

11. Tuber dnerenm. 12. Corpora mammillaria. 18. Oculomotor (third 
pair). 14. Pons Varolii. 15. Crura oerebellL 16. Trigeminal nerve (fifth 
pair): immediately before it, the fourth pair: N. pathetieus, or tro- 
chlearis. 17. Abduoens (sixth pair). 18. Facial and auditory nexre : N. fiusi- 
alis and N. aoousticus (seventh and eighth pair). 19. Pyramidal bodies of 
the medulla; at their sides, outwardly, the olivary bodies. 20. Glosao-pha- 
rynffeal nerve, vagus and accessory nerves (ninth, tenth, and eleventh pair). 
21. N. hypoglossus (twelfth pair). 22. First cervical nerve. 



LBCTinUB IV. 97 

Fhysiologioal experimentB liSTe proTod that it is the primitive 
brain only whioh possesses sensibility ; that all cerebral nerves 
spring onlj from the grey ganglia it contains, and that this 
part is mainly connected with sensation and motion. 

On farther examining the base of the brain we perceire im- 
mediately above the primitive brain on both sides of the medulla 
a mass divided into lobes and laminee. This is the cerebellum, so 
little developed in man and most apes, that, on being viewed 
from above, it seems entirely covered by the brain proper. 

If a vertical section be made through the cerebellum, the 
medullary substance is seen covered with grey matter, produc- 
ing a tree-like figure, which the old anatomists desig^ted the 

Fig. 80. The Brain of the so-called Hottentot-Venua : top view, after 

Qratiolet. 




L, Lonffitadinal fiasnre. R, Bolando's fissure. F. Posterior transrerse 
fissure. F. Frontal lobe. P. Phrietal lobe. O. Posterior lobe. T. Temporal 
lobe. Po. Pons Varolii. C. Gerebelliun. F. If. Medolla oblongata. 



98 LKCTUBK IV. 

tree of life, arbor vitoe. The white fibres, called the crura 
cerebeUif connecting the cerebellam with the enoephalon, are 
sencdtiye; not so the foliated parts. From all experiments 
hitherto made, the cerebellam seems to be chiefly connected 
with motion. If it be destroyed on one side only, paralytic 
phenomena are observed, in which the body rolls towards the 
opposite side ; if the whole cerebellum is destroyed, the verte- 
bral column, and consequently the whole body, loses the 
power of equilibrium, the animal oscillates, the walk resem- 
bles that of an intoxicated person, all the motions are irregular 
and without any harmony. The same facts are observed in 
diseases in which the cerebellum is by any cause affected. The 
relation of the cerebellum to the sexual functions, ascribed to 
it by Gall, and which has become an axiom in phrenology, has 
not been confirmed by experience. 

It results from these facts, that the examination of the cere- 
bellum would contribute but little to the elucidation of the 
questions before us, inasmuch as that part of the enoephalon 
cannot be proved to be connected with the intellectual functions. 

There remains now the brain proper, which constitutes by far 
the largest mass of the enoephalon, covering all other parts on 
being viewed from above, and at once distinguished by the 
singular convolutions on the surface. The cerebrum is divided 
into two hemispheres by a process of the d/tura niater termed 
the falx. Another process of the same membrane, termed the 
tentorium, extends horizontally between the cerebrum and the 
cerebellum. Thus the cerebrum constitutes, as it were, a 
separate whole which, as comparative anatomy teaches, has 
overgrown and, so to say, suppressed all other cerebral parts. 
This overgrowth increases in the lower animals accordingly as 
they approach the human conformation. In the lowest verte- 
brates, fishes, the cerebrum is only a grey knot, situated in front 
of the other ganglia of the cerebral stem, and in the same line. 
But the cerebrum swells out like an inflated india-rubber pouch 
in the higher vertebrates, gradually covering the grey ganglia 
of the primitive bram, and the imperfectly arched forms of 
the originally separated meso-cephalon, which are known by 
the name of thala/ini optid and tubercula quadrigemma; it then 



LECTITBB IT. 99 

passes above the cerebeUum and gradually ooyers it with its 
lower snrfaoe. A section along the course of the zygomatic 
arch^ dividing the sknll, wonld almost exactly coincide with the 
under surface of the cerebrum. The cerebellum would not be 
touched in such a section, as it lies in the part of the occiput 
covered by,the insertions of the muscles of the neck. 

The mass of the cerebrum is insensible ; only the crura and 
the tubercula quadrigemina are sensitive. In wounds of the 
head, when the brain is exposed, the surface may be touched 
or portions removed, without the manifestation of any pain. 
On the other hand, experiments performed on animals, espe- 
cially birds, have proved that the cerebrum is manifestly the 
sole seat of intelligence. Pigeons may be kept alive for weeks 
after the removal of the hemispheres. Ton will find a sum- 
mary of such experiments in my Phydologicai LectureB (3rd 
edition, p. 316). But these phenomena prove that an animal 
deprived of its brain continues to live, in a deep sleep as it 
were. The power of motion remains as well as combined 
muscular action to a limited extent ; pain is felt, and certain 
movements are made to avoid it ; but the animal is undoubt- 
edly in a state of stupor, in a certain dreamy condition which 
admits of no consciousness. There is no combination of the 
sensations to manifest the feelings. The animal, as an ob- 
server remarks, might die of starvation before a well-fiUed 
trough, as the want of food does not induce the motion requi- 
site for feeding. 

The cerebrum is thus unquestionably the seat of intelligence, 
consciousness, and will, consequently of all intellectual ac- 
tivity. The white fibres contained in it serve probably for 
connecting the individual grey parts ; for they are, like them, 
insensible. The question now is, whether the different intellec- 
tual functions are confined to different parts of the brain, and 
if so, to what parts T 

Experiments on a?i^'mft^>» furnish, in this respect, only unsatis- 
fiustory results. If the hemispheres are removed in slices, the 
phenomena of stupor become gradually more manifest. The 
removal of one entire hemisphere presents no remarkable re- 
sult ; whence it may be concluded that the remaining hemi- 

h2 



100 LSCTURS IT. 

sphere may^ for a certain time at leasts perform all requisite 
fbnctions. AU that is observed^ is that the cerebral activity is 
sooner ezhansted than in the nniiyiired brain^ so that it is 
merely the quantity and not the quality of the function which 
is affected. Some physiologists have, not unreasonably, asserted 
that such an interchanging of activity of the two cerebral hemi- 
spheres may and does occur also in the living man, and that one 
hemisphere may, to a certain extent, go to sleep and refresh 
itself, whilst the other half is in a state of activity. The facts, 
however, upon which this assertion is based, are, as yet, insuf- 
ficient for the establishment of such a theoiy. 

Neither wounds in the head nor cerebral diseases have hith- 
erto yielded satisfactory evidence as regards the localisation of 
the intellectual faculties in individual parte of the cerebrum. 
The question has been much discussed whether speech, or, 
rather, the capacity for producing articulate sounds expressing 
thoughts, is localised in the anterior lobes of the brain, and 
cases have been adduced in which a morbid condition of those 
parts was concomitant with loss of speech. But the fact that 
one hemisphere may act vicariously for the other, has been lost 
sight of, and also that it is but rarely that both hemispheres 
are equally affected. This, however, is clearly the requisite 
condition for estimating such a case, for that function which is 
destroyed by disease on one side may be preserved on the other, 
and, though sooner exhausted, would, for a time, be performed 
in its integrity. Cases are by no means rare of persons hav- 
ing lost a quantity of cerebral substance from one hemisphere 
by wounds, and who, though exhibiting no actual diminution 
in their intellectual functions, were compelled frequently to 
rest after any mental exertion, as their mental energy was 
sooner exhausted. 

Since direct observations yield but scanty results, we may 
be permitted to appeal to conditions which may indirectly con- 
tribute towards the elucidation of the question. The results 
of sudi investigation certainly do not possess the same validity 
as those drawn from direct observation. Still, they are of 
some value and should not be neglected. 

There are normal conditions in which certain parts of the 



UBOTITBB IV. 101 

brain are less developed than others^ and snoh conditioniB may 
be noted in the analysis of the intellectnal functions. We 
may thos^ perhaps, find that in indiyidnals of high intellectj 
this or that lobe of the cerebrum is more developed than 
another ; that the convolutions on the surface are more dis- 
tinctly and differently marked in eminent persons than in per- 
sons of lower rank. Such investigations may embrace the 
different races of mankind, and ATn'Twalfl sJso, though we must 
not forget that the inferences and analogies become more de- 
ceptive in proportion as we go further off from the human 
type. We may also call to our aid cases in which, from arrest 
of development, the brain has preserved the foDtal type, in 
consequence of which the intellectual life approaches that of 
the animal. A dose examination of the cerebral structure of 
such idiots may teach us which are the special parts arrested 
in their development, and by comparing with the obtained data 
the various manifestations of intellectual activity, we may, 
perhaps, arrive at some conclusions as regards the functions of 
individual parts of the brain. 

The so-called science of phrenology rests, as is well known, 
upon such inferences, which, however, labour under the g^reat 
drawback that on the one hand the capacities are to be marked 
on the outer table of the skull, and, on the other hand, a local- 
isation is claimed which in no ways corresponds either with the 
intellectual faculties, or with the details of the cerebral struc- 
ture. However correct the fundamental principle of phre- 
nology may be, that individual functions must correspond to 
individual parts of the organ, the inferences drawn from it are 
none the less exceedingly erroneous. On viewing' the brain 
from above, each hemisphere appears as one mass ; exhibiting, 
indeed, convolutions and intermediate sulci, but no actual divi- 
sion. It is different, however, when we view the brain from 
the sides or from below. In the latter case we immediately per- 
ceive in the anterior part a deep fissure which runs firom the 
anterior margin of the cerebellum to the corresponding margin 
of the cerebrum, and separates two lobes which, when the 
brain is viewed lateraUy, extend fiEo* lower down than the anterior 
lobes. The basis of the anterior, or frontal lobes, as we shall 



102 IrBCTUBB lY. 

call them^ rests upon the roof of the orbits, whilst the lower 
or temporal lobes fill np a deep caviiy formed by the sphenoid 
and temporal bones in the base of the craninm, on both sides 
of the sella Tu/rdca. Again, on viewing the hnman brain 
from below, the posterior margin of the hemisphere is seen 
to project beyond the cerebellam, thus forming a prolongation 
which is called the posterior lobe. Finally, there may, in this 
posterior lobe be distinguished a middle or parietal lobe which 
is, however, the least marked of all. 

Fig. 81. Brain of the celebrated mathematlGiaa, QaasB, side view« 
after Wagner. 




fif. Sylvian fissure. M, Fissure of Bolando. C. Cerebellam. F. Frontal 
lobe. P. Parietal lobe. O. Posterior lobe. T. Temporal lobe of oerebmm. 

On viewing the brain from the side, the deep fissure which 
separates the temporal from the frx)ntal lobe is seen to divide 
into two branches, one of which, rising almost perpendicolarly, 
is gradually lost in the mass of the frontal lobe ; the other takes 
at first a horizontal direction, and is lost between the convolu- 
tions in the mass of the temporal lobe. This fissure, termed 
the Sylvian, is important, because, under all circumstances, it 
clearly indicates the division between the frontal and the pari- 
etal lobes. Viewed frx)m above, the brain seems to consist of 
three parts : the anterior, the parietal, and the posterior lobes. 
Viewed from the side, there would be added the temporal lobe, 
and a small concealed lobe, called the island or the central lobe. 



LBCTUBS lY. 103 

wliioh is not yisible eztemaOy. It may be seen by separating 
the margins of the Sylvian fissnre^ and removing parts of the pa- 
rieta] lobe which cover it. Though the formation of this inter- 
mediate lobe seems peculiar to the cerebral structure of man 
and the apOj not having, to our knowledge, been met with in 
other animals, it need not farther occupy our attention, since 
the comparative anatomy of the brain, as far as races are con- 
cerned, is as yet in its infancy. 

Many attempts have been made to connect the development 
of the several cerebral lobes with the mental qualification 
of individuals and races, but with scanty success. The three 
cranial vertebrsB, namely, the frontal, temporal, and occipital, 
have been connected with the development of the three prin- 
cipal lobes, so that some authors distinguish frontal, parietal, 
aud occipital races, in proportion as either of these regions 
predominate. Some have proceeded still further, naming the 
races, — ''Men of the day, men of the twilight, and men of 
the night,'' with the very acute remark that the forehead of 
man corresponded to day ; but the occiput to the shady or 
night side of nature. Even north pole and south pole, and 
the point of magnetic indifference, have played their parts in 
these vertebral theories ; from the analyses of which I must 
beg to be excused, as the times in which we live are not much 
given to such speculations as these. The actual facts obtained 
from investigations of the kind seem to amount to this, that 
the anterior or frontal lobes are intimately cozmected with 
mental development. Height, breadth, and shape of this part 
must be taken into special consideration in forming an esti- 
mate of intellectual capacity. 

The development of the convolutions on the surface of the 
brain is of particular importance. As already observed, the 
whole sur&ce of the cerebrum is covered with a layer of grey 
matter, beneath which the white substance appears. If the 
convolutions are broad, the white substance penetrates to 
their centre; if small or imperfect, they are formed wholly of 
grey matter. The veiy delicate vascular membrane which 
covers the brain enters into the sulci. The dura mater is 
stretched over the convolutions, so that the internal surface of 



104 LSCTUSK IT. 

the craninm presents only indistinct impressions of the 
larger convolutions. The coarser the convolutions, and the 
broader the furrows which separate them, the more distinct is 
their impress on the internal surface of the cranium. The cast 
of a skull by means of a plastic mass which retains its form, is 
but an imperfect substitute for a view of the brain itself and 
its convolutions. 

The convolutions contribute to increase the quantity of grey 
substance. Just as in the secreting glands the secreting sur- 
face is increased in size by the subdivision of the originally 
simple bag into tubes, so the cerebral substance, by its com- 
plicated windings, secures a surface considerably exceeding 
that of the internal space of the skull. Now, if it be true 
that the grey substance alone is the source of nervous action ; 
if it be farther true that the superficial grey matter is inti- 
mately connected with mental activity, whilst the internal grey 
nuclei are rather connected with the phenomena of sensation ; 
then it follows that the multiplicity of the convolutions is con- 
nected with the development and increase of the intellectual ca- 
pacity, the substratimi of which is the increased quantity of 
grey matter. The convolutions have been compared to the 
figure which would be produced by forcing a bag, possessing a 
larg^ surface than the interior of the skull, into the cranium. 
The comparison may be pursued, and it may be said that the 
more grey substance we force into a skull the g^reater the inteUec- 
tual capacity, which would lead to the inference that an animal 
must be more intelligent in comparison with another in proportion 
as the convolutions are more complicated, and the furrows deeper. 

If this principle is adopted in its crudity, a single glance at the 
convolutions in the brainof the mammalian series will be su£Bcient 
to overthrow it. It is true that in some of the lower mammals, 
e.g.,ixi the edentata and marsupials,no convolutions are observed, 
whilst, with few exceptions, they exist in all carnivorous ani- 
mals and largely in the apes. i3ut, on closer examination, we 
find that within the orders which possess convolutions their 
development seems to be connected with the size of the body. 
Now it certainly cannot be maintained that all larger animals 
are more intelligent than the smaller, and when it is considered 



LiCTHBi IV. 105 

tliat the brains of the ass, the sheep, and the oz, all of which, 
in &ble8, are the representatiyes of stupidity, are more conyo- 
lated than those of the beayer, the cat, and the dog, the axiom 
connecting the conyolations with intelligence seems to haye re- 
ceiyed a hard blow. 

Happily, mathematics will assist us here. On compar- 
ing two bodies of similar form but of different size, their 
respectiye yolnmes yary as the cube of their diameters, whilst 
the proportion of the surfiM)es is as the square of the diameters, 
or, in other words, the yolume of a body increases more rapidly 
than the surfikse, and this more rapidly than the diameter. 
Eyeiy artillerist kno?rs well that a twelye-pounder, though 
thrice as heayy as a four-pounder, does not nearly possess 
a diameter thrice as large. 

In applying this principle to the head, and specially the cra- 
nium of animals, it wiU be seen that in eyeiy natural group or 
order of mammals the head, and espedaUy the cranial capacity, 
stands in a certain relation to the body, which is nearly constant 
in the yarious species. The head of the tiger and the lion bears 
the same proportion to the body as does that of the cat, 
although the size of the animals is so different. It follows 
hence that the yoltmie of the cerebral mass of the tiger stands 
in the same proportion to the body as does that of the cat ; 
that the surfoce of the internal cranial capacity is proportion- 
ately smaller in the larger animal, and that consequently in 
order to secure a similar surface of grey matter, it must be 
conyoluted in the large animal, whilst it may remain smooth 
in the small animal. We might, therefore, infer firom the 
aboye geometrical axiom, that if in two species of animals of 
the same size and the same normal structure, the conyolutions 
are differently deyeloped, this deyelopment is connected with 
the deyelopment of intelligence, whilst animals of unequal size 
are less capable of comparison with each other in proportion 
as their respectiye sizes differ. When, therefore, man, 
whose skull is, in proportion to the body, larger than that of 
the largest animals, excels all the rest in the richness and 
yariety of the cerebral conyolutions, it is manifestly in har- 
mony with his intelligence, in which he also far excels the rest. 



106 LBGTUBB IT. 

In instituting oomparisonB, they most be confined to rery 
nearly allied groapa : man can only be compared with man ; ape 
with ape ; the extension of this comparison to other animals is 
not admissible. On examining the order of apes, for instance, 
the influence of size is seen with the greatest distinctness. 
Thos the small leonine tamarin and the marmoset monkeys have 
no convolutions, the scarcely larger squirrel and tailed monkeys 
have but few, whilst the large anthropoid apes, the orang, 
chimpanzee, and gorilla, have very convoluted brains. 

The old anatomists paid but little attention to the arrange- 
ment of the convolutions, specially as it was soon found that 
they were not symmetrical on both sides. The sinuosities were 
thus considered as accidental, or, as one naturalist observed, 
as a confused mass of intestines, so that draughtsmen repre- 
sented them in anatomical plates entirely conventionaUy. 
Modem researches have, however, shown that, amidst this appa- 
rent confusion, there exists a certain regularity, a definite 
plan, which had not been detected for the simple reason that 
inquiries extended to man only, in whom this irregularity of 
the convolutions reached the highest degree. Naturalists were 
in the same position as amateurs in architecture, who are un- 
able to make out the ground-plan on account of the overloaded 
ornamentation of a structure. 

No sooner was attention directed to animals and the more 
simple phenomena analysed, than it became apparent that for 
every family or order there existed a special plan, as regards 
the arrangement of the convolutions, entirely characteristic of 
the orders and easily traceable in the highest as well as in 
the lowest forms. In the unconvoluted brain of a small lion- 
monkey {Simta rosalia, Oeo£&y),^here is exhibited the same 
fundamental plan of arrangement as in the convoluted brain of 
the orang, and the incomparably more convoluted brain of man. 

I may be allowed, perhaps, to dwell for a moment on this 
result of recent investigation. There is no doubt whatever 
that, according to the fundamental plan of his brain, man be- 
longs to the ape. " On comparing,'' says Ghratiolet, " a series 
of human and simian brains, we are immediately struck with 
the analogy exhibited in the cerebral forms in all these creatures. 



LECTUBE IV. ^ 107 

The oonyolnted brain of man resembles the smooth brain of 
the Ouistitis in the characteristios of a rudimentary olfactory 
bulb ; a posterior lobe^ which entirely covers the cerebellmn ; 
a perfectly marked Sylvian fissure, and a posterior comn in the 
lateral ventricle of the brain.'' [Gratiolet might have added a 
fifth character, the existence of a central or intermediate lobe, 
which occurs in all apes.] 

'' These characters/' continues Ghratiolet, '' coexist only in 
man and the ape. The cerebellum is uncovered in all other 
animals ; we mostly find an esormous olfactory bulb, as in the 
elephant ; and with exception of the makis {L&muridoB) no 
animal presents a fissure, like the Sylvian, with an enclosed 
central lobe. 

" Thus, there is a cerebral form peculiar to man and ape ; 
and so in the cerebral convolutions, wherever they appear, 
there is a general unity of arrangement, — a plan, the type of 
which is common to all these creatures. 

'' This uniformity in the arrangement of the convolutions in 
man and ape deserves, in the highest degree, the attention of 
naturalists. Thus, in the makis {Lemwridce), cats, dogs, bears, 
in short, in all families a peculiar type of convolution is found. 
Each of these families has its own character; and we can 
arrange the different species within any group by examining 
the convolutions." 

So, far Ghratiolet. It seems to me to follow necessarily from 
these words, that it is requisite to study the convolutions more 
closely, since, as we shall see, their development is, no doubt, 
connected with that of the human type and also with intelligence. 
In order to proceed upon a definite basis, it is best to com- 
mence with a side view, and to start from the Sylvian fissure, 
which is most distinctly marked in all human and ape-brains 
(see fig. 81). As already observed, the Sylvian fissure divides 
into two branches : an anterior, nearly perpendicular ; and a pos- 
terior, nearly horizontal, which, however, usually turns up'wards, 
so that the Sylvian fissure, on the whole, takes the form of 'a 
Y. Between these two branches there is thus marked off a por- 
tion which might be called the lateral middle lobe, which some 
authors include in the frontal, and others in the parietal lobe. 



108 LICTITEB IV. 

Upon these lateral central lobes^ two convolutions always pro- 
ceed from the point of the Y upwards^ extending to the longi- 
tudinal fissure of the hemispheres^ where they terminate about 
the centre of the sagittal suture^ that is to say^ at the vertex. 
These two convolutions form at their base the covering of the 

Fig. 82. Side view of the brain of the Hottentot-VennB. 




VJH. 



The following deeignations apply to this as well aa to all following fignzeB 
of the biain in these Lectnree. JP. Frontal lobe. P. Parietal lobe. O. Pos- 
terior lobe. T. Temporal lobe. Po, Pons YaioliL 0. CerebeUum. F. M. 
MedoUa oblongata. 

8. Sylvian fissure. £. Fissure of Bolando. F. VertioaltransTerse fissure. 
L. Longitudinal fissure. P. 8. Parallel fissure. 

A. Anterior central convolution. 
P. Posterior „ „ 

a^ Upper Ibid of the convolutions of the firontal lobe, 
o^ Middle fold of the convolutionB of the firontal lobe. 
a> Lower fold of the convolutions of the firontal lobe. 
(1 Upper fold of the convolutions of the parietal lobe. * 
5> Middle fold of the convolutions of the parietal lobe. 
6* Lower fold of the conyolutions of the parietal lobe, 
e^ Upper fold of the convolutions of the temporal lobe, 
c^ Middle fold of the convolutions of the temporal lobe, 
c^ Lower fold of the convolutions of the temporal lobe, 
d^ Upper fold of the convolutions of the posterior lobe, 
d* Middle fold of the convolutions of the posterior lobe. 
d> Lower fold of the convolutions of the posterior lobe. 



LBCTUBB IV. lOQ 

oentnil lobe; henoe they have been called the oentralj or interme- 
diate, convolations. They are separated by a deep fisenre, whioh 
is easily seen in most brains, even when viewed from above. 

We look npon these central convolutions as an important 
part of the brain ; bnt we cannot agree with the meritorious 
Huachke when he says, '' After what I have shown of the de- 
velopment of the convolutions, there can be no doubt that the 
point of indifference in each hemisphere is to be found in the 
central convolutions. Their central, indifferent signification is 
known by their central position (in the centre of the sagittal 
suture), their great size, and the depth of the central fissure 
which separates them, their simplicity and regularity, and 
finally, from their manifold connexions with their six to 
eight arms, which radiate to different sides, like wires bring- 
ing telegp^aphic messages from all parts of our mental organs to 
these chief convolutions, or receiving orders from thence. Here 
is the watershed whence the longitudinal convolutions flow north 
and south,forward and backwards; or the common bed intowhich 
the different branches empty themselves. With their formation 
in the ape, the brain enters the last stage of development until 
it arrives at its perfection in man, beyond which stage it cannot 
pass, having gained the object of its development, — a distinct 
point of indifference with its connecting poles. In those mam- 
mals in which these large convolutions are absent, the two poles 
are like the anterior and posterior halves of three superimposed 
horseshoes fused together. In the brain of man, they first 
become divided by a partition in the shape of central convolu- 
tions,— just as the heart does not reach its highest stage of 
development until a septum is acquired, so that red and black 
blood are divided from each other. The great influence of this 
polarity of the blood is shown by animal heat. The organism, 
hitherto cold-blooded, becomes in the class of birds, almost at 
once, warm-blooded. A similar, though as yet unknown in- 
fluence must be exercised on the meduuiism of nervous activity 
by the central convolutions. Determination, acuteness, perspi- 
cuity, greater unity of psychical life must be connected with it.'' 
Beally, this is carrying polarisation a little too far. Let us 
return to our convolutions. 



110 LICTURB IV. 

Taming firom the anterior central oonyolationfl in a forward 
direction, we nsoally find the whole frontal lobe covered with a 
number of convolutions, which generaDy stand more or less per- 
pendicular to the anterior central convolution, that is, more or 
less horizontal. The convolutions nearest to the longitudinal 
fissure mostly proceed from the beginning of the central con- 
volution, so that, to a certain extent, they appear as an 
appended lobe. We might fairly assume three stories of these 
complicated frontal convolutions ; the ground floor (a*) rests im- 
mediately upon the roof of the orbits, whilst the upper story (a^) 
touches the top of the forehead. In poorly convoluted brains, 
these windings, viewed from the side, present three distinct 
superimposed folds ; in richly convoluted brains they appear as 
closely intertwined plaits, rendering the separation into three 
stories more di£5cult. 

The remarkable difierences exhibited by brains are especially 
shown in these convolutions, above all, in those of the upper 
and middle (a^) fold. The length of the frontal lobe varies 
greatly, so that the fissure of Rolando changes its place either 
in a forward or backward direction. The complication, also, 
in the shape and arrangement of these convolutions differs, 
not only in individuals, but even in the two hemispheres of the 
same brain. The younger Wagner has endeavoured to express 
these conditions by measuring the surface of the convolutions, 
and also the development of the furrows separating them. The 
surfaces were measured by being covered with square pieces of 
paper four millimeters long, thus covering sixteen square 
millimeters, — a method evidently much more open to errors 
than another in which small slips of paper are pressed into the 
sulci to estimate their depth. 

As it may be assumed, as a general principle, that the extent 
of subdivision of the frontal lobe gives the measure of the 
degree of convolution of the whole brain, these measurements 
have been confined to the frontal lobe and to only a few brains; 
but they yield important results nevertheless. Assuming the 
absolute length of all the sulci of the frontal lobe of the brain 
of the mathematician Gtiuss = 1 00, we obtain for the brain of 
Fuchs, the physician, 96 ; for a woman of twenty-nine, about 



LICTUBI IV. 



Ill 



whose intelligence nothing is said^ 85 ; for the brain of a oom- 
mon day-laboarer named Kreba, 73 ; and for the brain of an 
idiot who diedj i^;ed twenty-six^ only 15, a diminution which, 
as yon will observe, tallies with the hypothesis, that great de- 
velopment of the frontal conTolutions, and consequently of the 
convolutions generally, is connected with the development of 
intelligence. 

We may here observe that Wagner has also in the case of 
twelve brains endeavoured to ascertain the proportion between 
the measured convex surface, the extent of which also depends 
upon the development of the sulci, and the cerebral weight. 
As a general result it appears that the heavier the brain, the 
greater is the development of the surface; but that in the 
female sex the lesser weight, already alluded to, is compensated 
by a larger development of surface. Omitting from the twelve 
the three female brains, and having regard only to the eight 
male brains (the twelfth belonged to an idiot) we find a similar 
compensation in the male brain which, according to weight oc- 
cupies the fifth, but according to surface the third place. This 
condition is, however, more strikingly exhibited in females, 
since the heaviest female brain in the whole list occupies but 
the eighth place, whilst, with regard to surface, it occupies the 
second place. In the same way the female occupying the tenth 
place would advance to the ninth, and the one occupying the 
eleventh would advance to the eighth. Subjoined is Wagner's 
table, in which the brains are arranged in a double series ac- 
cording to weight and according to surface, so as to present 
their relative proportions as clearly as possible : — 



Ko. WfliglitlBGimmBM. 


Coiiv«xmiT«ieeiD 






of 10 aqoATt mini 


1. (Diziohlet) . - . 


1520 - 


- 2568 


2. (Faohs) - 


1480 


2489 


8. (GwiM) - 


1482 - 


2419 


4. (Hennaxm) 


1866 - 


2408 


5. ICale . 


1840 


2461 


6. Male - 


1830 


2808 


7. Male - - - 


1278 . 


- 2117 


8. Female - - 


1264 - 


2408 


9. (HMuanann) 


1226 - 


2066 


10. Female 


1223 - 


- 2272 


11. Female - 


1186 


2800 


12. Minrooophale 


800 


896 



112 





LSCTUBB IV. 




No. 


Canvex raWWM In ariiMrei Weight In Or 




cifieaqiMramnilmeten. 




1. (Diriohlet) - 


- 2658 ... - 


1520 


2. Female - 


. 2408 .... 


1254 


8. (Fnohe) - 


2488 .... 


1499 


4. Male 


- 2461 .... 


1840 


5. (Gkuxaa) - 


- 2419 .... 


1492 


6. (Hermaiin) 


2406 .... 


1858 


7. ICale . - 


. 2809 - - . 


1830 


8. Female 


. 2300 .... 


1185 


9. Female 


. 2272 . - - 


1228 


10. Male - - 


- 2117 - - - 


1278 


11. (Hanamann) 


- 2066 . 


1226 


18. Microcephale . 


896 - - - . 


800 



Wagner remarks, very jnstly, that this series is far too imper- 
fect, and the number of measurements too small to draw from 
them absolutely correct inferences. The whole series never- 
theless indicates that a compensation may exist, that it pro- 
bably does exist in females, and that it may also extend to 
races which, like the Hindoos, to a certain extent exhibit 
the female type in their small, and not very capacious skulls. 

On examining the convolutions, situated behind the central 
convolutions on the surface of the brain, and which form the 
parietal lobe, it is seen that they proceed from the posterior 
central convolutions. They have the appearance of notched 
rolls, which may also be divided into three stories, the upper- 
most {b ) forming, as it were, only a fold of the central convolu- 
tion. On viewing the brain from the top, this upper story reaches 
a small transverse fissure, the peipendicular posterior, or inner 
cerebral fissure (V), which has only a small superficial extent 
in man, but penetrates the more deeply into the interior. The 
great importance of this fissure is shown partly by its early 
appearance in the foetus, immediately after the appearance of 
the Sylvian fissure and that of Rolando, when there is scarcely 
any trace of the other furrows as anfractuosities of the frontal 
lobe ; and further, by the fact that in the ape it can be dis- 
tinctly traced far over the side, separating the occipital from 
the parietal lobe, so that the first forms a characteristic flap 
which, overlapping the posterior margin of the parietal lobe, 
covers some convolutions which in man lie on the surface. 

The second or middle convolution of the parietal lobe (6^, 



LICTUBB lY. 113 

wliich ia mostly only seen in a side view of the brainy nsnally 
joins a corve, like a bent finger^ around the paraUel fissnre, 
which win be mentioned fnrther on when speaking of the tem- 
poral region, whence Ghratiolet calls it the bent oonvolntionj 
pK eaurbe. 

The third, or lower parietal oonrolntion {V), generally ap- 
pears in the shape of a triangnlar knob, wedged in between 
the branches of tiie horizontal arm of the Sylvian fissure, and 
corresponds in its position pretty nearly to the parietal emi- 
nence of the sknll. 

The oonvolations of the temporal lobe are generally simple, 
and oan only be distinctly seen in a side view. The superior 
edge of the lobe, as already observed, is bounded by the hori- 
zontal branch of the Sylvian fissure. On the lobe, parallel 
with this, there is a fissure — ^the parallel fissure (P. 8.) — ^whioh 
stretches far back towards the posterior lobe and the peipen- 
dicular fissure, and separates the upper story of the temporal 
convolutions (e^) from the intermediate (c'). A second smaller 
furrow separates the middle story from the lower (r?), which 
rests on the base of the skull. In poorly convoluted brains, 
these stories are scarcely at all notched on their margins ; but 
in richly convoluted brains, the notches become secondary 
fissures, which, however, are rarely sufficiently deep to effiuse 
the original tripartition of the lobe. 

The occipital lobe seems, in every respect, the most .difficult 
as regards the systemisation of its convolutions. As in the 
human brain, its limit is only indicated by a very small per- 
pendicular fissure, it runs without any visible separation into 
the parietal and temporal lobes. It is, moreover, veiy small, 
the convolutions are mostly very irregular and unsymmetrical ; 
whilst, on the contraiy, in the ape it is well defined by the 
great development of the perpendicular fissure. 

On the margins of the lobes, Gratiolet distinguishes four 
so-called transition convolutions {pUa de passage), of which 
the first, or upper — ^which Wagner calls the first convolution of 
the posterior lobe ((P), adjoining the central line, behind the 
first parietal convolution — sends forth some folds towards the 
posterior lobe, which Gratiolet terms the upper stoiy of the 



114 JJBCTUBB IV. 

oonyolations of ike posterior lobe. The three other transition 
convolutions of Ghratiolet are included by Wagner in the middle 
story ((P) ; and he also distinguishes beneath this a third, but 
not distinctly developed story {<P), which rests immediately 
upon the cerebellum. 

Gratiolet, by extending his observation to the brains of apes, 
has shown the special importance of these transition convolu- 
tions. In these animak, in consequence of the greater depth 
of the peipendicular fissure, the anterior border of the pos- 
terior lobe becomes gradually a flap which, by overlapping the 
parietal lobe, covers more or less the transition convolutions. 
This flap, which, in its inner surface, has a very characteristic 
structure, must be lifted back in order to see these transition 
convolutions in the closed fissure into which they seem to have 
sunk. Gratiolet has even attempted to advance this formation 
as a peculiar characteristic, distinguishing the simian from the 
human brain. He, however, omitted to take into consideration 
that the formation of this flap increases in the ape but very 
gpradually ; that the plis de passage are very inconstant, fre- 
quently differing on both sides, so that, according to another 
observer, if we merely keep in view the arrangements of these 
convolutions, the two hemispheres might belong to different 
species ; and finally, that there are apes in which all transition 
convolutions lie as much on the surface as in man, and which 
would, therefore, have to be considered as human, if these 
convolutions were really indicative of the human character. 
These apes are, according to Gratiolet's own observations, the 
Ateles which stand next to the howling monkeys. 

For the better understanding of the discussions on the dis- 
tinction between man and ape, I must allude to some points 
regarding the minute structure of the brain which have re- 
cently gained a special importance. 

As already mentioned at the beginning of this lecture, the 
hemispheres are developed from the brain-trunk by arches 
which, at first, proceed along the parietes of the skull and 
deposit substance internally, until both parts, the brain-trunk 
and the brain- vault, are so connected that only a system of 
cavities remains, which cavities have received the name of 
ventricles. 



UBCTUBI lY. 



115 



In hydrooephaloiis children^ the fluid is duefly accixmtilated 
in these cayities^ which thus become enormonsly expanded; in 
the normal state^ these cavities are merely fissures whose lips 
nearly touch. On removing the hemispheres by horizontal sec- 
tions^ or on making a perpendicular section parallel with the 
central line^ we soon reach the largest system of cerebral cavi- 
tieSj the so-called lateral ventricles^ which are separated in the 
centre by a thin double septum^ but are very symmetrically 
formed. In each of these singularly curved cavities there are 
distinguished three so-called horns; an anterior or frontal 
hom^ which extends into the frontal lobe and overlies, the tw- 
pu8 stfriatvm; a lateral hom^ which curves downwards into the 
temporal lobe, and exhibits in its interior a club-shaped emi- 




ea 



I^. 86. Humaa brain Tiewed from abore. The zight heniiBpliere re- 
moved down to the lateral ventrioles. The description (n the left nde is the 
same as in the preoeding figores. On the right side, e t indicates eor|m« 
tWioAfutm^ IbnniQg the flow in the anterior oorner of the ventricle. ea» Comii 
ommmU, carving into the lateral comer of the ventride. hm, Hi^pooamp^ 
flNMior, forming the floor of the posterior comn. 

l2 



116 



UBOTUBX lY. 



nenoej the so-called eorwu Ammonia ; and finally^ a posterior 
horn, wUchj slightlj cur^ed^ enters the posterior lobe^ and 
contains a small eminence^ which has received several dozens 
of names^ those most in nse being the UtUe Ammon's horn, the 
Hippoeampiis minor, and the OaUa/r a/vis {ergot de Moramd 
among the French.) 

On removing the hemispheres from above^ the anterior and 
posterior horns and the hippocampus minor^ and their junction 
with the descending comu, as well as the choroid plexus^ are 
plainly discerned. In vertical lateral sections, the connexion 
of the horns and the extension of the middle comu can be 
easily followed. 

I was compelled to enter into these details, because one of 
the greatest anatomists of modem times, Richard Owen, has 
maintained that the sole characteristics of the human brain are 
to be found in the existence of a posterior lobe, of a posterior 
comu, and a hippocampus minor, and in spite of accumulated 

Hg. 87. Drawing of the brain of a Chimpansee, after Majuhall ; desorip- 
tion and preparation precisely the same as in the ivreceding figure. 




ea. 



LICTUBB lY. 117 

proofs to the ocmtrBsj, obstiiiately denied the existence of these 
parts in the brain of the ape. 

The new school of English naturalists, which seemingly does 
not entertain as much respect as Owen for the Established 
Church and its doctrines, has opposed him ; and for some years 
past there has been at the annual meetings of the British 
Association a reg^nlar duel between Huxley and Owen, about 
which the Times and other joumals furnish as conscientious 
reports ais the sporting papers do about the pug^istic encoun- 
ters in honour of Old England. No great results have been 
obtained from these duels. But in order to show which party 
is supported by facts, I have introduced a photogpraph of the 
brain of a dumpamcee, after Marshall, reduced to the same 
size as the preceding figure, and marked with the same letters. 
Compare them, and you will be surprised. 



118 



LECTURE V. 

Ta T^jninm-finifi of oth«r puts of the body.— The FelTiB : the Extremities. — 
The Skin; its oolontioii, itraatnxe, penpiration, and hair.— The soft 
parte.— The Face.— Eyee, noe^ month, lipe, oheeke, ean, and chin. — 
Internal organs. 

OiKTLnciN^ — ^Whenerer we find a decided and persistent 
yariety in any essential part of an animal organism, we may 
be sore we shall trace its influence in the other organs. 
Though characters of species frequently present themselves 
preferentially in some particular organ ; still, as a certain har- 
mony pervades the whole structure, there will be corresponding 
peculiarities in other organs. 

We are frequently able to trace the connexion of such 
changes within the animal body ; but in most cases we must 
be content simply to acknowledge the fact of such changes 
in the organism, without being able to trace the causes which 
produced them. Thus, we may readily understand that there 
must be some connexion between a certain form of the cranium 
and that of a pelvis, since the head of the child must, at birth, 
pass through the pelvis; whilst, on the other hand, we cer- 
tainly cannot understand why, in such or such a race, the 
foot should be flatter, the arm longer, and nose broader. Fre- 
quently, such distinguishing marks seem to be formed accord- 
ing to a leading idea, a general plan. Very often, however, 
all attempts to refer these phenomena to design, or to any 
other determining causes, are unsuccessful. At all events, 
variations are found in the body generally as soon as they have 
been proved to exist in any particular organ, and, to a certain 
extent, they afford a criterion of the importance of the varia- 
tion to which the individual organ has been subjected. When, 
therefore, we have to determine what characters are of primary 
importance in the study of man, as an object of natural history. 



LtiCTUBB y. 119 

we mast bear in mind that^ next to the aknU and brain^ the 
skeleton of the tronk and limbs demands oar attention^ as the 
relative proportion of the several regions of the body entirely 
depends upon the skeleton. 

Thns^ when we learn that certain tribes of South America, 
6. g. the Qnichnas inhabiting the plateaux of the Andes, are 
distinguished by an extraordinary "development of the thorax, 
giving to these people a peculiar aspect, there is good reason 
for especially remarking the structure of the vertebral column, 
the ribs, and the sternum, as it may be assumed that charac- 
teristic differences in this respect may occur in various races. 
This very instance, however, shows how careful we must be in 
at once assigning plausible causes for such peculiarities. '^ The 
Quichuas,'' it was said, '''live upon the plateaux of the Cordil- 
leras, in a comparatively rarefied atmosphere. They are like 
all mountaineers, agile, ascend mountains without much SE^tigue, 
and experience no difficulty in breathing, such as is felt in as- 
cending Mont Blanc. It is not surprising that their chests have 
gradually expanded and acquired a larger volume, since they 
have to inspire a larger volume of rarefied air than the inhabit- 
ants of the plains, in order to obtain an equal amount of 
oxygen.'' The conclusion is, in point of fact, unobjectionable ; 
but unfortunately, nature breaks the whole chain of reasoning 
by placing in tiie Siberian plains, along the shores of the 
Arctic Sea, populations whose chests are not less developed 
than thos6 of the Quichuas. And thus it is with many other 
peculiarities attributed to climate, mode of life, and otiier in- 
fluences; for we find, on closer examination, that peoples 
living *under entirely different external influences present the 
very same peculiarities. 

As already stated,, the pelvis is the part which most cor- 
responds to the skull, and by means of which we may most 
reasonably hope to arrive at some conclusion as regards ethnic 
peculiarities. It is composed of several bones grown together 
into one piece in the adult, but separated by sutures up to the 
seventh year. These bones have received the names of the 
iliac, ischiac, and pubes ; they form a kind of ring, closed 
in firont by fibrous cartilage, and behind, by the broad and 



120 



UBOTUBS v. 



oonnected vertebrsB called the os sacnim. The pelvis re- 
presents a {imnel-shaped body^ curving forwards, upon which, 
when the body is in an upright position, the intestines paridaUy 
rest, and to which the thigh bones, which support the whole 
body, are articulated. 

In the pelvis, as in the skull, the sexual difierences are very 
evident, but they are Haore distinct in the former, as this part 
of the skeleton is so immediately connected with parturition. 

Fig. 87. Kormal PelTiB of a Male Enropeaa, front Tiew. 

I 






a. Saoroin. 6. Iliam. 



e. Acetabuliun. 
ischii. 



d, SymphyBiB pubis, e. Taber 



The female pelvis is always lighter and thinner than that of 
the male, and the diaphanous spots in the ilium especially are 
larger and apparently thinner. In the female, the transverse 
dimension predominates ; in the male, the longitudinal. The 
iliac bones are more expanded in the female than in the male. 
The superior pelvic aperture is nearly heart-shaped in the male ; 
in the female, it is transversely oviform. The lower aperture 
is, in every respect, relatively and absolutely larger in the 
female than in the male. The ischia, as well as the aoetabula 
for the femur, are more widely separated ; hence, the female 
thigh has a greater inward inclination than that of the male. 



LBCTUBX V. 121 

There is no doubt that^ even in European nations^ there 
exist pelyic yariations^ which are certainly connected with the- 
formation of the cranium. Just as we find in cranial measure- 
ments that extreme forms occur which are normal in distinct 
races^ as for instance^ among Germans we find long heads at- 
taining ahnost the dimension of the negro-head ; so we find 
pelyic forms among Europeans approaching those ^of other 
races. There can^ however^ Jbe no doubt that an exact method^ 
as recommended for the measurement of crania^ will show the 
existence of a normal, form characteristic of each race^ both 
for the male and the female^ around which all deviations^ to 
their furthest limits^ may be grouped. Professor Weber, of 
BonUj has distinguished four chief forms of the pelvis : the 
ovalj the rounds the sqaare^ and the cuneiform ; and^ according 
to him^ the oval prevails among Europeans^ the round among 
native Americans^ the square among the Mongols^ and the 
cuneiform among the black races. The diBtinatdon of these 
formSj and their applicability to races^ may be open to objec- 
tion^ on the ground that sometimes only two or three specimens 
were examined. On studying the animal serieSj there can be 
no doubt that the shape of apertures^ in which the accoucheur 
is especially interested^ and which Professor Weber has taken 
as the basis of his classificatisn^ should not be taken as the sole 
standard of pelvic formation, but that the entire structure 
should be taken into account, aiind especially such parts as 
relate to the position of the young. 

It is the iliac bones, and their expansion in length and breadth, 
which deserve especial attention in this connexion, and we 
should accordingly have to distinguish two forms of the pelvis, 
— ^the flat, key-shaped, and the long, cuneiform shape. On 
considering the pelvic sexual difference from this standpoint, 
it is easily seen that the normal male pelvis approaches the 
animal type, whilst the female pelvis most represents the hu- 
man type. I shall, in the sequel, have an opportoniiy of 
showing that this resemblance to the brute is, like other cha- 
racters, most marked in the cuneiform, lengthened pelvis of 
the negro and negress. 

The form and tibe proportion of the extremUiea are not less 



122 LBCTUBB y. 

important. The characteristio pecnliariiy of the genus homo 
consistQ^ as we shall show in another lecture^ not merely in the 
existence of hands^ but rather that he has orUy two hands^ and 
only two feet which cany the whole body. In consequence of 
this^ the proportion of the extremities to each other is quite 
different from that of the most anthropoid apes. The arms^ 
not destined for support^ but merely for workj become shorter 
and thinner in proportion to the legs^ the bones and the 
muscles of which become highly developed. In common life^ 
we are accustomed to look only at the shape of hands and feet^ 
a well-formed hand and foot being considered the greatest or- 
naments of a fine figure. But the length of the arms and 
legs^ the proportion of the upper to the forearm^ and of the 
thigh to the leg^ are of importance in distinguishing the human 
type from the nearest anijiropoid ape^ as well as in the charac- 
terisation of races and their special peculiarities. 

We shall have another opportunity of explaining in what 
manner this resemblance to the ape^ as regards hands and feet^ 
is shown^ which must be sought not merely in the length of 
the thin fingers^ the flatness of ^e foot^ the mobility of the 
long toes^ and the position of the great toe^ but also in the 
inclination of the extremities^ and in their position on the 
ground. When the ape walks upright^ which happens but 
rarely^ he walks in a manner Afferent from that of man^ 
namely^ upon the external edge of the sole^ not upon the 
whole surface^ an inclination which is observed in the child^ 
and is more evident the younger the embiyo is. There 
is thus in the child a certain resemblance to the brute ; and 
every tendency to such a formation^ every approach to a 
similariiy between hands and feet^ which might be found in 
human races^ deserves particular attention. For we must not 
forget that^ during the first period of the human embryo^ as 
in all embryos^ the extremities perfectly resemble each other^ 
being of the shape of spatulated plates^ which receive their 
development at a later period. 

The colour of the skin and the hair has always been con- 
sidered as an important distinctive mark of the races of man- 
kind^ because it at once strikes the eye. It is undeniable^ that 



• LECTUBB V. 128 

the various gradations throngli all tmti3^ from yellow^ copper- 
colonr^ andbrown^ to jet blacky are scattered over the globe^ 
and that irrespective of climatic conditions. Generally speakings 
brown and black peoples are met with in hot countries^ fair 
atid yellow races in the temperate zones ; but there is no 
general rale^ and the many exceptions prove that climatic con- 
ditions and the snn exercise bnt a secondary influence. 

As regards the ssin^ its stmctore is not essentially different 
from that of mammals^ and in the various races of mankind it 
only differs in the grouping of some structural elements^ but 
not by the development of special tissue elements. It has 
been declared^ absurdly enough^ that the layers of the skin in 
the respective races should eiliibit different tissue elements^ if 
there really existed different species of mankind, in forgetfnl- 
ness of the fact, that it would be exceedingly difScult to detect 
such fundamental differences in many different genera and 
orders of mammals. Let anyone try to establish the differ- 




ing. 88. Sectional Tiew of the akm of a white man. a. Saperfloial homy 
lajer. b. Eete mnooenm. e. Flipi]]» of the ooriam ; the middle with a tac- 
tile oonmsole, the rest with Tifloolar meshes, d. Vessels, e. /. Efferent 
dnoto (» the sadoiriferons glands. g,K Fat. i. Neires. 



124 .LBCTURB V. « 

ence in tlie tissue elements of the skin of the dog and the ape, 
and if this be found impossible^ will anyone maintain that 
these creatures belong to the same species f We even go far- 
ther^ and maintain that the skin of two known species of 
animals^ whioh belong to the same genns and family^ wonld^ 
in the special arrangement of the tissue elements^ not exhibit 
snch great differences as are found in the white man and the 
negro. 

The human skin consists of two layers^ — ^the dermis and the 
epidermis; the latter is again composed of two layers^ — ^the 
mucous layer (rete mucosum)^ and the homy or scarf-skin. 
The cells in the mucous layer are round and nucleated^ which^ 
by development from beneath^ become flattened^' forming a 
layer lying close upon the papillary layer of the dermis. The 
homy^ or scarf-skin^ is the product of the cells of the mucous 
layer^ which^ by eyaporation of their fluid contents and by 
attrition^ become flattened, and finally form a membranous 
scale. 

The COLOUR of the^skin is mainly due to the deeper cblls of 
^e rete mucosum, the nuclei of which are brown at first, 
owing to the deposition of pigment corpuscles. These cor- 
puscles increase, so that in some spots the whole cells seem to 
be filled with a black pigment. In the white races, there are 
only certain parts, the mammary gland and the scrotum, which 
present such a dark tint, which evidently is not caused by 
sunlight. We find a similar coloration in freckles, and in some 
morbid states the whole body may become nearly black. Some 
years ago, there was observed in Switzerland, during a very 
severe winter, a peculiar form of disease in vagrants and 
trampers, characterised by a negro-like colouration of the skin, 
not in such exposed parts as the face and the hands, but upon 
the abdomen and the chest. 

As regards the stbuctube of the skin in the various races, I 
may quote the words of that competent observer, KoQiker, 
" In the negro, and other coloured races, only the epidermis is 
coloured, the true skin being the same as in the European ; 
the pigment is, however, much darker and more abundant. 
In the negro, in whom the epidermis, as regards the arrange- 



LSCTUSS v. 125 

ment and size of the oells, is the same as in the Enropean^ 
the deepest colnnmar cells of the mucous layers lEkre the 
darkest^ forming a contrast with the lighter dermis. Then 
come cells which are lighter^ though still brown^ and which 
especially accumulate between the papiUso^ but are also found 
in the top and sides of them; finally^ in approaching the 
scarf-skin they become yellow and pale. All these cells^ ex- 
cepting the membranous^ are coloured throughout^ and espe- 
cially tibe parts around the granules^ which^ in the lower cellular 
laminsB^ are by far the blackest parts of the cells. In the 
negrOj the scarf-skin has also a yellowish or brownish tint. I 
find in the yellow skin of a Malay head^ in the Anatomical 
Collection of Wiirzburg, the same as in the dark-coloured 
scrotum of a European. Accordingly^ the epidermis of the 
coloured races is not essentially different from that of the 
coloured spots in the whites^ and even almost entirely agrees 
with the skin in particular spots (aureola). 

Fig. 89. Section of the Skin from the femur of a Negro» much wiogn^fioiij 

after K&lliker. 




a. Flqniln of the oorinm. b. Lowest blaok-oolonred ceUs of the rete mn- 
ooeom. c. lighter-oolonred ceUs of the rete mnooenm. d. Epidermis. 

Cutaneous perspiration^ like colour^ has a peculiar character^ 
which^ in certain races^ cannot be got rid of^ even by the 



126 LIGTITRI y. 

greatest deanlineBs. These ethsio odours mnst not be con- 
foimded with snch as are evidently the result of alimentation^ 
and which vary in the same races. An Italian or Proyeni^, 
eating garlicj onions, and celery will, no doubt, emit an odour 
different from the Norw^ian or Icelander who lives on fish, 
blubber, and rancid butter ; still, the odour may be removed by 
a different mode of Ufe. It is not so with the specific odour of 
the negro, which persists, wash or feed the negro as you like. 
It resembles entirely the odour of the musk-animal, and de- 
pends upon the peculiar secretion of the sudorific glands, 
which, however, in their structure, are similarly arrang^ as 
in other races, though they are larger and more numerous. 

The comparative anatomy of races has, certainly, hitherto 
not thrown much light upon skin peculiarities, such as the 
peculiar velvety texture of the skin of the negro. This may^ 
perhaps, result from the larger number of sudorific and seba- 
ceous glands, and partly fi^om the greater development and 
length of the papillsB. 

Abnormal shades of colour, such as are seen in albinos, afford 
very little explanation. In exceptional cases, the pigment 
peculiar to the race is absent in some individuals belonging to 
it. Such conditions may, no doubt, be transmitted, though it 
fr^uently occurs that the young relapse into the colour of the 
original stock. Though, by inbreeding of such white indivi- 
duals as mice and rabbits, and by careful exclusion of indivi- 
duals relapsing to the primitive colour, a permanent variety 
may be formed in which the pigment is absent, we must not 
forget that Albmos occur in every race; and Negro-Albinos 
do, not in the least resemble the Caucasian, but only the Cau- 
casian-Albino, and him only, as regards colour, and in nothing 
else. A morbid condition, long known to Europeans before it 
was observed in other races, cannot possibly establish a transi- 
tion fi^m one race into another. 

The HAiB frdly deserves all the attention it has received, 
some authors, indeed, having made it the basis of a classifica- 
tion of mankind. Thus I. Geofioy St. Hilaire assumes two 
principal groups of mankind. The straight-haired (Leiotridu), 
including the white, yellow, brown^ and red races ; and woolly- 



LICTUBE Y. 127 

haired (Ulotribhi), indadiiig Negroes, Negrilloa, or tihe black 
races of the Soiiih Sea, the Hottentots, and the Bnshmen. 
The distinction is, perhaps, not sufficiently marked, and inter- 
mediate forms may be found, such, for instance, as that shown 
by some South Sea peoples, and called by the French tetea en 
vatrauHle (mop-headed). 

Be this as it may, this much is certain, that essential cha- 
racters may be found in the hair. Even the distribution 
of this ornament differs remarkably. Whilst in the Negro 
and the Mongol we find scarcely a trace of hair, excepting on 
the head, the armpits, and the genitals, while even the down 
regularly found in the European is wanting, we find a small, 
nearly extinct tribe of the Kuril islands, — ^the Ainos, — ^whose 
body is so completely coTcred with shaggy hair, that it gave 
rise to the Japanese tradition, that the Aino mothers suckled 
young bears, which gradually became men. The distribution 
of the hair may thus, perhaps, also form a subordinate cha- 
racter of the human type. Oeoffiroy St. Hilaire has justly 
called attention to the fact, that there is no animal in whidi 
the distribution of the hair is so unequal as in man, in whom 
the greater part of the body is naked, or only covered with 
down; whilst the hair on the head, especially in females, 
reaches a much greater length than in any other animal. An- 
other circumstance has been obseryed, that man is more hairy 
in front than on the back ; whilst in all mammals, in harmony 
with their posture, the back is more hairy than the belly. The 
distribution of the hair, as well as its length, should, therefore, 
be borne in mind. 

It appears, also, that there are diflbrences, not merely in the 
distribution, but also in the structure of the hair.^' The hair 
of the straight-haired human races is cylindrical; the section 
under the microscope appears perfectly circular, and provided 
with a medullary cuial. Not so the hair of the Negro, which 
is flattened, so that its section exhibits an elongpited ellipsis, in 
the axis of which no medullary canal is seen. It is this lateral 

* See M. Fmner-B^e meet importsat memoir, "De la Gkereliue oomme 
cencUristiqiie dee Beoee Huniinee/* reoentiy paUielied in the Mhmoirm de 
la SocUU ^AnikrapologU dc Porif.ToL ii, p. 1, tnuaeL hiAmihinp. Um^ No. ir. 



128 LiecTUBi v. 

oompression which effects the peculiar frizzling of the hair^ 
owing to its not taking place exactly in the direction of the 
longitudinal axis of the hair^ but ascending in spirals, so that 
the hair resembles a spiral spring, which always returns to its 
shape when drawn out. 

The arrangement of the soft pabts is not less necessary for 
the characterisation of the various human races. The distri- 
bution of the muscular apparatus upon the trunk and the limbs 
becomes yeiy important in relation to the corresponding ar- 
rangement in the ape. The pendulous abdomen of some of 
the lower races, among whom a mature man resembles, in this 
respect, a Caucasian woman who has had a large family, shows 
an approximation to the ape, as do also the want of calyes, 
the flatness of the thighs, the pointed form of the buttocks, 
and the leanness of the upper arm, observed in other races. 
The observer must, no doubt, be careful not to assume, as 
original race differences, changes produced by famine, etc. 
The Australians, Bushmen, and some less known American 
tribes, have a severe struggle for existence. Their increase is 
impossible on account of privations, and if subject to further 
injurious influences, the tribe becomes extinct. In such cases 
we find some characters, such as deficiency of muscle, to be 
the consequence of the condition under which the tribe 
has lived for mauy years, and we must be careful how we infer 
an original character from them. But when, as in many 
Negro peoples, we find that food is possessed in abundance, 
the muscular apparatus may very properly be included in the 
series of distinctive characters. 

The rsATUBss depend less on external influences. Even the 
general form of the face, and the proportions of its component 
parts, are frequently characteristic to an extraordinary degree. 
There are faces of a perfect oval form, the chin representing 
the pointed, and the forehead the obtuse, end of an egg 
There are some which present the form of an elongate ellipsis ; 
while others present the aspect of a pentagon, or of a {pyramid, 
or a square with round comers, the angles being formed by 
the cheekbones. We then come to the proportions of the 
several parts of the face. In the well-formed European, the 



LICTUBX T. 129 

three Begments^ the firontal, the nasal^ and the lower part of 
the face^ are nearly all of eqnal breadth^ the forehead predo- 
minating in the European. In other races the proportions 
vaiy ; aometimes it is the nasal segment^ sometimes the lower 
facial segment whibh, receding or advancing^ stamps a peculiar 
character upon the face. 

Just as the foim of the orbits in the sknll, so in the iacCj the 
form, the size^ and the position of the eye, and its appendages, 
must be taken into consideration. As is well known, some 
peoples, as the Chinese and Japanese, are distinguished by 
the peculiarity of the aperture of the eye, the outer angle 
of which has an oblique, upward direction. This character 
is, by the artists of these peoples, exaggerated for the 
purpose, as it seems, of exhibiting its beauty, as contrasted 
with the red-haired barbarians. We should also pay attention 
to the development of the third eyelid, which, in the white 
races, is only indicated by the small fold in the internal angle 
of the eye. This third eyelid is generaUy considerably larger 
in mammals, though noTer dereloped into a perfect nictitating 
membrane, as in birds. There is no doubt that in some tribes^ 
especially among Negroes and Australiancf, the nictitating 
membrane is not smaller than in apes, so that these peoples 
exhibit an approadi to the animal type. In unmixed tribes, 
the size of the cornea in proportion to the apple of the eye, 
as well as the colour of the iris, are as characteristic as in the 
various species of animals ; whilst intermixture produces essen- 
tial differences in this respect, as well as regards the colour of 
the hair. 

The size and shape of the hosx eqiially presents, in unmixed 
nations, characteristic peculiarities. In some cases, the nose 
is prominent, straight, or curved; in some, thick, bulbous; 
in others, broad, flat, like that of the ape. The position of 
the nostrils varies accordingly. On viewing a Caucasian fiice 
from below, the nostrils form two nearly rectangular tri- 
angles, the hypotenuses of which are turned outwards ; whilst 
the septum of the nose fonns a perpendicular line common to 
the two triangles. On taking a similar view of the Negro 
face, the nostrils present only a transverse aperture, or the 

K 



130 LiCTUBi y. 

figure of a horizontal eight united in the middle by the 
nasal septom. Now^ it is jnst these original ethnic forms of 
the nose which seem in a high degree permanent, and likely to 
recur in intermixtures. Thus, in all American mong^ls, the 
sharp-backed, thin, projecting eagle nose of the redskins is 
one of those characters which persist longest, and indicate the 
source of the intermixture. 

The form and siase of the mouth, the shape of the lips, and 
the CHSSKS, are features not less characteristio. There are 
peoples with such wide mouths that the cheeks seem to split 
up to the ears ; there are others with lips so puffed up that the 
red parts nearly reach the nose, aud seem to coyer the chin. 
It may be objected that such forms are sometimes developed 
among onrselyes; but here again I must observe, that such 
deviations do certainly occur among mixed populations, whilst 
in pure races the form of the soft parts is nearly the same in 
all individuals; hence, they resemble each other more than 
individuals of mixed and civilised races. 

The projection or recession of the chik, as well as the form 
of this projection, is not less worthy of our attention, being 
one of the essential characters of human nature. The broad 
square chin of many nomades in the interior of Asia is in 
striking contrast to the pointed chin of the Semitics, and the 
apish chin of the Negro, which has hardly any projection 
at all. 

FinaQy, we must not neglect the xaks. The remarkably 
small, thick, projecting aud gpristiy ear of the Negro presents 
a striking contrast to the large, broad, but thin ear of the 
Tatars and Calmucks, which presents some resemblance to the 
large ear of the Chimpanzee. 

Not much can be said with regard to the intibnai/ obgans, 
the peculiarities of which are less known than those of the 
external form. Still, there are some indications, chiefly refer- 
ring to the Negro, which we shaD consider in the sequel, show- 
ing that here, also, differences exist as great as those observed 
in different species of mammals belonging to the same genus. 

I cannot quit this subject without drawing your attention to 
the great difficulties attending the description of the external 



UBCTUBS T. ISl 

peculiarities of living men. Dressj liabits^ and manners^ are 
apt to produce ideas which do not correspond to the reality^ or 
are evidently exaggerated. It has been said that we cannot 
imagine a Tork without a shaven head, or a Chinese without 
his pigtail and wide breeches. This circumstance shows the 
necessiiy of studying the comparative natural history of man- 
kind in the originals^ and not from hearsay. 

I must also impress upon you, that the more mixed the races are 
which oocupy our attention, the more numerous must be our ob- 
servations, and the more searching our inquiry into particulars. 
A hundredfold greater exertions, more numerous measurements, 
drawings and photographs are required, to extract from the gresi 
hotch-potch of European intermixtures the original types, than 
are necessary to point out the peculiarities in pure types. 
Whilst it is the individual character which strikes us at once 
in the European, the sight of a Bashkir impresses us with the 
general race type ; and whilst among the latter the unpractised 
eye cannot easily distinguish one individual from another, we 
are in the European frequently doubtful as to the stock to 
which he belongs. I recollect how my grandmother amused 
us children by her stories of the war of liberation, and her 
description of the fiuses of oui^liberators, which came from the 
eastern steppes, under the Russian banner, which, by the way, 
they left us as the banner of Oeiman politics, whilst they 
carried back the spoils of the citizens into their steppes. She 
told us how they rushed into the kitchen, how they opened 
their wide mouths garnished with tremendous teeth, and 
winked with their obliquely set eyes. Each appeared a wolf, 
and only a wolf, — ^no individuality was distinguishable; they 
seemed to be all formed after the same model, — ^Bashkirs and 
Galmucks, — ancient, very ancient, nobiliiy of pure and un* 
mixed stock from the Asiatic cradle of mankind I 



k2 



132 



LECTURE VI. 

Compaiison of the Stanctore of Man with that of the Ape. — ^Differenoee. — 
Befenceleaeneae. — ^Erect pontion. — Equilibrium of the SkvSL — Free mo- 
biHty of the Anterior ExtremitieB. — ^Formation of the PelyiB. — ^^opor- 
tions of sereral parts of the body. — Proportion of the Craniam to the 
Faoe.— Development of the Jaws.— Proportion of the Cranial Angles.^ 
Cabio capacity of the Bknlla of Men, Idiots, and Apes. — Heir Bischoff 
and the Idiots.— Noee, intermaxillary Bone, and Teeth. — Signification 
of the Diastemata. — Stmctore of the Pelvis. — Proportions of the Limbs. 
—Hands and Feet.— Diiferenoes in the Form of the Brain.— Dispute 
between Owen and Huxley.— Sesearches of Qratlolet snd Wsgner.— 
Belations of the Transition Convolutions and the Operculum. — Develop- 
ment of the Brain. — ^Fonn of the Brain in Microoephali. 

GiKTLiiCEN, — ^In the preceding lectures^ I Have directed 
your attention to the method of investigation, and to certain 
points which mnst be particularly attended to in researches 
regarding the races of mankind. With few exceptions, I have 
confined my remarks to man, and have only glanced at the 
relation of the superior animals stan.din g next to man, in order 
that we might more easily succeed in solving the problems 
presented to us. 

But however desirable it might be, in some respects, to con- 
fine our attention to man ; it is, on the other hand, impossible 
to neglect the relations in which man stands to the brute crea« 
tion. This is the more necessary, as it is our object to show 
that such relations do exist, and that they are sufficiently 
strong to connect man indissolubly with the animal world, of 
which he is only the last and highest development, and not 
the separate product of a special creative act. By examining, 
therefore, the relation of man to the ape, by pointing out the 
similitudes which establish the closest analogy to this highest 
type of mammals, by showing the differences which, on scien- 



LBCTUBS Tl. 138 

tifio prinoiples, indnoe as to aeparate tihe hmnan type from the 
ape type, not merely as a genus^ bat as a Family and Order, 
or, at least, sub-Order, we may adyanoe a step towards the 
knowledge of onr own natnre, and acquire a basis for farther 
researches. We shall preferentially keep to those differences 
which, rightly or wrongly, have been set up, leaving the fea- 
tures of resemblance, which certainly predominate, in abeyance 
for the present. We shall give weight to the anatomical 
characters above everything else. At philosophical and re- 
ligious arguments, by which even naturalists sometimes en- 
deavour to support their systems, we shall only cast occasional 
glances. It will not concern us much that Schopenhauer 
places the difference between man and ape in the Will, whilst 
Bischoff, of Muhidi, places it in self-consciousness. 

Let us first examine the human structure in general. Every 
animal, we are told, has some weapon of defence or offence ; 
man alone has none. ''The intelligent observer,'' so it is 
asserted, '' cannot fiEul to perceive that it is in reference to this 
point that the Creator has implanted in the human organism 
the germ of, and necessity for, the development of the faculties 
with which it is endowed." 

It is true, man has no horns ; his canine teeth are neither 
large nor formidable, neither are his nails daws. But, on 
the other hand, is the axiom g^erally true, that aQ animals 
are armed ? In what respect are the weapons of the chim- 
panzee superior to those of man? Its canine teeth are 
scarcely longer, and certainly not intended for attack ; its nails 
are just as flat ; its forehead just as devoid of horns. When 
attacked, the animal acts like an unarmed man; it scratches, 
bites, strikes, throws stones or branches of trees, and finally 
runs away if it caxmot save itself in any other way. Hundreds 
of other species of apes are in the same condition as the chim- 
panzee. Has this defencelessness of the chimpanzee caused 
him to become one of the lords of the creation f Axe the 
&culties of the hornless sheep or the doe more developed be- 
cause of their defenceless state? or shall we say that the sheep 
has a weaiK>n, because it butts with its hard skull ? and if this 
were so, does not the Negro use his skull, of ivory-like hard- 



134 LECTUSl VI. 

ness^ in the same manner f Does he not knock down his 
adversely by striking him in the breast with his head ? and do 
not two Negroes^ when fightings butt one another like con- 
tending rams ? We cannot, therefore, accept the exceptional 
state of man in this respect, nor the inference drawn from it, 
though it has been assumed by ancient authors. The older 
the opinion, the older is the error. 

There is, however, an exceptional condition, an essential at- 
tribute of human nature, and one which distinguishes the 
bimana from all other mammals, namely, the upright pasture. 
The main characters of the human structure are in harmony 
with this position ; they partly stand to each other in the rela- 
tion of cause and effect. It is true that an upright posture 
cannot be said to be entirely confined to man to the exclusion 
of the rest of the animal kingdom ; for among birds there are 
some, as the penguin and the auk, which stand and walk as 
uprightly as man. Here, however, there are other structural 
relations which occasion this posture. Man is absolutely dis- 
tinguished from the animals most closely related to him struc- 
turally, the apes, by the erect posture, which is only assumed 
by the latter transiently, or in consequence of training. 

The proportionally large skull, with its contents, rests in 
equiUbrio on the points of support afforded by the vertebral 
column. The arrangement exhibited by the articulating sur- 
faces of the so-called atlas, and of the second cervical vertebra, 
the axis, almost seems to have been the model for such mecha- 
nical contrivances as are used to secure the horizontal position 
of the mariner's compass or of ship lamps. Two articular 
surfaces on the upper side of a ring, t. e., the first cervical 
vertebra, the atlas, as anatomists call it, — ^transverse articular 
surfaces on the under side of the same ring,— « projection 
serving as an axis on which the ring turns — ^the head is 
balanced on this mechanism, and has its motions free in all 
directions. The muscles, tendons, and ligaments are so at- 
tached, that the slightest effort is sufficient for the re-establish- 
ment of the disturbed equilibrium. When we find in the 
animal world a heavy head on the top of the spinal column, we 
also find a development of the spinous processes of the cervical 



UKITUBI 71. 185 

▼ertebm, to which is attached the Ugamentum mie&a inaerted 
in the ocdpat. A weU-proportioned akiill will be in eguiUbrio 
when supported on the two articular soifaces at the base near 
the occipital foramen; if the jaws project forwards^ as in the 
prognathoos negroes^ the occiput becomes elongated in order 
to establish the equilibrium. Not so in the mammalia. In 
the natural position of most of these^ the axis of the vertebral 
column runs parallel with the horizontal plane of the pelvis ; 
whilst in man it forms with it nearly a right angle. The axis 
of the head^ again, forms in mammals a right or an obtuse 
angle with the axis of the vertebral colunm; its direction is 
perpendicular^ and the long jaws form the arm of a lever which 
draws the head still more downwards and forwards. The elastic 
ligamentum nuchas is then developed as a counterpoise ; and 
even in the most anthropoid apes, the orang and chimpanzee, but 
especially in the formidable gorilla, we find the cervical spines 
prominent, and provided with powerful muscles and ligaments. 
With all this, the position of the occipital foramen itself is 
closely connected, as we shall see in the comparative structure 
of the skull. 

The relations of the thorax and pelvis may also be explained 
by the erect posture. The transverse diameter of the human 
chest is greater than the antero*posterior, the reverse of the 
proportion in mammals. The chest of man is flattened in front 
and behind, and arched on the sides ; that of the mammal is 
laterally compressed, with a cuneiform inclination towards the 
sternum and the backbone. The arms and hands of man hang 
down by the sides freely, and are thus unconfined in their 
movements, and adapted to the manifold purposes which their 
not being used to aid the support of the body, enables them 
to subserve. For in all mammals, in which the hand is not 
transformed into an instrument for flying or into a fin, the an- 
terior limb always serves as a support in locomotion. This is 
the case even in the most anthropoid apes. 

In the ape the anterior hand as well as the posterior is used 
for climbing; and when the animal moves on the ground, it 
supports itself on the dosed fist, when, from the length of the 
arms, it assumes a more or less half erect position. But every- 



186 LICTUBX YI. 

where in the animal worlds as Milne-Edwards has most conyino- 
inglj shewn, the division of labour is an index of perfection. 
An animal which has four limbs apparently destined for the 
same end, as is the case with the horse and the sheep, is in 
this respect inferior to the animal in which the anterior limb 
is at the same time a prehensile orgui, as in the sqnirrel and 
the beaver. The ape, whose four limbs are provided with 
hands, stands in this respect a step below man, in whom the 
legs are exclusively adapted for locomotion, and the hands 
exdnsively prehensile organs. The more special the function 
of an organ, the more perfect it is : the greater the number of 
purposes an organ has to subserve in the animal economy, the 
more imperfectly will they be performed. Hence, though the 
hand is in every respect a more perfect organ than the merely 
locomotive foot, the multipUcation of hands must still be con- 
sidered a mark of defective organisation, since eadi of these 
hands is at the same time a locomotive and prehensile organ, 
whilst the restriction of both these functions to two different 
sets of organs is a step towards perfection. 

The breadth of the hips, and the pelvis, which forms their 
osseous support, is still more connected with erect stature than 
the width of the thorax. The bowels suspended in the thoracic 
and abdominal cavities press downwards. The pressure of the 
thoracic contents is partially neutralised by the diaphragpn 
which separates the cavity of the chest from that of the abdo- 
men ; but the whole weight of the intestines, including liver 
and spleen, rests upon the pelvis. This latter expands like a 
dish ; the iliac bones become broad and flat, excavated above 
and arched downwards and outwards ; so that the name '' pel- 
vis,'' or basin, is perhaps one of the best chosen in anatomy. 
In animals, on the other hand, the pelvis bears but little of the 
weight of the bowels ; and just that part which does bear it, 
namely the symphysis pubis, is in man least concerned in this 
respect. The weight rests, in the animal, upon the central 
line of the chest and the belly, the pelvis chiefly serving as the 
fulcrum of the hind legs. Hence the pelvis presents no ex- 
tended surfaces, but becomes long and narrow; the parietal 
parts resemble the shoulder-blades, which serve as supports to 



LBCTUBS YI. 



137 



the fore lege. The greater the mass which the pelvis has to 
snpport, ilie broader and more dish-shaped does it become. 

Fig. 40. Pelyis of a Male Chimpanzee, rednoed to the name length as the 
human pelyia, fig. 37. The deecriptdon is the aame. 




Thus we see in the female^ besides its relation to partnritionj 
that the pelvis is also large^ because periodically it has to bear^ 
in addition^ the contents of the gravid uterus. To the width 
of the pelvis must be added the powerful muscles of the 
haunches and the buttocks^ which proceed from the pelvis to the 
thighs. No animal presents sudi a rotundity and fulness of 
the buttocks ; no ape such a cylindrical^ gradually diminishing 
thigh ; and we are justified in saying that man only possesses 
thighs. The muscles of the leg are in man so accumulated as 
to form a calf^ whilst they are in the ape more equally distri- 
buted; still transitions are not wanting^ since one of the 
greatest characteristics of the Negro consists in his calfless 
leg. 

The proportions of individual parts of the body^ and specially 
of the Umbs^ are not less worthy of notice. The arm of man is 
proportionally shorter, the leg longer and stronger, than in the 
ape. If a man is placed in the posture of a quadruped, he 
must stretch out his arms ; but he must bend his lejgs if he is 



138 LICTUBl VI. 

to bring his yertebral oolamn into a horizontal poaition pandlel 
with the groond. In the ape both limbs are either of equal 
lengthy or the leg is shorter than the arm, which in some species 
reaches an extraordinary leng^. Thus the orang shews his 
affinity to the gibbon {HylobiUea), a native of the same oonntiy, 
by the length of the arms, which reach down to the ankle ; 
whilst in the chimpanzee they reach only the middle of the leg, 
in the gorilla the knee, and in man only the middle of the thigh. 
On the other hand, the articular surfaces of the arm, specially 
at the wrist, are so arranged that a much greater mobiUty for- 
wards and backwards is effected. Nevertheless, the long arms 
as well as th)9 legs of the ape, though they are deficient in mus- 
cular rotundity, possess much greater strength than those of 
man : thus it is a gymnastic feat for a man to hang for a con- 
siderable time, or to draw himself up by the arm ; but with the 
ape this is an ordinary and by no means fatiguing posture. 
In the quadruped every limb shares almost in the same degree 
the burden of the body. Only leaping animals, such as hares 
and kangaroos, resemble man in some degree in the length and 
strength of the legs, even much excelling him, as the short- 
ened fore legs are out of proportion to the colossal hind legs. 
Here, however, a number of organic conditipns cooperate to 
prevent any closer comparison. The great development of the 
tail in leaping animals, as a sort of balancing pole ; the deve- 
lopment of the foot; the simple, long, metatarsal bones and 
toes,^'6xhibit a fundamentally different type which cannot be 
compared with that'of man. Thus man possesses, as contrasted 
with the ape, a distinctive character in the strength, rotundity, 
and length, of the leg ; especially of the thighs, which in most 
ftTiiTTiftlfl are considerably shortened in proportion to the leg. 

On proceeding to a doser examination of the separate parts, 
the head with its component parts, cranium, and face, first fixes 
our attention. I have already, in a preceding lecturiB, pointed 
out that in man super-position predominates ; while in the ape 
a juxta-position, or rather a position of one part in front of ihe 
otiber, prevails; that the (anatomical) face included between 
the eyebrows and the chin is only a small appendage of the 
human cranium, which expands in every direction, above the 



LSCTUBI YI. 139 

Fig. 41. Side Tiew of the SkuU of 411 aadent Helvetiiui. 




eyebrows as foreliead^ on the sides as temples^ above the occi- 
pital foramen as neck^ in order to obtain space for the dispro- 
portionately large brain ; whilst in the ape the cerebral space 
is more receding^ the forehead is flattened^ and the occipital 
foramen placed further back; so that in the lowest apes it reaches 
the limit of the basCj, and in the other animals is placed at the 
posterior surface of the skull. 

Fig. 42. Side view of the SknU of an aged Chimpuisee. 




140 LBCniBI YI. 

Camper's facial angle varies in man firom 70 degrees to 
85 degrees; and there is probably no instance of a norknal 
human sknU known where it is as low as 64 degrees. In the 
Negro skull here depicted the angle amonnts to 67 degrees ; 
and^ according to Geoffroy St. Hilaire^ the skulls of the Makoias 
or Namakas^ a South African tribe^ sent to the Paris Museum 
by Delalande^ have a facial angle of only 64 degrees ; whilst it 
decreases in the adult chimpanzee to 35 degrees^ in the orang 
to 80 degrees; though when these animals are youngs and the 
jaws undeveloped^ it frequently reaches 60 degrees. On the 
other hand a small American ape^ the saimiri {callUkrix sdwrea), 
as regards organisation^ is far more remote from man^ but very 
human-like in behaviour in some respects (it weeps readily, 
for instance) ; has a facial angle of 65 to 66 degrees ; so that it 
completely fills up the gap. Equally decided are the differences 

Fig. iS. Slran of aa aged Chimpanzee, top view. 



observed in the development of the jaws. The temporal 
muscles which raise the jaws must be stronger in the apes, 
inasmuch as they have to move a longer lever, independently 
of the greater development of the jaws in width. Hence the 



LICTiraUB VI. 141 

temporal fbssad are so deep in the ape-skull that it seems as if 
the skull had been grasped from above^ behind the eyebrows^ 
and forcibly compressed : hence the zygomatic arches are more 
distant, and the temporal ridges, to which are attached the 
fibres of the masseter moscleSj rise more towards the vertex 
and farther behind the aperture of the ear. In some anthro- 
poid apes, as in the gorilla and orang, there is observed, in 
advanced age, simultaneously with the increased size of the 
jaws, a prominent ridge, a sort of crest, on the cranium, pre- 
senting a larger surface for the attachment of the masseter 
muscles ; so that in these apes the whole akuU is covered with 
musdes, while in man it is in most parts only covered by the 
scalp. 

Fig. 44. Base of the SkoU of an andent HelyetiaiL 




, Closely connected with the development of the jaws, is the 
position of the zygomatic arches and of the occipital foramen ; 
and this is at once observed in the examination of the base of 
the skull. In human skulls the zygomatic arch always lies in 
the anterior half of the longitudinal diameter. The extemi^ 



142 LBCTURB VI. 

aperture of the ear^ where it terminates, is situated, even in the 
Negro, in the middle of the longitadinal diameter, and eyen 

I1g.46. Base of a KafBr SknU. 




more forward in the higher races ; but in the anthropoid apes 
the aperture is situated farther back, and the distance to the 
dnd of the jaw is greater than to the hindmost occipital promi- 
nence ; while the zygomatic arch reaches the posterior half of 
the longitudinal diameter, and frequently extends to the last 
third of the length of the skull. The large occipital foramen is 
also thrown back. In the ape it is situated in the posterior 
third of the skull; in man it lies usually in the centre, or even 
a little forward, — a di£ferenoe to which Daubenton long since 
drew attention, and which has been fully confirmed by subse- 
quent researches. 
We must here direct your attention to the relations of the 



LXCTUBI YI. 



143 



angles wludi can be measured on the skull when bisected lon- 
gitudinallj, and wbick^ as already explained in a previons lee- 
Fig. 46. Base of a Skoll of an old Chimpanzee. 




tore^ are of great importance for estimating tbe proportions of 
the cranium to the face and jaws. The sella, or sphenoid angle, 
is, as shown by Welcker, always smaller ; and consequently the 
base of the cranium more bent, in man than in the ape, though 
transitions do exist. 

The nasal angle increases with the sphenoid angle, as may 
be seen in the following table taken from Welcker : 



CTanimn. 
Mean of 80 male Germans ... 
Idiot aged 44 (Halle Ck>Ueotion) 
Three Negroes 
Idiot aged 81 (GOttingen) ... 

Chimpanzee 

Three oilier Kegroea 

Young Qrang 

Swine Ape (Innna nemeetrinna) 

Old Qrang 

Boll Ape (debug apeOa) 



Ml Angle. 


8pb«noldAogl« 


66-2 


134 


67-9 


188 


67-6 


188 


80 


146 


— 


140 


74-9 


150 


98 


166 


102 


... 170 


104 


... 174 


108 


180 



144 



LBCTUBX TI. 



With tlie extension of the cranial basis^ which also obtains 
in the goriDa, — ^in which^ according to Owen^ the sella tardea 
is less depressed than in the chimpanzee^ — ^is nndonbtedly con- 
nected the intenial capacity of the skull. The occipital fora- 
men^ as well as the minor apertures through which the cranial 
nenres pass^ are all larger in proportion to the cranial space 
than in man ; a natural consequence of the greater size of the 
spinal cord and the nerves in proportion to the cerebral hemi- 
spheres. 

The internal cranial capacity and certain of the chief measure- 
ments are, according to Owen, as follow : 



EngUih- 



Length of SknU 

Lengtli of oerebnl 

space 

Height of oerebxal 

space 

Contents of cerebral 

space in cabic 

indhes 



In. Ihiw 
7.4. 

6. 6. 

5. 6. 

96 



lUky. 



Negrofls 



86 



82 



Austia- 
Uftnt. 



In. 
8. 0. 

6. 8. 

5. 

76 



Unwin. 



OoriUa. 



Onog. 



IlnM 
11. 10, 

6. 1. 

8. 8. 

80 



rn.ltaMa 
9.0. 

4. 8. 

8. 6. 

28 



Ohlm- 
paniM. 



Despite the equality in height which may exist between the 
gorilla and the Australian, the cranial capacity is one and a 
half times larger in the latter than in the former ; a proportion 
80 much the more favourable for the Austral Negro, as in the 
gorilla the legs are proportionally shorter, and consequently 
ike trunk larger and more powerful. The limits may, however, 
be brought closer together ; for the smallest human skuU, not 
idiotic, measured by Morton, had a capacity of 63 cubic inches, 
whilst the largest gorilla cranium recently measured possesses 
only a capacity of 34^ cubic inches. 

These measurements afford, moreover, an important insight 
into the relative proportions of the skeletons of the head and 
face. If we assume the entire length of the skuU = 100, and 
then express the proportion in which the length of the cerebral 
space, that is to say, of the brain itself, stands to the length of 
the skull, we obtain the following numbers : Europeans =89*1; 
Austral Negroes = 78'7; orang = 47*7; gorilla =45*9; whence 



LSCTUBB YI. 



145 



we obtain for the proportion of the facial skeleton the following 
numbers : Enropeans = 10*9 ; Anstral Negroes = 21*8 ; orang 
= 52*8; gorilla = 64*1. 

I^. 47. Skull of an Idiot, after Owen, side view. 




Fig. 48. SlcDll of an Idiot, alter Owen, baae yiew. 




Thus from every point of view there always presents itself a 
great interval between man and ape in the conformation of the 
sknll^ occasioned by the relative proportion of the <sranial and 

L 



146 LICTUBB YI. 

fadal parts. As we haye seen, the length of the cerebral space 
extends in no anthropoid ape to one half of the whole length 
of the head ; whilst in man, even in the lowest races^.the length 
of the facial part constitutes only an unimportant fraction, 
which in the Australian does not amount to a quarter of the whole 
length. There are, no doubt, Negro heads in which the quarter 
is reached, and even slightly exceeded, inasmuch as the genuine 
Negro has a proportionately much longer and narrower skull 
than the Austral Negro ; but the gap can only be filled up by 
those unfortunate creatures bom as idiots, and known by the 
name of microcephaK, — ^their defective formation of brain and 
cranium not being produced, as in cretins, by disease after 
birth, but by an original arrest of cerebral development. In 
such creatures, sometimes the o£Espring of normal parents, and 
of which the so-called Aztec children are instances, we find all 
the intermediate proportions between the cerebral and the 
facial skull that can be imagined. 

In mentioning idiots, I come into collision with a mighty 
authority, not unlike the fragile day pot with the iron kettle. 
Addressing his Munich audience, Prof. Bischoff says : '' Com- 
parisons have been made with diseased and degenerate men as 
they appear in the shape of microcephali, idiots, and cretins. 
The error thus committed is palpable, since these unfortunates 
are not men at cdl, but monstrosities ; the saddest thing about 
them being that they possess human shape without being men.'' 
We should like to ask where man ends and monstrosity begins? 
Is a man with a cleft iris no man, but only a monstrosity f Is 
that citizen of Hamburg who, some years since, travelled about 
to exhibit his cleft sternum, through which the heart could be 
felt, a man, or only a monstrosity f Is the unfortunate being 
who is bom without arms, and has to paint with his feet ; who 
converses with you in your own language, and is a cheerful, 
intelligent, and witty companion (we have known such cases, — 
and the instance of Ducomet, who, though deficient in hands, be- 
came a pajnter, is well known), is he no man because he has only 
stumps ? And if all these individuals are men, which no person 
can doubt, why should individuals with malformed brains (as much 
an organ of the body as the eye, sternum, or limb) not be men f 



LBGTUBX yi. 147 

No doabt we ought not to compare abnormal with normal 
conditions^ still we may often avail ourselves of them for expla- 
nation and elucidation ; and it is only in this sense that I men- 
tion them here> as beings to a certain extent^ a key to the 
process through which the human skuU rises from the ape to 
the human type. 

Let us return to our subject. On examining the &cial por- 
tion of skulls we find a great difference between man and ape 
in the conformation of the nasal bones and the mode of their 
connexion. In the ape the nasal bones are broad, depressed, 
mostiy grown together in the middle ; the nasal apertures con- 
sequentiy oblique, or in form of a horizontal 8, and, viewed 
from below, parallel with the apertures of the eyes. But in the 
gorilla the middle of the nasal suture rises in the form of a 
Uttie crest ; and in the Negro the nose is so depressed that the 
difference between the two formations is scarcely perceptible. 
It is remarkable that there is also an analogy between the 
Austral Negro and the gorilla as regards the internal nasal 
cavities, — the frontal' sinuses which are met with in all other 
races, causing the projection of the region between the eye- 
brows. These cavities, which are so enormously developed in 
the elephant, are absent both in the Australian and the 
gorilla, though they exist in the other anthropoid apes. 

The incisors are inserted, in all mammals which have them, 
in a special bone, the intermaxillary, which is generally recog- 
nisable throughout, hfe, and remains separated by sutures fix)m 
thosb parts of the maxillary bones which contain the canine 
teeth and the molars. The elements firom which the inter- 
maxillary is developed exist also in man, and are plainly per- 
ceptible in the fo6tu8. But it soon becomes confluent with the 
other bones, so that even in the new-bom in&nt the sutures are 
generally obliterated,and the union with the upper jaw complete. 

At the beginning of this century, when the history of deve- 
lopment had as yet made littie progress, the absence of the 
intermaxillary was considered as a specific human character; 
and Gk)ethe, assisted by that excellent anatomist, Loder of Jena, 
took great trouble to point out the error. At present it is only 
the early union which can be cited; but even this has its 

l2 



148 



LECTUBS YI. 



degrees. We sometimes find in young Negro skulls^ as well 
as in skoUs of idiots (see figure 48^ p. 145)^ traces of the max- 
illary suture ; and, moreover, the sutures in apes are obliterated 
at various ages. Thus the sutures remain open in the gorilla 
to an advanced age, and are only closed in the oldest skulls, 
whilst in the chimpanzee the union takes place immediately 
after the change of teeth. I have now before me skulls of the 
same age, of Hie genus cebus, in which the teeth had just been 
shed. In one genus {cehus aj)eUa) the intermaxillary is plainly 
separated; in the other {cebus aJbiJrons) the union with the 
maxillary is so perfect that there is no trace of any suture. 

Fig. 40. Base of the Skull of COnu ApeUa, with the Maxillary Sntnie. 




LACTUBB yi. 



149 



The formation of iihe rows of teeth^ and of the teeth them- 
selves^ is closely connected with the projection of the mnzzle 
(prognathism)^ which in the ape reaches a far higher degree 
than in the lowest hnman races ; the palate becomes long and 
narrow ; the rows of teeth^ on the whole^ parabolic injstead of 
elliptic ; the teeth themselyes are distinguished by their size, 
hardness, and whiteness. The formation of their crowns, of 
the cosps of the molars, and of the chisel-like edge of the 
incisors, is so. extremely similar, that it is possible to be in 
doubt abont a single tooth, as to whether it is hnman or 
simian ; but the doubt is no longer possible when the whole 
row of teeth can be inspected. It is specially the canine teeth 
which in apes destroy the harmony of the dental structure. 



fig. 50. 



Base of the Skull of Cdm$ aI5^V<m«.— The Maxillazy Sntnie is 
obliterated. 




150 



LBCTUSX VI. 



The pointed crowns are frequentlj grooyed^ so that in some 
baboons they resemble shorfc^ curved daggers. Thdjr rise above 
the level of the other teeth^ so that it would be impossible for 
the mouth to be perfectly closed were there not gaps for the 
reception of the projections of the canine teeth : indeed, in the 
npper jaw of all ape-sknlls there is a gap^ or diastema, between 
the canine tooth and the incisors ; in the lower jaw there is a 
diastema between the canine and the first molar tooth; and 
even where the canine tooth is least developed, as in the chun- 
panzee, this gap is plainly seen; but is very large in the 
gorilla and in the baboon. At the same time the prominence 
of the mnzzle towards the nose indicates the comparatively 

Fig. 61. Base of a Kaffir Skull, with a Simian Diastema. 




large and strong root of the canine tooth. But as there is 
great variation in the general structore of the ape, so shall we 



LBCTTTBS YI. 151 

find many transitionB to the Human atracture. The canine 
tooth generally rises a little above the level of the others ; but 
frequently it is considerably higher^ and in dosing the month 
is received into an imperfect gap formed by the snmmits of the 
opposite teeth. We moreover observe^ thongh rarely^ snch 
graps in human skulls^ otherwise perfectly normal^ as in the 
Kaffir skull from the Erlangen Collection^ figured in Wagner's 
Athu of OomparcMve Anaiomy^ and which we here reproduce. 
(See fig. 51.) A series of skulls exhibiting similar abnormities^ 
with such occurring in other parts^ might afford some indica- 
tions as to the original stock; just as Darwin has directed 
attention to the dark transversal rings sometimes observed on 
the feet of horses^ which apparently indicate descent from a 
stock common to the zebra^ qtiagga^ and other striped wild 
species of horses; so ought the occurrence of dental gaps 
among Kaffirs and other inferior races indicate their earHer 
conmion origin. We must^ however^ not infer that an unbroken 
row of teeth is a distinctive human character. Thus in the 
anoplotherium^ a pachydermatous fossil animal^ found near 
Montmartre^ there may be seen a perfectly unbroken row of 
teeth formed of indsors^ canines^ and molars. This^ at any 
rate^ proves that an even set of 'teeth does not form a clistinc- 
tive human character. 

The lower jaw is in the anthropoid apes massive^ and the 
horizontal arm much longer, broader^ and stronger^ than in 
man ; but the projection which forms the chin is absent. The 
chin may therefore be considered as a human character^ 
though it recedes gradually in the lower prognathous races 
approadiing the ape type. 

The double curvature whidi is so striking in the vertebral 
column of man^ is entirely lost in the ape^ where the spinous 
processes of the cervical vertebras are longer^ stronger^ and 
appear simple at the points^ whilst in man they are divided 
by a shallow groove. 

The PiLvis presents great variations. However narrow and 
elongated the human pelvis may be^ it never^ in this respect^ 
resembles that of the ape^ in whidi the iliac bones rise verti- 
cally and incline to the sacrum^ whilst in man they spread out 



152 



UBcrrusB vi. 
lHg.62. Side view of Male PelTiB. 

s 




ilg. 58. Pelvis of a Male GUmpaiizee, side view. 




The deacnption ig, in figs. 62 and 68, the fl|une. a. ninm. 5. Third 
lumbar vertebra, c. Fourth lumbar vertebra, d. Acetabulum, e. Os pubis 
f. Femur, y. Tuber isohii. k, Ck>0Qyx. 



LXCTUBB YI. 153 

in the form of a diBli. Whilst the form of the saperior portion 
of the pelvis^ as already observed at the beginning of this 
lectnrej seems to be regulated by the burden of the bowels^ the 
lower portion is closely connected with partoiition and the 
form of the head which is to pass through its aperture. Now 
the long, narrow^ and thin head of the young ape can easily 
pass through a narrow pelvis^ whilst the more rounded human 
head requires a wider diameter in every direction. 

On examining now the Lihbs we find both in their proper* 
tions and their relations to each other a marked difference. 
Whilst the leg of man^ as the sole organ of support^ is heavier 
and more massive in its component bones^ the leg of the ape 
resembles the anterior limb. In man the thigh bone (femur) 
is the longest and heaviest of the whole skeleton ; in the chim- 
panzee the humerus equals it in lengthy in the gorilla it slightly 
exceeds it^ and in the orang it does so greatly. The chimpan- 
zee in a forced^ erect position, which he, like the other apes, 
never assumes, can reach the knee with the end of the middle 
finger ; and the orang can reach its ankles without bending. 
The difference becomes still greater when we study the propor- 
tion of the parts. Assuming the length of the humerus to be 
= 100, the length of the radius in the white man is = 75*5, in 
the chimpanzee = 90*8 ; the length of the hand in the white 
man = 52*9 ; in the chimpanzee, 73*4 ; and in the other apes, 
specially in the orang, these proportions are still more striking. 
The humerus is therefore proportionately shorter in the ape 
than in man, but the forearm and the hand are longer. Accord- 
ing to Professor Aeby's measurenkents, which have not yet 
been published in detail, the gorilla alone among the apes 
entirely agrees with man as regards the dimensions of the upper 
extremities. The other anthropoid apes, however, differ greatly 
firom man in this respect. Now compare the hand of the chim- 
panzee (fig. 54) with its long, narrow fingers, thin, insignifi- 
cant thumb, long, narrow, flat palm, in which the ball of the 
thumb scarcely projects, with your own broad hand, its power- 
ful thumb and well developed ball^ the projecting cushions on 
the lower surface of the fingers' ends ; and you will at once, 
even without examining the skeleton, perceive the great differ- 



J 54 



LICTUBX VI. 



ence in tHe development of the liands in the two genera. Bnt 
noWj instead of the hand of the chimpanzee^ take that of the 
gorilla. Its breadth and the thickness of the thnmb so much 
approach that of man^ that^ as Htcdey justly observes^ there is 
more dissimilarity between the hand of the orange which has 
one bone more in the carpus^ and that of the gorilla^ than 
between the hand of the gorilla and that of man. It is not 
neoessaiy to shew farther how the gorilla, with regard to his 
limbs, presents a perfect transition firom the ape to man. K 
an isolated arm of the gorilla were fonnd in a fossil state, it 
would unhesitatingly be ascribed to a species of man ; jnst as 
the cranium of a microcephalns would be regarded as a new 
species of ape. The difference is still more marked in the leg, 
not so much as regards the relative length of the several parts 
as in the internal structure. Assuming, again, the length of the 

Fig. 54. Hand of the Chimpanzee : the palm. 




LICTUBB YI. 



155 



femur = 100^ the Etiropean presents the following proportions : 
tibia = 82'5; foot =52-9; whilst in the chimpanzee the pro- 
portion for the tibia is = 80 ; but for the foot, 72*8. Here 
the extremity of the limb acquires the greatest length. . 

This organ, compared with the hmnan foot, is a real hand. 
Tme, the fingers are somewhat shorter, the thumbs larger and 
thicker than in the anterior hand ; but still it is a hand, with 
a flat lower surface, well-separated, moveable, drawn-out fingers, 
with opposable thumbs, and a long furrowed palm. On com- 
paring a sketch of this hand with that of a human foot, we 
first perceive^that Burmeister was right in designating (Oeoh' 
gische BUder) the foot the specific character of humanity. The 
strength and length of the great toe, which generally exceeds 
in man those of the other toes ; the smallness and imperfection 
of the other toes, which can generally be moved only together, 

ilg. 55. Foot of Chimpaxizee : the sole. 




156 UBCTXTBK VI. 

not separately; the projecting anterior coshionB, formed by 
tlie bones of the metatarsus ; the vaulted jnnctore of the meta- 

Fig. 56. Skeleton of l^e Hoinaxi Foot, top view. 




tarsus with the tarsus^ which equalises the weight of the body 
upon the whole aroh^ favouring the raising of the foot and the 
elastidiy of the sole j the narrow but high heel^ which projects 
but little backwards ; — all these peculiarities in the structure 
of the human foot constitute it an important organ as regards 
the characters differentiating man and ape. But here^ too, we 
must not forget that connecting links exist. The foot of the 
gorilla is more anthropoid than that of any other ape, and the 
foot of the Negro more ape-like than that of the white man. 
The bones of the tarsus in the gorilla ezactiy resemble those 
in the Negro ; the ape has the same broad, flat, low heel ; the 
large toe is thicker and longer than in the other apes, but the 
toes, on the whole, are longer, more moveable, and the thumb 
more opposable. " The posterior limbs of the gorilla,'' says 
Huxley, '' terminate in a real foot, with a moveable great toe. 
It is a prehensile foot, if you like, but no hand, — a foot which 
differs from that of man, not in any fundamental character. 



LECTUEB VI. 



157 



but in mere proportions in the degree of mobilily^ and in ibe 
secondary arrangement of its parts/' 

Fig. 67. Foot of Gorilla, after Huxley. 




Stilly we most bear in mind that the ideas ''hand'' and 
"foot" may be very differently conceived, and that they run 
into each other. Whilst most anatomists consider the essen- 
tial part of the idea '' hand" to be the opposability of the 
thumb, I. G^offiroy St. EUlaire justly observes, that many 
species of apes of the Old and New World, as the colobvs and 
aieles, have no thumb at all, or only a rudimentary one in the 
anterior limbs, and that the opposable thumb is in apes always 
more developed in the hind limb than in the anterior one, 
whilst the reverse is the case in man. Whilst, therefore, 
Huxley restricts the notion hand so much, that he terms the 
posterior extremity of the gorilla a prehensile foot, G-eoffiroy 
St. Hilaire calls, on the contrary, every extremity a hand, 
though it be thumbless, provided it has long and flexible 
fingers, capable of prehension. According to this definition, 
most birds, especially parrots, also possess hands. 

We now proceed to some internal organs, and especially to 



158 LICT17BX YT. 

the brain. Within the last few years^ as I have previbnaly 
stated^ there have been^ as regards the central organ of the 
nervons cfystem^ two contending parties in the field. The 
question was : — ^Does the brain of the ape^ in its fundamental 
plan and its parts, differ from the human brain f This ques- 
tion has greatly agitated the scientific world ; and though it 
now seems decided by the clearest evidence, we still find, as 
frequently occurs in the history of science, the standard-bearer 
of one side yainly defending his position. This reminds us of 
the anecdote of Th&iard, who, in a lecture on chlorine, had 
among his auditors Berzelius, the only chemist who insisted 
upon the compound nature of chlorine. '^ On one side,'' ob- 
served Th^nard, ''we see the whole army; on the other side, 
a single man, whom, however, this once only, the army refuse 
to follow, but who outweighs them all, whoever they may be.'' 
So, too, we may say here : all against one, — ^but the one is 
Richard Owen. 

Man has neither absolutely nor relatively the largest and 
heaviest brain among the mammals. The large aquatic mam- 
mals, as the whale, finner, sword-fish, large dolphins, and the 
elephant among land animals, have brains of more than two to 
three pounds in weight. The small American monkeys, the 
sajou, sai, and saimiri, have, in proportion to the body, a rela- 
tively larger brain, which, in man, is 1 : 36, and in the former 
as 1 : 18, 1 : 24 : 25. Although the emaciation of monkeys 
which die in menageries is very g^at; still, this much has 
been proved by the weighing of their brains> that man pos- 
sesses no advantage as regards the cerebral mass. 

On the other hand, his brain is much larger in relation to 
the spinal cord and the cerebral nerves ; and the cerebrum is 
also larger in relation to the cerebellum. Even in this respect 
the lower races approach the animal structure, and the Negro 
is as much distinguished firom the white man, by the compara- 
tive thickness of the spinal cord and the nerve trunks, as the 
ape is from the Negro. 

I shall do myself the pleasure of making you acquainted 
with the present state of the dispute among naturalists con- 
cerning the cerebral structure of man and ape. I confess, the 



LICTUBB VI. 159 

pleasure is rather a malicions one. We see how they play hide 
and seek in three or four comers ; how^ when obliged to leave 
one comer for another^ the player finds another player who 
cries out to him^ " You can't stay here ; find another comer.'' 
*^ The hmnan character/' exclaims one philosopher, '^ lies not 
in the developed form of the adult, bnt in the mode of devel- 
opment" ; immediately there comes another, who says, " Non- 
sense 1 the character lies in certain parts which are peculiar to 
man." " False 1" replies a third, ''the ape, also, has these 
parts ; it is the general type which constitntes the difference." 
''Wrong again!" says a fourth, "that is exactly the same 
in both, — but the brain does not constitute the difference ; 'tis 
the mind 1" " Mind, spirit ?" asks a fifbh, " there is no quali- 
tative difference, only a quantitative one; but the stracture, — 
the parts, — ^there it is !" 

" In man," says Owen, " the brain presents an ascensive step 
in development, higher and more strongly marked than that by 
which the preceding sub-class was distinguished from the one 
below it. Not only do the cerebral hemispheres overlap the 
olfactory lobes and cerebellum, but they extend in advance of 
the one, and further bac^ than the other. Their posterior de- 
velopment is so marked, that anatomists have assigned to that 
part the character of a third lobe, — it is peculiar to the genus 
Homo; and equally peculiar is the posterior horn of the lateral 
ventricle, and the hippocampus minor, which characterise the 
hind lobe of each hemisphere. Peculiar mental powers are 
associated with this highest form of brain, and their conse- 
quences wonderfully illustrate the value of the cerebral cha- 
racter; according to my estimate of which I am led to regard 
the genus Homo as not merely the representative of a distinct 
Order, but of a distinct sub-Glass of the MammaUa, for which 
I propose the name of Aachxkciphala.." 

Huxley replies to this : — ^" I shall prove, 

" 1. That the third lobe is neither peculiar to, nor character- 
istic of man, seeing that exists in all the higher quadrumana. 

"2. That the posterior comu of the lateral ventricle is neither 
peculiar to, nor characteristic of man, inasmuch as it also 
exists in the higher quadrumana. 



160 LBCTUEB VI. 

'^ 3. That the hippocampus rndnor is neither peculiar to, nor 
characteristic of man, as it is fonnd in certain of the higher 
qnadnunana/' 

Fig. 58. Top view of brain of the Ghimpaiusee, after Marahall. 




ca^ 



On the right side, the ventricle with the posterior ocmm, are laid open. 
For deaoription, compare figbres 80 and 86. 

The English now begin energetically to study the anatomy 
of the simian brain ; Marshall dissects a chimpanzee ; Bol- 
leston, an orang ; Huxley, an ateles ; preparations, drawings, 
and photographs are made, and — Huzleys assertions remain 
unshaken. Owen appeals to older drawings of Tiedemann, 
Van der Kolk, and Yrolik, to support his negative opinion; 
whilst his opponents appeal to the same works to prove their 
positive opinion. But this is too much for the phlegmatic 
Dutchmen. "Mr. Owen," they write, "has been carried 
away by his desire to npset the theory of Darwin (of which 



LICTUBl VI. 161 

Messrs. Sohroeder Van der Kolk and Vrolik are not over fond), 
and we believe liim to be in error. In order to prove that 
the Negro brain rises at once without any transitionaiy stage 
above that of the anthropoid apes, Mr. Owen asserts that 
ihe posterior lobe of the hemispheres, the posterior comn of 
the lateral ventricle, and the pea hdppocampi minora which 
exist in the Negro brain, are absent in the former.'' The 
Datcb anatomists now maintain that they have fonnd and de- 
lineated all these parts, and that singularly enough, whilst 
praising the correctness of the sketches, he by a contradicUo 
in adjecto denies the existence of these parts ; they mention 
the researches of Huxley, Marshall, and Bolleston, and are 
glad to observe that they agree with their own. " We also 
are glad,'' they say, " that the zoological gardens, now-a-days, 
so easily furnish us with the necessary materials for com- 
parison. An error, which formerly would have been per- 
petuated, is now more easily, removed ; but we feel grieved 
when we compare the assertions of Mr. Owen with the results 
obtained by the above eminent naturalists, wbich confirm our 
own." 

And thus Owen's characteristic marks of the human brain 
are broken to pieces; and Wagner, of G^ttingen, observes 
very justly, ^'I could never understand how comparatively 
insignificant cerebral parfcs, which vary in individual human 
brains, e. g. longer or shorter posterior comua of the lateral 
ventricles, presence of the pes hippocampi minor, nay, some 
single or double medullary globules {eminenbuB canddcasdes), 
could be urged to be distinctive marks of the buman brain, as 
distinguished from that of the anthropoid apes." 

This being disposed of, the convolutions are taken to task. 
These, it is said, are in man rounder, more complicated, more 
numerous, and less symmetrical. All this is very true; but 
like the proportions which the nerve-trunks, the spinal cord, 
and the cerebellum, bear to the brain, they famish only rela- 
tive and quantitative, but not qualitative differences. 

With regard to the general arrangement of the convolu- 
tions, Oratiolet expresses himself as decidedly as concerning the 
general cerebral structure. " On comparing a series of Human 



162 LECTUBX VI. . 

and ape brains^'' says this author^ ''we easily detect the re- 
markable analogy of the cerebral form in all these creatures. 
The folded brain of man^ and the smooth brain of the Onistiti^ 
resemble each other by a fourfold character^ — a, rudimentary 
olfactory bulb^ a posterior lobe covering the cerebellum^ a well 
marked Sylvian fissure^ and a posterior comu of the lateral 
ventricle. 

"These characters co-exist only in man and the ape. In 
all other animals the cerebellum remains (partly) uncovered; 
in most^ even in the elephant^ there is an enormous olfactory 
bulb ; andj excepting the makis (lemur)^ no other animal pre- 
sents the Sylvian fissure. 

" Thus there is in man and ape a peculiar cerebral form ; and 
there is also in all these creatures a general type in the ar- 
rangement of the cerebral convolutions. This resemblance of 
man and ape in the arrangement of the convolutions is worthy 
the attention of the philosopher. There is equally a particular 
type of the cerebral convolutions in bears^ cats^ dogs^ makis, 
in short, in all natural families of animals. Each of these 
families has its normal type ; and in each of these groups the 
species may be connected solely according to the character of 
the cerebral convolutions.'' 

Wagner fully agrees with Gfratiolet. ''The fundamental 
development of the lobes in the large, lesser, and central 
brain ; the limitation of the lobes in the cerebrum to inter- 
mediate, frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes, are in 
the quadmmana, as well as in man, arranged according to the 
same plan ; and so are the chief fissures between them, — ^the 
Sylvian, Bolando's, the otdpUcd fisswre, the overlapping of the 
cerebellum by the welUd&oeloped posterior lobe of the cerebrum; 
all this gives more or less, to the lowest simian brain, a 
striking physiognomical resemblance to the buman brain.'' 

There is, then, nothing more to be said on this point ; the 
general plan is and remains the same, and I cannot prove it 
better than by placing some drawings of human and simian 
brains in juxtaposition. But there are certain people who 
never give in. Distinctive characters must exist; how can 
you otherwise explain man's exceptional position f or how 



LSCTUBB VI. 



163 



can you otherwise separate bim from the animal kingdom? 
If man^ both in his mental qualifications as well as in his cere- 
bral fnnctions^ possesses not merely a something more (what no 
one denies) j but something else not existing in other animals, 
which he nvust have if he is to be capable of religion^ of salvation, 
and of immortality; then there should be something in his 
brain, were it only an organ of faith ! 

ilg. 6e. Brain of Maoaoos silenns, upper sorfkioe, after Qratlolet. 

L 




Fig. GO. Side view of the same; the operoalmn is reflected to display the 
ealgaoent transitiioii oonyolutioiis. 




The de80tq>tioii in bpth figoroB is the same as in the Chimpaniee tvrain, 
fig. 58 (compare figures 80 and 86). JC, operocdiim ; s, transition oonTolntion 
corerea by the operciidom. 

X2 



164 LBOTURB YI. 

Prof. Wagner finds such an organ — ^with Gfratiolet. " The 
Bnperior apes approacH man gradnally as regards richness of oon- 
Tolution^ depiih of fissores, and the presence of the gyri breves 
in iihe central lobe of the island^ and greater asymmetry, etc. 
But they are far behind man as regards the preponderance of 
the large hemispheres^ especially as regards their proportions 
to the cerebellum ; and there are distincUve d^erences in the 
arrangement, size, amd UmitaHon of the posterior lobes, which 
are always more developed in the ape and cover a portion of 
the convolutions^ which Gratiolet terms pUs de passage (trans- 
ition lobes).'' In a note to this, Wagner observes, ''The 
posterior lobes of the apes do not admit of a strict reduction of 
their conuohitions to man. That I have done so by way of essay 
in my tables, and have paid no particular attention to Gratiolef s 
pUs de passage, was done in order to establish a more simple 
terminology, which may be nsefhl in cerebral dissections.'' 

I have distinguished some of the above words by italics to 
show how contradictory they are. First, it is said, the poste- 
rior lobes have a remarkable resemblance, then they exhibit a 
striking difference; and how? The only human character 
which Wagner is able to find, the cap-like covering of the 
transition convolutions, he estimates so little as to omit it 
altogether, simply for the sake of the terminology in dissections. 

Let us now return to Gfratiolet, firom whom the facts are bor- 
rowed. " The shape, says this author, of the brain is known. 
Its elevation, the breadth of the firontal lobe, the anterior 
portion of which, instead of becoming pointed, is formed by a 
surface which corresponds to the expansion of the fnmtal bone. 
The depression of the Sylvian fissure, the richness and com- 
plication of the secondary convolutions distinguish at first 
sight the human from the simian brain. 

" Yet in spite of these differences, however great and charac- 
teristic they may be, when we compare the proportions of the 
individwil parts, there still remain between the human and 
the simian brain such analogies that a general description is 
sufficient for both," 

Further on he says, "This is an essential character; in man 
all transition convohMons 'are superficial" This fact is signi- 



UBCTX7B1 YI. 16^ 

ficant in the lughest degree, wHen the question applies to the 
comparison of the oerebral conyolations in man and the ape. 
In fact: — 

1. In the chimpanzee the posterior lobe is large and the 
opercolmn well marked. The upper transition conyolntion is 
wanting, the second is covered. 

2. In the orang the posterior lobe is moderate and its oper- 
colmn imperfect. The superior transition conyolntion is large 
and superficial^ the second covered. 

8. In man the posterior lobe is much reduced^ the oper- 
culum is absent. The two superior transition convolutions 
are large^ undulating/ and both superficial. 

" Does not this reg^ular gpradation tell its own tale V^ 

•The question does not turn here on the two superior transi- 
tion convolutions, which are both in apes and men superficial 
and uncovered; but on the two superior^ and not even on 
both of them, but on the second, for the superior is in the 
orang as in man, uncovered, superficial, and free. Then there 
is the operculum, which, though imperfect, exists in the orang. 
I now write in my note book : Man is distinguished from the 
ape by the absence of an imperfect operculum and by the 
second transition coiivolution being uncovered. I may here 
apply Wagner's observation that we can hardly consider 
insignifiduit variations, as the second pUs de passage, which, 
in some cases, as Dareste (another convolution student) 
maintains, may in the same individual differ in both hemi- 
spheres, as characteristic marks of man. But I console mysdf 
by studying my Ghratiolet, and I read of the devil's ape (ateles 
Beelzebuth). ^'We easily recognise the posterior lobe, it is 
of moderate size ; anteriorly its limits are badly defined. The 
external vertical fissure is in fact obliterated by the develop- 
ment of the transition convolutions, which a/re very large and 
all wpefrfidal. 

" This cirowmstanee is most important, as, hitherto, we have 
only found it in man/' 

But is it not remarkable that Ghratiolet, in the second -part 
of his Essay, which treats of the American apes (the devil's 
and the capuchin ape belong to the new world), establishes 



166 LSCTUSE VI. 

by &cts the fiallacy of his assertions in the first part ? Is it not 
still more remarkable that Wagner, who studies this treatise, 
makes extracts and long comments on it, adheres to the first 
part without reading the second, despite that the underlined 
passages are abo rendered prominent in the original T And is 
it not most remarkable that M. Qratiolet, in the year 1860, 
that is to say ten years after he had submitted his memoir to 
the Academy, has so entirely forgotten his own results, that he 
straightway lays down the maxim, that the superficialiiy of the 
second transition convolution is ''an absolute peculiar cha- 
racter of man J" 

But Gratiolet teDs us further, ''In the adult state the ar- 
rangement of the cerebral convolutions is in the two groups 
(man and ape) the same, and in this respect there is no suffi- 
cient ground for separating man from the animal i But in 
the ape the convolutions of the spheno-temporal lobe appear 
(during the development of the embryo in utero) first, and 
those of the£x)ntal lobe last; whilst in man the frontal lobe 
convolutions appear first, and the spheno-temporal convolutions 
last. Here, therefore, the same series of developments are 
from alpha to omega, and there from omega to alpha. From 
these fiicfcs it necessarily results : that no arrest of develop- 
ment can render the human brain more resembling that of the 
ape than it already is. This result is perfectiy confiimed by 
the brains of the microcephalia' 

Let us examine these alleged facts. The first relates to the 
history of the development of man and ape. Is this difference 
so absolutely great ? It certainly only depends on the circum- 
stance that in man the frontal lobe is more developed, that the 
formative action is greater in that region. On this point 
Wagner jusify remarks, " However much we may adopt Ghna- 
tiolef 8 asserted development differences, there stiU obtains 
a decided similarity (analogy and homology) in the stages of 
cerebral development in man and the stages of development in 
the lowest monkeys up to the highest anthropoid apes. It is 
true that the frontal lobes in man have already in the first 
stages a certain peculiarity, specially in the early formation of 
the sulci. But there is a decided resemblance between the 



LICTUAI VI. 167 

nearly smooth iLemisplieres in the fifth month of the human 
fcDtos and the miconyoluted brains of the small clawed mon- 
keys. There is also a decided resemblance in the greater sym- 
metry and scantiness of the conyolntions of both hemispheres^ 
the poor^ compact^ less farrowed and nndiyided frontal convo- 
Intions in the hnman fcstos in the sixth and seventh month on 
the one side, and a number of superior apes up to the anthro- 
poid apes on the other/' 

I would finally ask whether this development law has been 
traced in all races T As far as I am aware^ no anatomist has 
examined Negro and Hottentot embryos of the fifth and 
seventh month. But we also know that skull and brain are 
so intimately connected^ that they condition each other; we 
know, and Oratiolet has pointed it out, that the Negro skull 
follows, as regards the closing of the sutures, a difTerent law 
from the skull of the white man ; that the frontal and coronal 
sutures, as in the ape, close earlier than the posterior suture, 
whilst the reverse is the case in the white man. Would it 
then be so very hazardous to assume that this same simian 
development of the skull in the Negro extends abo to the 
brain? 

The second point refers to the microcephali. These unfor- 
tunate creatures who, according to Bischoff, are not men, will 
just prove to us that the human brain preserves its type under 
all circumstances. 

The cerebral form of the microcephali consists essentially in 
an arrest of development, which, however, does not equally 
afiect the whole brain, but chiefly the frontal lobes. The 
brain of all microcephali hitherto examined has in the anterior 
parts the same type as that of the anthropoid apes, being 
arrested in that sta^ ''in which the embryonal human brain 
exhibits less developed convolutions and sulci, as is always 
observed in simian brains/' In the posterior part the micro- 
cephalous brain is even behind the simian type. The cere- 
bellum is not perfectly covered by the posterior lobe, whilst 
in all apes it is covered. This condition reminds us of the 
brain of the camivora, and the form of the foetus between the 
third and fourth month. 



168 



LSCTUBX VI. 



We are now told that the projection of the cerebellam is 
oaused by the defeddye derelopment of the posterior lobe, 
which is a decided character of man. " In the brain of our 
microcephalas/' says Wagner^ ''it may in onr cast be seen 
that the posterior and parietal lobes are reduced;^' and in 
another passage, " The examination of seven or eight micro- 
cephalons brains showed that the atrophy of the convolutions 

Fig. 61. The brain of an idiot, aged 26, deecribed by Theile. The length 
of the hemiBpherea is reduced to the same length as that of the ohimpaaaee, 
fig. 68. The Tentridle on the right side is laid open. The desoription is the 
same as in figoxee 60 and 80. 



cji 




Am^ 



and the masses chiefly affected the posterior lobes and the pos- 
terior portions of the parietal lobes.'' ''The microcephalic 
brain has just in its posterior part not the least resemblance 
to the Simian brain ; it is a thoroughly human type, but atro- 
phied.'' 

Now, gentlemen, I have .taken the trouble to subject these 
proportions to measurement, and as I had no materials at 



UBCTUU TX. 169 

commaiid I have measured M. Wagner^s delineationB. I have, 
in the engraved brains of a microoephalas and a diimpanfiee, 
measured two distances on the left side— the first from the 
apex of the brain to the vertical fissure which separates the 
posterior lobe^ the second from the above fissure to the end of 
the posterior lobe. I find for these measures, in the chim- 
panzee : length of the anterior lobe = 76 millimetres ; of the 
posterior lobe = 21 millimetres; — ^in the microcephalus : length 
of anterior lobe = 75 millimetres j of the posterior lobe = 20 
miUimetres. I further find from Wagnei^s measurements of 
the cerebral surface, that it is to the surface of the posterior 
lobe: mean in eight males = 100 : 16*2; that, on the con- 
traij, in the microcephalus, the proportion is = 100 : 68*5 ; 
that, therefore, the posterior lobe presents a surface four times 
greater in the microcephalus than in the adult man; that, 
therefore, the idiot has a posterior lobe at least as much deve- 
loped as the ape. 

BesuU. — ^The posterior lobe is in the microcephalus just as 
large as in theiape; the idiot has in proportion to the cere- 
brum exactly as large a posterior lobe as the chimpanzee. 
The idiot has not the deep transversal fissure, nor the opercu- 
lum of the chimpanzee, but no more has the devil's ape, and it 
cannot be said that the human embryo could lapse into the 
chimpanzee, whilst its posterior lobe resembles that of the 
devil's ape as closely as one egg resembles another. Here, 
therefore, the size and form of the posterior lobe is exactly as 
in the ape; the cerebrum, the anterior and posterior lobes, 
have the simian iype. 

The cerebellum is not quite in the same condition, as it pro- 
jects behind. But this only results fi^m its size, being less 
arrested it approaches the normal human cerebellum, having 
become too h^rjge in proportion to the arrested cerebrum. This 
also can be shown by the measurements by Wagner of the 
brains of four microcophali and an old orang. 

]|Mnort]M4MleraMpludL Oraiif. 

Lengtli of oerabnnn - 110-26 - - 101 

Braadth of oerebnmi - 79*26 lOS 

Breadth of oerebdliuii 78-76 86 



170 hSCTUR£ YI. 

In short, the microcephalic brain has, by arrest of develop- 
ment, which advances from behind in a forward direction, 
become strikingly analogous in the general arrangement of 
its parts to the simian brain, and none of the assertions whidi 
recog^se in it a particular type are consistent with truth. 

The difference between the brain of the microoephalus, who 
is only an abnormally formed man, and that of the lowest race 
we know, the brain of a bushman's wife, which according to 
Gratiolet would have produced idiocy in a white man, is thus 
greater than the difference between the brain of an idiot and 
that of an ape. The idiot who has remained stationery in a 
primary stage, stands nearer to the ape than to his progenitor. 
The distance which his brain has to pass to perfect human de- 
velopment is greater than the distance it has passed from the 
simian stage. Thus, everywhere we find only variation, inter- 
^Iediate stages which certainly do not all lead to the same 
point, but run to and fro in different directions. 



171 



LECTURE VIL 

GompwiMii of Negvo and GennaiL— Bodi^ proportunis of the Negxo.— 
SkoIL— PelTis.— Fkoportioiii of eztramiiiM : ami. hand, leg, foot.— 
Intenud Firto.— Bnin.— Faoe.— DeriatkniB from the normal tjpe.— 
Differenoea of Ookmr.— InaeiiBibflitj of the Negxo.— Babiaa, and their 
derdopmeiitw— Eamarkable diaage alKmt the period of paberfy.— Mental 
Inferiority of the Negxo.— Conatanej of differenoea.— Beaemblaaoe to 
the Brate.— Intennediate form between Man and Ape.— MiorooephalL- 
The Asteoa. 

GiVTLXicnr^ — ^By a soientifio inyestigation of the facts^ we 
have arriyed at Uie conyiction that essential differences hf- 
tween man and the highest anthropoid apes do exist— differ- 
ences sufficiently important to induce us to assign to man a 
distinct rank in the animal Idng^om^ but by no means so 
great as to obliterate the dose affinity subsisting between inan 
and the animals standing next to him. We have in these in- 
vestigations, to some extent, idealised both man and ape with- 
out noticing the differences obtaining within each of these 
groups, and have only endeayoured to establish for each the 
abstract coUectiye conception which these yarious forms com- 
pose. We haye preferentially paid attention to the heads of 
these groups. Among the apes we chiefiy noticed the anthro- 
poid group, and among the human group the white race. 
But here already we soon detected tiiat even among these 
groups there appeared forms which, on comparison, might be 
separated ; and that as among the superior apes, the orang, 
gorilla, and chimpanzee, represent three types, which in cer- 
tain parts of their organisation approached man's structure, 
and in others deviate firom it; so there appear within the 
human group different types, which in some points approach 
the simian, and in others the highest human type. We shall, in 
the inyestigation of these facts adopt the same method we 
have hitherto followed. We now no longer oppose the generic 



172 LSCTUU VII. 

conception "man" to that of "ape"; .but we compare two 
well defined hnman types in order to determine the characters 
which distinguish these typical organisms. We select for this 
purpose the two extreme human types, namely,, the Nbobo and 
the Gerkah, and comparing them side by side, as regards all 
their peculiarities, we may ascertain the degree of their differ- 
ential character. The result thus obtained we shall in our 
next lecture compare with what we may be able to deduce 
from the comparison of two acknowledged simian types. It 
will then be seen whether the sum of the differences existing 
between two human races is greater or less than that obtain- 
ing between two kinds of apes, the separation of which into 
two species is recognised by all naturalists. It will also be 
seen whether we mete by the same measure, by assuming in 
apes a difference, and in man the unity of species. 
« I know full well that this method will be objected to. You 
select, it will be said, the Negro and the German, who, by 
your own confession, stand at the extreme limits of the human 
group, and you will probably select two species of apes which 
are closely allied, belonging to the same genus and only sepa- 
rated by some slight yariations. We should not be surprised 
if you find greater differences between Negro and German 
than between the two apes. I reply to this : species is spe- 
cies, and there is but one zoological science, the principles of 
which must apply equally to man and ape, and what in one of 
these types is called species must not in the other be called 
race or variety. If, then, the differences between Negro and 
German should be greater than those between the capuchin 
ape, the eebus apeUa or the sajou, it would follow that either 
the two human types must, like those of apes, belong to two 
different species, or the two acknowledgred different species 
of apes must only form one species. 

Let us now proceed in our investigations. 

The NxoBO is on the average shorter than the German, the 
mean length of his body being 64-66 inches. Six Negro 
skeletons yielded as their mean length 160 centimetres ; whilst 
as many European skelefcons gave above 172 centimetres. 
There are no doubt athletic forms occurring among Negroes, 



LICTUBB Til. 178 

and some tribes among the blades, just as among the whites, 
are distrngoished by a high stature ; but even these ezoeption- 
ally tall Negroes never reach the length of the tall tribes 
among the Germans or Anglo-Saxon races, and no such giants 
will be fonnd even in the most privileged black tribes, as are 
occasionally fonnd among the whites. 

The proportions in the corporeal stractore greatly differ. 
The trunk is smaller in proportion to the extremities, specialfy 
to the arm, which in the Negro reaches below the middle of 
the femnr. Most Negroes can, mthont stooping, reach with 
the finger's end the region above the knee-cap. The neck is 
short, the cervical mnsdes very powerful, bnt the shoulders 
are narrower and less strong than in the white. There is a 
certain resemblance in the form of the neck to that of the 
gorilla, to which the remarkable development of the cervical 
mnsdes, combined with the shortness and curvature of this 
part, gives something of the aspect of a bull's neck. Surely it 
is for this reason that the Negro always carries his burden on 
the head, rarely upon the shoulders or back; and it is for this 
reason that he, like a ram, nses his hard skull in a fight. The 
chest is narrow, the antero-posterior is almost equal to the 
transverse diameter, which predominates in the Grerman ; the 
belly is relaxed and pendulous, and the navel situated nearer 
the symphysis pnbis than in the European. Even in muscular 
Negroes the arms are less rotund, the hips narrow, the thighs 
laterally compressed, the calves lean. The Negro rarely stands 
quite upright, the knees are usually bent, and the legs fire- 
qnently bandy. Hands and feet are long, narrow, and fiat, 
and form the least attractive features in the Negro figure. 

Most of these external characteristics remind us irresistibly 
of the ape : the short neck, the long lean limbs, the projecting 
pendulous beUy — all this affords a glimmer of the ape beneath 
the human envelope. Such similarities are equally detected on 
examining the structure of individual parts. Commencing 
with the skeleton, we find that the bones are always beautifully 
white and hard, almost like ivory. The angles and rims are 
always more marked, and the contour of the individual bones 
coarser than in the European. 



174 



LxcTuu yn. 



The flknll is asnally elongated, narrow at the forehead, the 
central line of the vertex rather depressed, the parietal snr- 
faces flattened, the greatest breadth being in the posterior 
third. The Negro sknll is the pnrest type of the long skull 
with receding forehead. On this small and narrow receding 
frontal bone the superciliary arches are moderate, the frontal 
eminences little marked, the nasal process broad, correspond- 
ing with the broad flat nose. The temporal fosssB are deep in 
front, but flat and lengthened backwards. On looking at the 

Fig. 62. Skull of the Negro, top view. 




sknU from above, it seems as if it had been compressed behind 
the orbits. The parietal bones are proportionately mnch larger 
than the fit>ntal bone and the occipital sqnama, which are 
usually smaU and short. The sutures are usually fine but 
small, the Wormian bones, which in the European are fre- 
quently found in the lambdoid suture, are rare exceptions in the 
Negro. The base of the cranium is long, the occipital foramen 
rather long than broad and situated behind the centre of the 
line drawn fit>m the alveolar margin of the upper jaw to the 



LBCTUBB yn. 175 

most prqjeotiiig rim of the oodpnt. The basilar bone is long 
and narrow^ bnt the mastoid prooessea, as well as the petrous 
bone^ are generally strong and thick^ the brims of the occipital 
foramen rise above the flattened base. The fecial skull is re- 
markably large in proportion to the cerebral skulL 

Fig.SS. EalBr SkaU. bMe. 



The orbits are wide^ (unnel-Bhapedj their lower margin very 
thick, rounded and projecting, the nasal bones short, narrow, 
almost square, the nasal apertures broad, with rounded angles, 
the nasal spine is scarcely indicated, the upper jaws drawn 
outward, usually provided with^knobs oorresponding to the 
canine teeth, the cheekbones usually form prominent angles. 
According to Pnmer-Bey, we may distinguish three kinds of 
prognathism.. In the lowest degree the alveolar arch is elliptic 
instead of parabolic, outwardly convex, but the incisors are 
perpendicularly inserted, so that the prognathism is confined 
to this jaw. In the second degree Uie incisors are oblique, 
but are in the same line with the jaw ; whilst in the third de- 
* gree they form an obtuse angle at their insertion and exhibit 



176 



LXCTUBK Vn. 



projectmg edges. Bat in no case is the prognathism of the 
Negpro solely confined to the position of the teeth and their cayi- 
ties^ it is the jaw which constantly contributes towards the pro- 
jection of the muzzle. An interval, though of small extent, is 
not rarely seen in the upper jaw between the incisors and the 

I^. 64. Negro Skull, side view. 




canine teetL Soemmering found in some Negro skulls a sup- 
plemental molar in the upper jaw; two anomalies, which to 
our knowledge, have never been observed in Germanic skulls. 
This diastema reminds us of the ape in general. The additional 
molar in the upper jaw, by which such Neg^roes have thirty- 
four instead of thirty-two teeth, reminds us of the American 
monkeys in particular, which have thirty-six teeth, the increase 
extending to the lower jaw. 

The osseous palate is not only absolutely long^r^ but abso- 
lutely broader than in the white, and these circumstances indi- 
cate the exceptionally great development of the jaws in general. 
The zygomatic arches are curved and wide^ so that the tern- 



LiCTuu vn. 177 

poral mnndeB, presiding over the motion of the massive lower 
jaw, and filling the whole temporal fosssB, are larger and more 
powerfal in the Negro than in the White. The lower jaw is, in 
fact, far more powerfnl and massiye than in the white; the 
chin is retracted, broad, and rounded ; the horizontal branch of 
the lower jaw is very long; the vertical broad and short, and 
forming an obtnse angle, so that a considerable force can be 
exerted. The size of the teeth, which are broad, long, and of 
glittering whiteness, corresponds to this. The substance of 
the teeth is, moreover, far harder than in the European, so 
that they are not so easily used up. I know dentists, who 
partly owe their reputation to the dronmstance that during 
their stay in America they procured sacksfull of Negro teeth, 
with which they supplied the g^ums of our European ladies, — 
an operation which could be the more easily efiected, since the 
female European skull resembles much more the Negro skull 
than that of the European male. 

On further examining the proportion the cerebral-skuU bears 
to the facial-skull, the simiousness in the Neg^ is exhibited by 
the greater development of what may be called apposition. The 
elongation of the skull, its narrowness in the anterior part, 
the recession of the forehead, cause, as it were, the brain to 
slide back from the face, whence the roofs of the orbits appear 
more oblique than in the European, and resemble the form 
seen in most mammals. The funnel-shape of the orbits is 
caused by this formation. The internal cranial capacity is, 
despite of its elongation, considerably smaller than in the 
German, the difference amounting to nearly 100 cubic centi- 
metres or more, according to some measurements already 
given. 

The fecial angle of Camper amounts in the Negro to 70-75 
deg., it may sink to 65, whilst in the German it is rarely 
below 80, and frequently a few degrees higher. In the Ger- 
man the saddle-angle {q^hippium) is 134 deg., in the Negro, 
188-150 ; the angle on the root of the nose, in the German 66 
deg., is in the Negro above 70 up to 77. 

On examining the other parts of the skeleton, we are at 
once struck by the fact that the S-shaped curve of the verte- 



178 



LXCTXTBI Vn. 



bral column ia less distiBct in the Negro than in the White, 
the oolnmn approaching in its arrangrement that of the ape. 
The pelvis is farther distinguished hj its length and narrow- 
ness. All the diameters of the small pelvis, through which 
the head of the child must pass, are considerably smaller in 
the Negro. This applies specially to the large diameter, and 
we may say that, on the whole, the pelvis of the Negress (for 
in the female sex this part of the pelvis is much more spacious 
than in the male), as regards the smaUness of its diameter, 
resembles the pelvis of the white man. This is not surprising, 
as the head of the Negro child presents already at birth all 
the characters of its race in the narrow and elongated head, 
and accordingly we iSnd the narrow pelvis adapted to this 
form. 

The pelvis of the male Negro, compared with that of 
the white man, appears larger, the iliac bones not broad key- 
shaped, and so that the upper parts lean on the sacrum almost 
like the shoulder blades on tiie superior extremities. The 
length of the extremities, and specially the proportions of the 
separate parts, are of particular importance.*!^ 



* I gire here the p roportiona of the parts oompoong the eztremities, ae- 
snining the total length of the body to t>e = 100^ and ezprening the length 
of the oomponent paits in per oents, we obtain the following nunbera, ao- 
oording to Boimeiater's meaeorementa . — 



Earopeami. N«gfroet. 



FSMALBB. 



Eim>p0U». 



Noaxon. 



Sopezior extremity. 

Upper arm 

Fo^B-arm 

Hand 

Inferior extremity . 

Thigh 

Leg 

Foot 



45-5 

18-9 

15*9 

10-6 

51-6 

26-75 

24-7 

1516 



44-6 

1815 

14-77 

11-5 

51-9 

27-8 

25-8 

15 



46 
19 
14-S 
9-5 
49-2 
27 
23-8 
14-8 



48-8 

20 

16-7 

11-7 

51-7 

28-8 

26-1 

15-7 



By wilmilatiiig in the same way, Primer-Bey's measnxements of the skeleton, 
we obtain the following oorxesponding numbers, which, as the author himself 
obsenres, lay no daim to perfect oorreotneas, as the total length partly de- 
pends on the maimer in which the skeletons are mounted. 



LlCTnBS VII. 



179 



The arm by itself is perhaps somewhat longer than that of 
the Eoropean ; still there are several Negro ^bes^ in which 
the proportian of the total length to that of the arm is nearly the 
same. Bat the proportion of the individoal parts to each other 
varies : the hnmeros of the Negro is proportionately shorter^ 
the foreann proportionally longrer than in the German. This 
proportion is in the subjoined table apparent at once^ and this, 
as has long been observed, is a decided approach to the animal 
type. The hnmeros exceeds, in all human races as well as in 
the anthropoid apes, the bones of the forearm in length ; but 
this predominance, which is g^reatest in the white race, dimi- 
nishes in the black, and sinks still fnrther in the anthropoid 
apes. In the American apes the predominance is already 
reversed, so that from the monkeys throngh the whole animal 
kingdom the npper arm is shorter than the lower arm. Con- 
nected with this is a gpreater leanness and a more equalised dis- 
iaibution of the mnscnlar fibres, so that the rotnndiiy of the 
upper arm partly produced by the development of the biceps, 
and the spindle-shape of the forearm, is not seen in the Negro, 
both parts presenting in their whole length nearly the same 
thickness.* 





Enro- 

P6SDS. [NegiMt. 


Euro- i 
pesiii.1 ! NegiMt. 


Euro. 


KignM.t 


Emt). 


Hmnflnu 


19-68 

14-78 


19-64 
16-32 


107-83 
103-37 
101-62 
106-10 
100-17 
102-04 


spcmdinffiifi-' 96-6 


100 
78-7 
69-3 

100 
86-2 
64-8 


100 
76-6 
62-9 

100 
82-6 
62-9 


TUtAim 


Hand 

Thigh (femur).. 

Leg (tiluA) 

Foot 


10-94 
27-29 
22-46 
14-61 


11-68 
27-94 
23-80 
16-40 


gio limE ii 
ereETwhere 


94-47 
97-68 
96-48 
94-3 











1 TioB Mriet il i**imii>^fciMi aooosding to the abedlate numben of mea- 
■ureinent. 

* Thii teriee it ^i^iAwWfiMi aooordiiig to the pxopoKtioiial numben of the 
fint two ooliuniie. 

> Thie teriee ahowi the pioportaoiiB of the middle and terminal memben 
to the Snt member^ whioh ia aaramed =s 100. 



• Aoootding to Aebj** meaanxementa, the detaik of whidi are not yet 
pnbliahedy the indiTidnal raoea and peoplea axe not diatingniahed as reguda 
the prapoctioDa of the limba and their jarta. The differenoe in length of 
the raraann of the Boxopean and the Megto doea not amoont eren to one 
per eent.. and eren thia alight diffeienoe maj, perhapa. be xedaoed by ftirther 
and mote extended meaanxementi. 

n2 



180 LBCTUBI YII. 

To the long lean forearm is joined a hand whicli has a deci- 
dedly simioufi character. Thoogh the statare of the Negpro and 
the NegpresB is on the average a few inches below that of the 
White, the hand of both sexes is always absolutely^ mostly an 
indi or more longer than that of the white race. Besides this, 
the hand is narrow, the fingers long and thin, the cushion of 
the third phalanx scarcely perceptible, the nails narrow, flesh 
coloured, rounded at the end, but much arched. The palm is 
flat, the thumb-ball scarcely prominent, the coloration lighter 
than on the dorsum. The thumb is narrow and long, but weak, 
and reaches in the black to the middle of the second finger^ 
and sometimes beyond. All these characters of the hand de- 
cidedly approach those of the simian hand, which is equally 
distinguished by narrowness, long fingers with curved nails, 
and slight difierence between the thumb and the other fingers. 

The disproportion between the limbs is still more developed 
in the Negress, in whom the arm is absolutely longer than in 
the male, whilst the upper arm is absolutely shorter. I will, 
however, not dwell on this, and bearing in mind that between 
the two sexes of the same species differences may and do pre- 
vail greater than between the same sexes of different species, 
I shall keep to the male sex. We may be sure that, whenever 
we perceive an approach to the animal type, the female is 
nearer to it than the male, hence we should discover a greater 
simious resemblance if we were to take the female as our 
standard. 

The leg exhibits the same proportions as the arm. The leg 
of the Negro is proportionately somewhat longer than that of 
the European ; not the feniur, but the tibia and the foot. 
Hence it is that the ends of the fingers seem to reach farther 
down than in the White, as thla knee is, from the shortness of 
the thigh, brought nearer the trunk. The femoral bones as 
well as the fibula seem curved outward, so that the knees are 
more apart from each other than in the White. This mainly 
arises from the narrowness of the pelvis, by which the articu- 
lating surfaces of the heads of the femoral bones approximate 
the central axis of the body. There is abo a peculiar arrange- 
ment in the muscles of the legs, which appear thin, calfless, and 



LBCTURE VII. 181 

lateraUy compressed. The whole leg has the appearance of a 
wooden leg covered with skin, from the absence of fleshy 
moscles. 

The foot of the Negro, says Burmeister, produces a dis- 
agreeable impression. Everything in it is ugly : the flatness, 
the projecting heel, the thick fatty cnshion in the inner 
cavity, the spreading toes. Let us examine these characters. 
We have seen that the character of the human foot Ues mainly 
in its arched structure, in the predominance of the metatarsus, 
the shortening and equal direction of the toes, among which 
the great toe is remarkably long, bat not like the thumb op- 
posable. In every public bath you may observe the following 
marks left by the wet feet : a round spot behind correspond- 
ing to the heel, in front a transverse spot almost pear-shaped, 
the thick part inwards, formed by the ball. Sometimes there 
is a small line, corresponding to the external margin of the 
foot, running towards the heel-spot, but rarely reaching it; 
the anterior, or ball-spot, corresponds to the articulations 
between the toes and the metatarsus; the toes in standing 
leave no marks, but do so in progpression. The whole middle 
part of the foot does not touch the ground. Persons with flat 
feet, in whom the middle of the sole touches the ground, are 
bad pedestrians, and are rejected as recruits. If the same rule 
were applied to Negro reg^ents, the Pacha of iigypt could 
not have placed his soldiers at the disposal of the Emperor of 
the French for the Mexican Expedition. The Negro, says an 
American song, cited by Burmeister, makes with the cavity of 
his foot a hole in the ground. The Negro is a decided flat- 
foot, which, indeed, may be seen also in the skeleton, but 
much better in the living man, as the fat cushion on the sole 
not only fills up the whole cavity but projects beyond the 
surface, so that the ball and the heel do not exactly Ue on the 
same plane with this pad. The toes of the foot are longer, 
narrower, more moveable and spreading than in the European, 
the great toe somewhat shorter than the second, but long 
and narrow and more removed, so that here we have again a 
decided approach to the form of a hand. But as we have seen 
the formation of a foot instead of a hand is an essential human 



182 LSCTUBS Til. 

stractiiral character, and it is specially the foot of the go- 
rilla, or if yon like, the posterior hand, which also in other 
respects presents a decided similarity to the foot of the 
Negro. 

With respect to the internal organs, I shall chiefly quote the 
remarks of Pruner-Bey, who, as the physician of the Viceroy 
of Egypt, has ample opportunities for observation. '' Soemmer- 
ing," says Pruner, " had already remarked that in the Negro the 
peripheral nerves are very large and thick in proportion to the 
volume of the brain. This fact is rendered particularly evident 
by the excellent preparation of M. Jacquard in the Paris 
Museum. 

''The narrow and elongated brain always presents on the 
surface a brown coloration, resulting from a considerable in- 
jection of venous blood. (Other observers attribute, in our 
opinion with greater probability, this dark colour to a greater 
deposition of pigment both in the grey matter and in the 
arachnoid membrane). The superficial veins are veiy thick; 
the grey substance presents internally a clear brown colora- 
tion ; the white substance is yellowish ; the cortical gprey sub- 
stance, which covers the hemispheres, is less thick than in 
the white. Viewed in front the brain presents a rounded 
apex; viewed from above the parts seem coarser and less 
manifold than in the white. The anterior and parietal convo- 
lutions seem less deep, flattened, excepting the third convolu- 
tion, which rather protrudes on the frontal surface. On tracing 
the convolutions backwards, we find fewer of those parietal 
folds which render the brain of the white a perfect labyrinth. 
The convolutions on the middle lobe seem raised, but massive 
and coarse ; the posterior lobe always appeared to me as fiat- 
tened on the top as the anterior lobe is at the base. In the 
side view it is specially the direction of the Sylvian fissure 
which has engaged the attention of anatomists. I myself have 
never been able to detect in this respect an essential difference 
between the brain of the Negro and that of the Egyptian, 
though I placed them side by side. The part above the corpus 
callosum, is comparatively less raised, the cerebellum less an- 
gular than in the European, the vermis and the pineal gland 



UBCTUBi vn. 188, 

are veiy large. The oeiebral mass is nndoabtedly firmer and 
more oonedstent in the Negro than in the White. 

'' In the brain of the Negro the central gyri are like those 
in a foetus of seven months, the secondary are still less marked. 
By its ronnded apex and less developed posterior lobe the 
Negro brain resembles that of our children, and by the protn- 
beranoe of the parietal lobe, that of onr females. The shape 
of the brain, the volume of the vermis and of the pineal gland, 
assign to the Negro brain a place by the side of ^ihat of a 
white child.'^ 

Hnschke mentions some other differences. The Sylvian and 
Rolando fissures are more perpendicolar than in the brain of 
the European ; the anterior lobes are shorter, the gyri coarser, 
the chief anterior convolution broad, but all without islands. 
Huschke arrives at the condusion that in the Negro brain both 
the oerebmm and the cerebellum, as well as the spinal cord, 
present the female and infantile European as well as the 
simious type. The resemblance of the Negro brain to that of 
the European female would be still gpreater if they were not 
distinguished, the former by its length, the latter by its breadth. 

I possess no Negro brain, and I must confess that I have no 
confidence in the old representations, chiefly for this reason ; 
that the convolutions, so important in our researches, are, in 
the figu^s of old authors, sudi as Tiedemann and Soemmering, 
not very faithfully rendered. But on examining the brain of 
the Hottentot Yenus, an excellent representation of which is 
given by Gratiolet, and which by breadth and shortness de- 
viates from the Negro brain, but exhibits in other respects the 
same type ; and comparing it with the brain of a German and 
that of an anthropoid ape (see fig. 65-67), I find a remarkable 
resemblance between the ape and the lower human lype, spe- 
cially with reference to the development of the temporal lobe. 
The simplicity of the parallel fissure, the arrangement of the 
gyri, accord so much with those of the orang, that the brain of 
this bushwoman would certainly be rather placed by the side 
of the ape than of the white man, were there not a decided dif- 
ference in the form of the posterior lobe and the operculum at 
its end. The frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes are, by their 



184 



LICTUBE Vn. 



coarse simple gyri^ decidedly simious, still the brain of this 
woman belongs to the human type by the size of the hemi- 
spheres and the character of the posterior lobe. 

Fig. 65. Profile of the Brain of the Hottentot Yeniu. 




kM. 



Fig. 66. F^file of the Brain of Gaoas. 




Of the other internal organs Pruner-Bey's remarks Are as 
follows : — 

'' The eyeball is at least as large^ if not larger^ than in the 



LECTUBI VII. ' 183 

European ; tlie cornea comparatively small and flattened ; the 
pigment abundant ; the iris dark brown mixed with yellow ; the 
retina very firm. The glandular system is much developed, 
both upon the skin and in the internal mucous membrane ; 
hence the intestinal canal has an uneven aspect, specially m the 
stomach and the large intestines. The mucous membrane is veiy 

Fig. 67. F»>file of the Brain of the Orang. 




r.M. 



The description of the fignree is the same as in figs. 81, 82. 

thick and fatty. All the abdominal glands are large, specially 
the liver and the supra-renal glands. These organs seem 
gorged with venous blood. The bladder Ues higher up than 
in the European ; the large seminal vesicles were always, even 
in sections made shortly after death, filled with a turbid gprey- 
ish fluid. The penis is always dispropordonaUy large. The 
blood is always thick, black, and glutinous; it never is in 
bleeding projected in an arch, but adheres to the vessel, whilst 
the serum is more or less dark yellow. The lungs are compa- 
ratively less expanded than the abdominal organs, they are 
frequently filled with a black deposit, and are pressed bade by 
the stomach, liver, and spleen. Black pigment spots are fre- 
quently met with on the tongue, the palate, and the conjunc- 
tiva, as well as in the mucous membrane of the intestinal 



186 LECTUEB VII. 

canal. The fat^ as well as all fibrous and oeHnlar tissues, the 
periostenxn, and the oonjunctiva, have always a yellow colora- 
tion. The mncons membranes of the month, nose, etc., are of 
a cherry red, but the lips of a bluish colour. Excepting the 
masseter, the aural and the laryngeal muscles, the development 
of the other muscles is not proportioned to the weight of the 
bones. In colour they are never so bright red as in the Euro- 
pean, but rather yellowish or brownish. 

''The face of the Negro is flat and narrow, firequently 
pointed downwards, whilst the cheek bones and the posterior 
parts of the cheek covered by the masseters are prominent, so 
that it seems as if the cheeks had been compressed in front. 
The aperture of the eye is narrow, horizontal, and both eyes 
are wide apart. From this depressed and wide nasal root 
proceeds a broad, flat, upturned nose, the apertures of which 
are so placed that viewed from below they seem to run parallel 
with the aperture of the eyes. The ears are remarkably small, 
the posterior margin much curved, the lobules small, but ap- 
parently thick and cartilaginous. The superior part of the 
face, with its retreating narrow forehead, low vertex, and pro- 
minent orbital margins, resembles perhaps more the simian 
face than the lower part with the projecting teeth, the white 
even of which is the more marked from the contrast with the 
brown or violet Ups and the black face.'' 

I know well enough that the description of the Negro-type, 
as here given, is that which, so to say, represents the purest 
type, and that there are many Negro tribes in which some of 
these characters are less distinct. Pruner-Bey summarises these 
deviations as follows : — " We must admit,'' he says, " that the 
inferior orbital margins are frequently narrow and retreating ; 
that the nose becomes longer and more prominent ; that the 
lips, turned up in some tribes, are only full in others; that pro- 
gnathism diminishes, without however disappearing entirely, 
that the aperture of the eye becomes wider; that the hair, 
short and woolly in most, grows longer ; that the transverse 
diameter of the chest becomes enlarged ; that even the pelvis, 
though much more rarely, acquires more rounded outlines; 
that the limbs acquire more harmonious proportions ; that the 



LiCTUBB yn. 187 

Iiips^ thighs, and legs beoome more fleshy and the foot more 
ardied ; but as regards the crowning of the work^ i. e., the 
skoU^ specially the cerebral sknll^ all the variationa in the 
"Segro race remain and are confined within limits which 
deserve our attention. In the Arian race the sknll presents 
three fnndamental types: the elongated form (prodncing in 
some exceptional cases slight prognathism) whicli approaches 
the boondaiy of the Neg^ro-iype ; the short and round form, 
approaching the Tnranian race ; and, finally, the typically 
beantifiil oval form, which seems to have resulted from a com- 
bination of the two former. Nothing like this is to be found 
in the Negro ; his skull is, and remains, elongated, it is ellipti- 
cal or cuneiform, but never round ; the facial skull may ap- 
proach the pyramidal form by a greater distance between the 
cheek-bones, and may in this respect resemble that of the 
Kaffirs and of the Bechuanas, but no more. StiH, there is in 
GhJl's collection the skull of an Austrian, the outlines of which 
correspond to the Negro type,^ and Meigs mentions a Negro 
skull in Morton's collection, which, apart from a slight pro- 
gnathism, might be taken for an European skull, as this emi- 
nent craniologist himself admitted. But assuming that these 
exceptional skulk belonged to individuals of pure descent, there 
would still remain sufficient characters — both in the living and 
the skeleton — ^to disting^sh such individuals from the Negpro, 
the White, or from any other race. 

'' This also applies to the regular Caucasian features, with 
which some travellers have endowed certain Negro peoples. 
Among many thousand Negroes who have come under my own 
observation, there was not one who could lay claim to it. 

'' Similar variations may also occur as regards the colour of 
the skin. The deep velvety black is very rarely met with. 
There are gradations from brown to grey, which latter colour 
imparts to the individuals a cadaverous aspect. Though the 
pigment of the Negro seems to be the same substance as the 
colouring matter in freckles and the tanned skin of the Euro- 

• In tha •^•^fc^w"**^ ooUeetioii of Bern thare b the aknU of a mnzderer, 
wldoh. on a raperfioiel view, appeen to me to ponen moie of the Negro 
type than any white ikiin I hare yet Men.— C. T. 



188 LICTUBS VII. 

pean, it cannot be asserted that an Eoropean can be so browned 
by the snn^ by exposure, or by affections of the liyer, as to ac- 
quire even a light Negro skin. The equalised colour both in 
the covered as well as in the exposed parts, independently of 
other characters, makes a distinction between them very easy/' 

As regards the acuteness of the senses, the Negro stands 
far below the white race, and by no means confirms tiiie opinion 
which attributes to savages and peoples living in a state of 
nature more acute senses. The eyes are frequently rather 
dim, and the flattened cornea seems rather to favour long- 
sightedness than short-sightedness. Smell, taste, or hearing 
do not seem highly developed. The Negro, however, shows 
grreat talent for plain cookery and vulgar music, so that in 
America nearly all the cooks and musicians are men of colour. 
Touch is not very delicate, the finger cushions being less de- 
veloped in the black; "but," says Pruner, "the most re- 
markable phenomenon relates to coencesthesis, as regards the 
Negroes apparent insensibility to pain. We have never seen 
the least spontaneous expression of pain ; in the hospitals we 
see Negroes suffering from the gravest diseases cowering on 
their couches without taking any notice of the attending phy- 
sicians. As a slave, he is more communicative, without, how- 
ever, exhibiting greater sensibility to pain. Mishaps, or bad 
treatment will draw from the Negress, the child and even the 
adult Negro, an abundant flow of tears, but physical pain never. 
The Negro frequently resists surgical operations, but having 
once agreed to submit, he fixes his eye on the instrument and 
the hand of the surgeon without the least mark of pain or im- 
patience, though his lips become blanched and the perspiration 
runs down his body during the operation. As we see, the 
Negro is a bom stoic, certainly more from disposition than 
from habit or education.'' 

Even with regard to the development of the Negro child, I 
can do no better than follow this experienced Egyptian physi- 
cian. " The Negro child," says Pruner-Bey, " is bom without 
prognathism, but with a totality of features which, though 
characteristic for the soft parts, are not yet expressed in the 
skull. The Negro, the Hottentot, the Australian, the New 



LXGTUBl Til. 189 

Caledoniaii^ do not^ with regard to the OBseons ajstem, ex- 
hibit the differences which arise sabseqaently.* The new-born 
Negro child has not the colour of its parents ; it is reddish 
nnt-brown^ and the redness is less vivid than in the case of a 
new-bom white child. The coloor soon becomes slate-gprey, and 
more or less rapidly corresponds to that of the parents^ ac- 
cording to the sorroonding media among which the child grows 
up. In the Sudan the development of the colouring matter is 
generally finished within a year, in Egypt within three years. 
The hair of the Negro child is at first rather chestnut-brown 
' than black, it is straight, and only curled at the ends. I have 
not been able exactly to determine the extent of the fontanelles, 
but there does not seem to exist a measurable difference in 
this respect from those of the white child.'' (Burmeister re- 
marks concerning the differences in new-bom diildren. '' The 
hair is not crisp or black, but is of a chestnut colour, and has a 
sili^ fineness. In g^wing, it becomes gradually darker, and 
more crisp, until the time the child leams to wtJk, when the 
hair is perfectly woolly. This reminds me of the down of 
young birds in relation to the feathers of the hen.'') 

''The first dentition," continues Pruner-Bey, ''commences 
nearly at the same time as with us ; I have, however, also ob- 
served cases of premature, as well as of retarded dentition. 
Lactation lasts never less than two years. On the completion 
of the first 'dentition, we perceive already in the skull the 
peculiar characters: the raised central line in the forehead, 
the retreating chin, the slightly projected upper jaw, the flat 
nose, the dazzling whiteness of the teeth, the prominent occi- 
put. The young Negro possesses, however, a pleasant phy- 
siognomy up to puberty, which commences in girls between 
the tenth and thirteenth, and in boys between the thirteenth 



• lUt opinion of Ftonor-Bcij Menia to me haiaidoiiiB, and not fbvmded on 
■nfloiont obMmtiom. I have dmA no opportunity of eiMninlng a new-bom 
Negro-child; but in Blnmenbeob'e Deeac Oramiarwm there it raoh a fiffot^ 
which, at the fliit glance, ahowe the grea t length and nanowneaa or the 
cranium, aa well aa prognathooa jawa. When we take into oonaideration the 
nanowneaa of the pelvu of the Negreaa, it mnat follow that the aknll of the 
newborn Negro ahonld preaent dimenaiona different from that of the Aziaa 
child. 



190 LscTusx yn. 

and fifteenth year. This is followed by a rapid transformation 
in the forms and proportions of the skeleton. The transforma- 
tion proceeds differently in the cranium and the face ; the jaws 
predominate without an adequate compensation in the cranium. 
It is not meant that there is exactly an arrest of development; 
but that the race difference consists in the different growth of 
individual parts. Whilst in the white man the gradual increase 
of the jaws and the facial bones is not only equalled but ex- 
ceeded by the development or rather enlargement of the brain, 
and specially of the anterior lobes ; the reverse is the case in 
the Negro. The muscles subservient to animal life cause a ' 
compression on the sides, which is but little resisted by the 
brain. In this way the cranium obtains the shape previously 
described. As everything in the organism is harmonious, this 
theoiy of cranial formation may be contested, but the mode in 
which the sutures close furnishes an important commentary on 
these phenomena. The central frontal suture closes in the 
Negro in early youth, as well as the parietal part of the coronal 
suture.^ With advancing age the central portion of the coro- 
nal suture, the saggital suture, and all parietal sutures dose, 
nearly simultaneously, as I have observed in skulls from East 
Africa. The lambdoid suture remains open the longest, speci- 
ally at the apex. At the base of the cranium we find, on the 
contraiy, the suture between the sphenoid and the occipital 
bone still open, and the suture between the incisors is not 
only seen in the Negro child, but in many old Negro skulls. 
Qenerally speaking, the sutures in the Negpress close sooner 
than in the Negro. 

"Prognathism may, perhaps, be partly considered as the result 
of the action of the lower jaw on the concentric arch of the upper 
jaw. At any rate, the mode of its direction towards the temporal 
bone contributes to it ; for I have found this formation princi- 
pally in races where the sockets for the lower jaw are broad 
and less deep, whilst the heads are flat or at least elliptical. 
This agrees with a greater or lesser harmony of the rows of 

* In tbe nnmerooB aknlls I bave ezamined, there ocoorred but a nnffle 
ezoeptioii. The p rogreBs of the oloBuze of the tatiirei seenu to me to differ 
generally according to the form of the long or ahort aknlli. 



LXCTUBI YH. 191 

teeth. Such a condition fadlitates the movements in a forward 
direction ; whilst in sknlls, in which the sockets are deep and 
narrow^ the motion is more rertical. I am fully aware that this 
explanation is not very satisfactoiy^ and I ask myself whether 
prognathism is not rather the expression of a relapse into the 
animal form/' 

(Thns far Pnmer-Bey. On onr part we have no doubt the 
latter explanation is the correct. Everything is in harmony in 
an organism, and we might as well say, the socket and the 
head of the bone most be flat because the upper jaw projects 
and the lower jaw is long, as to assume the reverse. More- 
over, camivora whose jaws move only in a perpendicular direc- 
tion, possess very elliptical articulating heads of the lower jaw.) 

It is undeniable that the sudden metamorphosis which at the 
time of puberty takes place in the Negro, is not only inti- 
mately connected with psychical development, but is a repe- 
tition of the phenomena occurring in the anthropoid apes. In 
them also the skuU presents, until the second dentition, a 
remarkable resemblance to the human skull, the cerebral por- 
tion being arched and the jaws but little projecting. From 
that time the cerebral skuU remains stationary, the internal 
capacity no way increases; the ridges and crests only are 
developed together with the muzzle, which projects from under 
the cranium until it acquires the form seen in old apes. And 
with this the mental development proceeds pari p(M«u. Young 
orangs and chimpanzees are good-natured, amiable, intelligent 
beings, very apt to learn and become civilised. After the 
transformation they are obstinate savage beasts, incapable of 
any improvement. 

And so it is with the Negro. The Negro-child is not, as 
regards the intellectual capacities, behind the white child. All 
observers agree that they are as droll in their games, as docile 
and as intelligent as white children. Where their education is 
attended to, and where they are not, as in the American Slave 
States, intentionally brought up like cafctle, it is found that the 
Negro children in ^e schools, not only equal but even surpass 
the white children in docility and apprehension. But no sooner 
do they reach the fatal period of puberty than, with the dosnre 



192 LECTURE vn. 

of the sntores and the projection of the jaws^ the same process 
takes place as in the ape. The intellectaal faculties remain 
stationary^ and the individual — as well as the race — ^is inca- 
pable of any farther progress. 

The grown np Negro partakes^ as regards his intellectual 
faculties^ of the nature of the child, the female, and the senile 
White. He manifests a propensity to pleasure, music, dancing, 
physical enjoyments, and imitation, while his inconstancy of 
impressions and all the feelings are those of the child. Like 
the child, the Negro has no soaring imagination, but he peoples 
surrounding nature, and endows even lifeless things with 
human or supernatural powers. He makes himself a Fetish of 
a piece of wood, and believes that the ape remains dumb lest 
he should be compelled to work. The general rule of the 
slaveholder is, that slaves must be treated like neglected and 
badly brought up children. The Negro resembles the female 
it his love to children, his family, and his cabin ; he resembles 
the old man in his indolence, apathy, and his obstinacy. 
Temperate in common things, the Negro becomes intemperate 
if not kept within certain bounds. He knows not steady 
work, cares little for the future ; but his great imitative in- 
stinct enables him to become a skilful workman and artistic 
imitator. In his native country the Negro is shepherd or 
agriculturist ; some tribes understand working metals ; others 
carry on trade, not without cunning. Some tribes hare 
founded states, possessing a peculiar organisation ; but, as to 
the rest, we may boldly assert that the whole race has, neither 
in the past nor in the present, performed anything tending to 
the progress of humaniiy or worthy of preservation. As a 
proof in favour of the artistic and scientific capacity of the 
Negro, we find cited in nearly all works the instance of Mr. 
Idlle Geofiroy of Martinique, an engineer and mathematician 
and corresponding member of the French Academy. The &ct 
is, that the mathematical performances of the above gentleman 
were of such a nature that, had he been bom in Germany of 
white parents, he might, perhaps, have been qualified to be 
mathematical teacher in a middle-class school, or engineer at 
a railway; but having been bom in Martinique of coloured 



LBCTOBB Vll. 193 

parents, he shone like a one-eyed man among the totally blind. 
M. LiUe GeoflEroy, besides, was not a pure Neg^ro, but a Mulatto. 

Having thus, in our investigation regarding the differences 
between Negro and White, shown that there are certain con- 
stant and easily detected distinctive characters; and having 
further seen that the differences are in the Negro mostly re- 
ducible to an animal or simions resemblance, there arise now 
two important questions to be discussed. 

The first question refers to the permaneTice of the differences. 
Is it possible that these may become obliterated by any influ- 
ences in nature, that is to say, without an intermixture of 
races, so that the Neg^ may by elevating influences become 
metamorphosed into a White, or the White by depressing 
causes be transformed into a Negro ? 

The second question refers to animal resemblance. Are we 
able to point out the gradations which bridge over the gulf 
which still exists between the Negpro and the ape, and foUdw 
them step by step from the anthropoid ape to the Negro, and 
from the Negpro to the white man ? 

As regrards the first question, I shall have an opportunity 
of discussing it in connection with other phenomena, whidi 
will prove that in the various races there is an immanent 
fixed character, which by external influences is liable to 
change with certain limits only. As far as our observations 
extend, we are unable to say that the changes have essentially 
altered the character. The Egyptian monuments, which show 
us the Negro as he was thousands of years ago, contempo- 
raneous, probably, with the Biblical Adam, contain excellent 
representations of the present Negpro ; and yet the black race 
has since that time existed in that country by the side of 
another type — ^the genuine Egyptian, which has also remained 
unchanged. With the exception of the tanning of the skin, 
the white man in Africa never exhibits an approach to the 
Negpro-type. Ag^n, in America, where the black race has for 
some time been acclimatised, we find that a somewhat lighter 
colour in the North is the only effect which the climate has 
produced in more than a hundred years. As far as we can 
trace, neither these nor other races have undergone g^reater 

o 



194 LBCTUBX VII. 

changes than other species of animals transplanted to other 
regions, and must, therefore, according to principles at present 
preyalent, be looked upon as different species with permanent 
types. The case is altered when viewed from a higher stand- 
point, as we shall show in the sequel. 

With regard to the second qnestion, aAWswer resting upon 
satisfactory observations is as yet imposs le. 

It is oidy a few years since the gorilla, of whose existence 
no one knew, was discovered in the forests of Western Africa. 
This is, as regards the form of the hands and feet, the most 
anthropoid among the three great tailless apes; whilst as regards 
the craniom and brain, it stands lower than the orang and the 
chimpanzee. The possibility of finding apes which, as regards 
cerebral and cranial stractaie. approach man as the gorilla in 
the structure of the limbs, cannot be denied, but in the absence 
of the fact it would be foolish to form any conclusions. It is less 
probable that human races will be found which approach the 
ape more than the lowest existing human races. The globe 
has been too much explored to countenance such hopes. The 
desire of society drives the savage from his hiding places, into 
which the ape retreats. The ape avoids discovery, man seeks it. 

There may, however, have existed irUermediateforTna, which 
in the lapse of time have become extinct. We shall have to 
speak on this point when treating of petrifactions, the fossil 
man, and the primitive condition of the human race, which 
reaches further back than history, tradition, and mythology. 
This much we may here observe, that fossil remains of monkeys 
have been found, which at first were considered as belong^g 
to man; and that, on the other hand, a cranium has been 
found in the Neander Valley near Diisseldorf, which has more 
of the simian type than any other known race-skull. B..t 
though this is at present merely an indication, we may hope 
that other discoveries will be made, the more so as it is only 
within the last few years that Europe has been well explored. 

Where the normal form leaves us in the lurch as regards our 
investigations, we have a right to avail ourselves of abnormal 
forms, where we may reap a rich harvest. I do not hesitate to 
uphold against Bischoff and Wagner, and even against Johannes 



LXCTUBB Tn. 196 

Muller, that xnicrocephali and bom idiots present as perfect a 
series firom man to the ape as may be wished for ; and I con- 
sider it mj daty here to make an addition to a previons state- 
ment concerning the cerebral stmctnre of tbese ]anfortanates. 

I shall keep, with reference to the sknll^ to the description by 
Theile of a twenly-six year old idiot^ whilst as regards the 
psychical pbenomena, the dassical treatise of Lenbnsclier^ on 
the so-called Aztecs, furnishes ns with excellent materials. The 
drawing of the skoll of an idiot I take from Owen, as the base 
is also given, agrees in all bnt a few details with that given by 
Theile of his ''ape-man''. I have compared abont twenty 
cases of congenital idiocy, which mnst not be oonfonnded with 
cretinism, and I find the following results. 

This congenital idiocy is manifestly an arrested brain deve- 
lopment chiefly affecting the anterior portion. The form of 
the cranium adapts itself to that of the 'arrested brain. The 
development of such individoals proceeds very slowly, they 
learn to walk only in the fifth or sixth year, their brothers and 
sisters are frequently healthy, and so are the parents, though 
perhaps not distinguished by great intellectuality. In some c 

cases, however, there are in the same family besides healthy 
also several idiotic children, the malformation being in such < 

cases due to some hidden cause. These idiots are frequently, ^ 

though not always, dwarfs like the Aztecs. The stooping walk, 'Jr 

with their curved knees, not unlike the walk of the ape, makes ^^ 

them appear less tall than they really are. Among the adult ^ 

idiots, of whom we possess a minute description, some are of 
average size,. as the two Johns eicamined by J. Miiller, and the 
two idiots of Gottingen and Jena described by Wagner and 
Theile. Such unfortunates usually die early. Of twenty cases, 
iVowever,' which I noticed, eight reached the twentieth year — a 
proportion not veiy unfavourable. 

The impression produced by these individuals is decidedly 
simious, so that the authorities even describe it as such. The 
arms seem disproportionately long, the legs short and weak. 
The head is that of the ape ; the skull cap is covered with 
thick woolly hair; the forehead nearly absent ; the eyes stare 
firom projecting orbital margins; the nostrils are wide; the 

o2 



196 



LBC^UBB Yn. 



lower portion of the face muzzle-sliaped ; the teeth obliquely 
set J firequently more oblique thau should be^ owing to the large 
size of the tongue. 

Fig. 68. Negro skuU, side view. 




Fig. 69. Idiot sknll, side view. 




As regards the head particularly^ it is disproportionately 
small in comparison with the body^ the diminution chiefly 
affecting the cranium proper. Viewed in profile^ the face oc- 
cupies as large a space as the cranium. The large osseous 
pad above the root of the nose^ the projecting jaws^ the facial 



LICTUBB Vn. 



197 



angle of about 63-56 deg. ; all these charaoters are decidedly 
siinioTiB. When viewed from below^ the large occipital fo- 
ramen situated farther back^ the long parabolic palate^ ike 
Fig. 70. Kaffir skuU, base. 




I 
I 



Fig. 71. Idiot sknll, base. 



1 




198 UBCTUM VU. 

open basilar saturej as well as the traces (in Owen/s skull) of 
the intermaxillary suture^ all these strike ns at the first glance 
as animal characters. 

Fig. 72. Chimpansee skulls tade view. 




We need only place the skulls of the Negro^ chimpanzee 
and idiot side by side^ to show that the idiot holds in every 
respect an intermediate place between them. The only hmnan 
characters which the idiot shows in his sknll are the gapless 
serried teeth^ and the somewhat projecting chin. The dosore 
of the sntnres mnst by no means be considered as the cause of 
the arrested cerebral development. In most old idiots the 
sutures of the upper surface are still movable^ those on the 
sides are frequently closed^ whilst at the base they are open as 
in the ape. The occiput is sometimes square^ at times rounds 
but veiy large compared to the forehead ; the internal pro- 
cesses of the skull bear so fEur an infantile character^ firom their 
being rounded^ never sharply angular. 

We may^ therefore^ summarise the idiotic forms by stating^ 
that in their brains and skulls the resemblance to the human 
standard has been diminished by the arrested development of 
the anterior cerebral lobes^ and that only the secondary human 
character^ the serried set of teeth and the projecting chin^ have 
been preserved. K a fossil microcephalic skull were founds 
without a lower jaw and an upper row of teeth^ every naturdUst* 

* Qnesy. — ^Editob. 



LiCTUSE yn. 



199 



would at once deela/re it to be the eraniwm of cm ape, as in suoh 
a matdlated skull there would not be found the least character- 
istic mark which would justify an opposite inference. 
Fig. 78. Chimpanzee skull, yiewed from below. 




We possess the measurements of the two so-called Aztecs — 
the Mulatto dwarfs ; the boy then being about sixteen or 
seventeen^ the girl thirteen to fourteen years old. I have cal- 
culated these measurements in the same way as those given of 
the Negro and European^ and having compared them with two 
anthropoid apes^ the chimpanzee and the orange obtained the 
following values. The proportion of the length is : — 





ChlmiMuixes. 


Omag, 


Astaoi. 


Old. 


Young. 


Old 


Tonng. 


Boj. 


OliL 


Of the vertebral oolxmrn to 














that oftheann = 100... 


186*6 


168-6 


168-6 


167-7 


119-7 


116-1 
















that of the leg =100... 


08*8 


116-2 


90-4 


96-7 


122-8 


116-8 


Of the apper arm to that 
of the 6rearm = 100... 














ds 


86-7 


102 


99 


66-7 


67-7 


Of the apper arm to that 
of thehand = 100 














77-6 


87 


78-1 


82 


62-8 


62-6 


Of the thigh to that of 














the leg = 100 

Of the thigh to that of 


76-6 


78-9 


81-8 


81-4 


102-6 


108-1 














the foot = 100 


7i-2 


76-8 


97-6 


109-8 


60 


48-7 


Of the arm to that of the 














leg = 100 


72-4 


70-6 


67 


67-6 


102-6 


104-4 





200 LBCTUBB YII. 

The huinan character of the Aztecs is clearly shown by l^e 
proportional leng^th of the vertebral column to that of the 
limbs in general^ as well as from the relative proportions of 
the limbs to each other ; the arm is proportionally shorter, the 
leg longer. Even in its parts the arm exhibits the human 
type, not so the leg. The thigh is remarkably small compared 
with the leg, the length of which exceeds that of the anthro- 
poid, and resembles that of the inferior apes. The same 
proportion which, from the predominance of the cerebellom, 
almost places the idiot among the apes^ obtains also here as 
regards the shortness of the thigh and the length of the leg. 

Here, therefore, we find human and animal character so in- 
termixed, that they might be taken as the results of a hybrid 
production. 

Let us now cast a glance at the vital phenomena of these 
miserable beings. There are scarcely any sexual manifesta- 
tions, the parts remaining in the infantile condition ; still there 
are some idiots with normal generative organs. The move- 
ments are rapid but unsteady, the walk is tripping. Many of 
them never learn properly to use their hands. There is in 
them a restless activity; their attention is easily excited and 
as quickly obliterated ; memoiy is defective ; they are fond of 
play, but cannot share the amusements of other children, as 
they are unable to learn them ; they are tolerated like domes- 
tic animals. Most of them manifest their wants by shrill sounds, 
which their attendants understand, just as the hunter distin- 
guishes the cries of animals and the gestures of his dogs. 
Most of them cannot acquire articulate language. The Aztecs 
pronounced some few words they h^ learned. Miiller's micro- 
cephalus/in whom the arrest of development does not appear 
to have been so decided as in most others, could pronounce 
some articulate words, and even simple sentences, such as 
" Koppe chite weh P* (My head aches.) 

Leubuscher says of the Aztecs: — ''They possess memoiy* 
for such things as greatiy excited their attention, for persons 
who have been long about them. When I measured them the 
boy recollected earlier proceedings of this kind. . . . After the 
lapse of eight days he well recollected the previous process, so 



LBCTDBK Vil. 201 

that on my questioniiig him what I had done^ he described 
the lines round his head. But having interrupted my visits, 
for several days he had forgotten me and all the rest^ as had 
also the girL The extent of their intellectual capadiy does not 
surpass that of an eighteen months' child^ and, may be, falls 
below it. What we are accustomed to call ideas they probably do 
not possess, as this degree of intellectual development can only 
be formed upon the basis of individual self-consdousness.'' 

B. Wagner is of opinion that a minute analysis of the psy- 
chical phenomena in various idiots might yield important re- 
sults as regards intellectual activiiy in general. There is no 
doubt about this, nor that some of iliese idiots may, by careful 
training, be raised in the intellectual scale. This much re- 
sults, however, from the known facts, that the intellectual 
capacity is closely connected with the cranial and cerebral 
structure, and that it never reached a stage admitting of a 
well articulated language. Most of these idiots are unable to 
articulate words, some few succeed in pronouncing simple 
sentences. But so do the parrot and the raven, which ani- 
mals too, both by tone and pronunciation, render their words 
significant. A domestic animal can, like the idiot, be trained 
to cleanliness, in this respect they are therefore equal. There 
is no trace of such decided human characters, as ideas, ' a 
higher intelligence, and abstraction — ^i^ot even of such primi- 
tive notions of good and evil, nor of those original moral 
qualities as induce some modem French authorities to 
daim for man a separate kingdom. In many respects the 
idiots stand below the animal : they are more helpless than 
the latter, are unable to procure food for themselves, and to 
preserve their life without assistance. Their whole appearance 
is simious. The deficient forehead, the protruding, glosey, 
rolling eyes, the projecting muzzle, the stooping posture, 
the long arms (Qottingen idiot) and short legs, the minute 
analogies in the cranial and cerebral structure, the restless- 
ness, the spasmodic twitches, the shrillness of the notes of 
pleasure or anger, — ^who does not here detect the ape f 

There are no doubt individual human characters, to which I 
add the distribution of the hair, the form of the hands and 



202 LSCTiTBE vn. 

feet — ^bnt we have not asserted that the inicroceplialiijs is 
.dctually an ape ; only that^ if these few characters which mani- 
fest the human type were wanting^ nothing would remain to 
distinguish the idiot from the ape. When then . Wagner 
from these few characters infers ''that the human type is 
manifested in all corporeal organs of microcephalij^' he is 
''running a-muck^' against scientifically demonstrated facts. 
There is here undoubtedly a mixture of human and simious cha- 
racter^ the latter being produced by an arrested development of 
the foetus in utero, forming thus an intermediate stage between 
ape and man, produced by the progress of the laws of the 
deyelopmeiit of human genus. K now it be possible that man 
by arrest of deyelopment may approximate the ape, the for- 
mative law must be the same for both ; and so we cannot deny 
the possibiliiy that just as man may by arrest of development 
sink down to the ape, so may the ape by a progpressive de- 
velopment approximate to man. 



208 



LECTUEE VIII. 

Oompaxatiye Ezaxnination of two spades of monkey^ Otbw dlhifron» and 
C«6tM ofMUa.— Skull and Brain.— Other parte.— AfBnitiiw in Nature.— 
Families. — ^Definition of Spedea^ Yazietj^ and Baoe. — ^Inbreeding of 
Baoee and Spedea.— Mntabilily of SpeoieB.— danifioation of Mankind. 
— Belation to the Ape. — The Human Kingdom aocording to Ofeoifiroj 
Saint-Hilaire and QoatreiiigeB. — Olgeotiona. 

GsKTLBKBK^ — It Has ever been the custom to mete with a 
different measure according to the object to be measured and 
the disposition of the measorer. Sooner or later^ however^ 
the frauds even if it be a pions frauds is detected and refuted. 
This is more readily effected in science, which acknowledges 
no other authority but its own laws resting upon well observed 
facts. My object in this lecture is to apply to apes the same 
method which we have followed as regards man. We shall 
select for this purpose two species of apes generally acknow- 
ledged as such, and shall examine their distinctive characters. 
As already observed in a previous lecture, it is perfectly indif- "^^ 

ferent what species are selected, as, considering the great 
analogy in the physical structure of man and ape, the charac- 
ters of the same parts are to be considered. Had we descended 
to the lower orders and classes of the aiiimal kingdom, it 
might have been objected that the great modifications ixl- 
structure would require the application of diffi^rent principles. 
This does not apply to the ape, and if it can be shown that 
such and such characters force us to assume different species in 
apes, the same characters must lead to the assumption of dif- 
ferent species in the human group. 

By mere accident, and not by choice, I have come into pos- 
seimon of two species of the American Cebus (BoUaffen). This 
genus is very numerous ; it is spread over the whole South 



-mH 



204 LSCTUBB Yin. 

American continent inhabited by simions tribes^ and exhibits 
such a variety in form^ that it is difficnlt to distingoish the 
different species merely by their external appearance. The 
cebus presents in this respect difficulties not unlike those at- 
tending the investigation of mankind^ since eveiy species ex- 
hibits such a diversiiy in form^ that by some they are considered 

Fig. 74. Skull of the brown S%joa (C«bw apella)^ top Tiew. 




as separate species, by others as varieties or races. It is, 
however, our object not only to ascertain whether the cebus 
alhifrona (Weisstimige Eollaffe) is only a variety of the common 
Capuchin ape, or a separate species ; but also to discover by 
what characters this species may be distinguished from the 
common brown sajou {cebus apeUa). That they belong to 
different species is undoubted. The brown and the whito 



LBCTXJBB Vni. 



205 



fronted cebns belong to two different divisions of the genus 
eebtis. The first, according to Qirbel, belongs to the species 
possessing five ribless lumbar vertebrsa, a compact stractare, 
a thick globular head^ powerful teeth, large canines, short 
limbs and tail ; whilst the white fronted Capuchin ape belongs 
to the species possessing six ribless lumbar yertebrae, small 

Fig. 76. Skull of the Cebw aXbifrotu, top view. 







canine teeth, and a slender structure. We thus find here 
more than a simple specific difference, so that some natural- 
ists felt justified in establishing two sub-genera; neverthe- 
less I selected these two species simply because in the Geneva 
Collection I found two male skulls of the same age and 
size. 

The Boll-apes {OeJms) possess a long haiiy roll-tail. The 



206 LBCTURB VIII. 

body is long and slender^ the limbs powerful^ tbe eyes small, 
the muzzle abort, tbe bead ronndisb, so tbat among all 
American apes tbey most resemble man — a resemblance wbicb 
is increased by tbeir baying around the face tnfts of bair 
resembling whiskers and beard. It is only the flat nose which 
mars the hnman likeness. The four hands are equally deve- 
loped, the hand itself is long and narrow, but the thumb of the 
posterior hand is longer and stronger than that of the anterior. 
The dental system oonsists of four chisel-shaped incisors^ two 
large projecting and somewhat curved canine teeth, presenting 
deep grooves on the inner side, and twelve molars in each jaw, 
so that the number of teeth amounts to thiriy-siz. The molars 
diminish in breiadth backwards, so that the hindmost is small 
and almost rudimentary compared with the other. 

We shall first examine the external aspect. The brown 
Cebus reaches to the size of a cat, and presents in middle age 
a yellowish brown colour, somewhat brighter on the beUy, 
whilst the vertex, the cheeks, forearm, hands and legs are dark 
brown or black. The face has a tinge of violet, the eyebrows 
are long, on the short forehead is brown hair so stiff that the 
-animal seems on a side view to be provided with two horns. 
The ear is covered with long soft hair ; the beard is of a paler 
shade. 

The 0ebu8 alhifrona was met with by Humboldt near the 
cataracts of the Orinoco, and is by most zoologists considered 
a mere varieiy of the Capuchin monkey. The face is bluish 
grey, forehead and eyemargins white, the body dark gprey on 
the back, of a lighter shade on the thorax and belly, the Umbs 
yellowish-white, the vertex brownish-grey, so that the animal 
seems to wear a cap on the head. The ears are veiy hairy. 
The common Capuchin monkey, to which this varieiy is said 
to belong, greatly resembles the Cebus as regards colour. 

The skull presents in. both species exactly the same shape. 
Viewed from above, we see an elongated oval, having its 
greatest breadth in the posterior part corresponding to the 
large occipital foramen. We must here certainly make allow- 
ance for the projection of the mastoid processes, the upper brims 
of which are continuations of those of the zygomatic arches. 



LSCTUBI Ym. 



207 



I shall presently giye the exact measnrements, here I shall 
only notice a few characters. 

On viewing the skull from above, that of the brown Cebns is 
distingciished by the rising of the temporal fossa above the 
Fig. 76. Skull of Ctbw apMa, side Tiew. 




Fig. 77. Skull of Cebua aXb\frimi, aide view. 










margin of the temporal line, passing behind the whole length 
of the superior orbital brim, and producing in the middle of 
the forehead a depression which causes the orbital ridge to 



208 LBCTXTSB Yin. 

project. The temporal line is thereby less distinct and runs 
nearly parallel with the central line^ until with a sadden cture 
it reaches the point of junction between the lambdoid and 
temporo-occipital sutnres. In the white-fronted Cebos, on the 
contrary^ the temporal line proceeds from about the middle of 
the superior orbital margin^ and rises in a curve towards the 
central line^ so that between the two temporal lines there 

Fig. 78. Base of sknU of the Brown Cebns. 




remains only a space of a centimetre^ it then turns abruptly to 
reach the same point as in the former species. In this way 
there is formed on the forehead a triangular space^ smooth and 
somewhat arched^ differing considerably from the depressed 



LSCTUBI Tin. 



209 



foreliead of the brown CebuB. As regarAs the rest^ the shape 
of the cranial bones and the coarse of the sntnres is the same 
in both. 

On viewing the skull firom the side^ scarcely any differ- 
ences are noticed excepting those mentioned. The posterior 
projection of the temporal bone, which, so to speak, continaes 

Hg. 79. SknU of .C0&1M aXbifrong, base. 




the zygomatic process, is less prominent in the brown Cebns, 
but shows behind it a deeper depression than in the albifrona. 
The zygomatic arch is higher and thinner in the brown Cebns ; 
in the albifrons rounder and thicker. The skull of the aJhu 
frons is more equally arched, whilst it is somewhat depressed 
in the middle in the brown Cebus ; in the latter the occipital 
squama is nearly horizontal, in the former it inclines inwards. 

F 



210 



LEOTUBx ym. 



On examining the skulls in fronts the orbits of the brown 
CeboB appear larger and wider; in the aJbifrona they are 
rounder^ smaller^ and the margins thicker and more massive. 
The maxillary region^ specially around the nose, appears nar- 
rower in the brown Cebus, and rather compressed behind the 
projecting root of the canine tooth, which has a downward 
direction ; whilst in the aUnfrans it is oblique, thicker, but less 
long and sharp. The two characteristic grooves on the inner 
side of the canine tooth are in the brown Cebus deeper than 
in the other species. 

On viewing the base of the skull (see figs. 78, 79), it seems 
in the aJinfrans on the whole broader, more massive, and better 
developed in all its parts than in the brown Cebus, in which 
the palate is longer and narrower, the front teeth more pro- 
jecting, and the zygomatic arch more curved. No difference is 
seen in the arrangement or form of the molar teeth, but the 
petrous bones are more prominent in the aJbifroru. 



TABLI OV 



OV TBM OXBUS IN lOLIJXKmUI. 



Albifhms. 



ApaOaw 



1 
2 
8 

4 

6 

6 

7 
8 

9 
10 

11 

12 

18 
U 

16 
16 
17 
18 



Longitadinal Giromnferenoe from pOBteiior marffin of 

oooipital foramen magnum to aiyeolar margm - 
From anterior margin St oooipital foramen to nasal 

Buture ------ 

From posterior brim of oooipital foramen to alyeolar 

margin ------ 

From anterior brim of oodpital foramen to alveolar 

margin ------ 

From anterior brim of oodpital foramen to basilar 

satnre - - - - - - 

From anterior brim of oooipital foramen to posterior 

marffin of palate - - - . - 

Lengw of palate - - - . - 

Greatest length of skull from alveolar margin to 

oooiput - - - - - 

Lengili from nasal sutare to oooipnt - 

Qreateet breadth of a inertical plane through the 

centre of the oooipital foramen - - - 

Transverse diameter on the posterior margin of the 

lygomatic ardh - 
Tranarerse diameter on the lowest point of the tem- 
poral fossa ------ 

Distance between the lygomatio ardhee 

Distance between the inner margins of the external 

auditories ------ 

Breadth of palate - - - - - 

Greatest diuneter poasing between the ^es 
Breadth of the eeptom - . . - 

Height of nasal aperture - . - - 



L50 


148 


64 


62 


72-6 


78 


60-6 


60 


16 


18 


81 
29 


82 
28 


90 
77 


. 91-6 

74 


64 


61 


61 


60 


40 
62 


41 
67 


81 
19 
42 
6 
17 


82 
18 
44 

6 
11 



LBOTUSB vin. 211 

Yon perceive from these detailsj that the skulls of these two 
speoiesj which some would distinguish as two sub-genera^ are 
much more like each other than the skulls of most human 
races and even tribes. We should^ in fact^ detect much wider 
differences between the dolichocephalous skull of a Swede and 
the brachycephalouB cranium of a Bussian ; between that of a 
Hottentot or an Austral Negro ; between that of a Irokese 
and a Botocudo; though all these various tribes are all in- 
cluded in one race. We are even able to point out greater 
differences between individuals belonging to the same stocky 
and it would be easy for me to show bj the juxtaposition of 
the skulls of a Gh^ubundeUj Zurich, or Bernese man^ that 
these skulls of Swiss tribes differ more from each other than 
those of the apes we have described. Even an inexperienced 
individual would find it easier to separate these human skulls 
in a collection than to assign the above ape-skulls to different 
species. 

No skeletons of the two species of apes are at mj disposal^ 
I cannot therefore furnish you with the measurements of the 
limbs and other parts. According to Gtiebel the skeleton pf 
the Cebus is distinguished bj greater solidity, that of the 
large Capuchin monkey being more elegant and slender. This 
is seen in the ribs, the limibar vertebrsd, pelvis, and sternum, 
in shortj in all parts of the skeleton. Besides this the Oebus 
has only five lumbar and twenty-four caudal vertebras^ whilst 
the Capuchin has six lumbar and twenty-five caudal vertebrsSj 
corresponding with the greater length of the tail. 

Having no internal parts at handj I give two brains fix>m 
Gratiolef s well known treatise. These brains belong to a 
simian group of the old world, which has by zoologists been 
divided into various siibgenera. 

The Ma/iaeus Menus j which inhabits Ceylon^ has a short tail^ 
whilst the Oercopifhecus CBthiops, originally probably a native of 
Senegambiaj has a very long tail. I have given also side views 
of the brains, and have in the first figure turned bade the 
operculum of the posterior lobe^ in order to show the transition 
gyri beneath it. I shall not enter into any details^ as even a 
superficial inspection shows that the form of the brain and its 

p2 



212 



LSCTTTBB VIIT. 



partSj the aaraiigement of the lobeSj of the conyolations and 
their sulci are so similar, as to amount onlj to individual dif- 
ferences. In the ceroopithecuB the margins of the gyri are a 
little more notched and arched, so that there exists an indica- 

Fig. 80. Brain of Wanderoo (Maeacus Bilemu), top view. 




Fig, 81. CereopUheeut aihiopB, top view (The Mangabey). 

Z 




tion of greater complexity in the convolutions, which is further 
developed in other apes. Apart from this the differences are 



WBCTXJBB Vm. 



213 



BO slight^ that they might in so delicate an organ be ascribed 
more or less to a difference in observation. Now compare with 
these the brains of the Hottentot Yenns and the German as 
given before. We may leave the inference to common sense. 
' Fig. 82. Brain of Maoaeus BUeMU, side view. 




Fig. 88. Brain of CercopUheeuB crthiop*, aide view. 




i 
n 

4 

i 



\^ 



The deecription of the figs. 80-88 is the same as in the preoeding brain figures. 

It is unnecessary to say more on this subject. Any person 
may select any two well characterised races of mankind, and 
having by comparison formed a scheme, let him proceed in the 
same way in Hie comparison of two well marked species of 
apes. The unprejudiced observer cannot faSl to find, as we 
have done, that the sum of the differences between two species 
of apes, is in no case greater, and in many cases much less 



214 LSCTUBi vin. 

than those obtaming between two races of mankind^ and he 
will arrive at the oondusion that the races of mankind mnst 
either be considered as different species^ or the species of apes 
must be designated races. But what is to become of systematic 
zoology, if the long and short-tailed species of apesj differing 
so much in external form that they hare eyea been divided 
into genera, are to constitute only varieties or races? All 
systematic natural history would go to ruin, and all simiadao, 
from the lowest ouistiti up to the gorilla, would be fused into 
one whirlpool, which would swallow up man and all his races. 

But we must now pause before proceeding further. You 
may justly complain that I have as yet given no definition of 
species or genus, of race or variety, and that, therefore, you 
are perfectly indifferent, whether the systemisers look upon wolf 
and dog, ass and horse, Negro and White, as so many genera, 
species, races or varieties, provided the analogies or differ- 
ences are so well established as to enable us to distinguish the 
respective animals. 

In some respects it might matter very litUe whether Negro 
and Mongol are placed in the same chest labelled " Man;'' for 
the classification of the animal kingdom is nothing but an 
arrangement of animals in chests, drawers, and pigeon-holes. 
But the question acquires importance if by the expression 
species we understand a permanent iype with fixed limits, 
which may admit of an ideal but not of a material relation to 
other species. It is therefore of importance for us to establish 
whether any particular form we meet with constitutes an 
independant species or not. 

We can at first only examine such animal forms individu- 
ally ; but the results we may obtain are insufiicient, as each 
individual has its own more or less marked peculiarity. We 
are therefore necessarily led, on the one hand, to search for the 
sum of analogies, and on the other, for the differences, cmd 
to infer from the results the degrees of affinity subsisting 
between the individual beings. 

Nature points out such aflinities. Family bonds exist as 
much in the animal Idngdom as in the human species, and are 
frequently in the former stronger and more lasting than in the 



LxcTUBS vin. 215 

latter. In most caseSj it is tme, this family life in animals 
extends onlj to one generation ; for when the yonng are able 
to snpport themselves^ they separate from the parents^ and the 
family connection is severed. Every year^ or even a shorter 
period; brings a new family, which again separates, to become 
perhaps the heads of another &mily. It, however, occasionally 
happens, as is the case with bears, that the eldest of the 
young remains at home, being appointed nurse to the younger 
generation, and is severely chastised by the mother if it 
neglects any of its duties. Wherever the families remain 
together, the society enlarges and a division of labour obtains, 
80 that the existence of the individual firequently depends on 
family life. The herds of deer, antelopes, and buffiJoes are 
probably only the members of one family grown up together 
and led by tiie oldest member of the herd. In such societies 
the family bonds are slender enough; but it is diflTerent in 
such social animals as bees, ants, etc., in which the individuals 
possess diflferent forms and organisations, according to the 
part they play in their domestic economy. 

The development of the young presents a series of con- 
ditions greatly differing from those of advanced age, and a 
very close examination is requisite for becoming convinced 
that an animal in the larval state is transformed into a subse- 
quent mature form. These deviations are so great, that up 
to Cuvier's time certain animals were classified when young 
as mollusca, and in the adult state among the articulata. 
There are also the sexual differences. We have seen that in 
man the physical differences between male and female are in 
eveiy respect greater than the differences existing between 
individuals of the same sex in different races ; and we also 
know that in many animals the sexual differences are so great, 
that the closest examination is requisite to establish their rela- 
tions to each other. 

In the lower animals we observe a series of development 
stages, which only terminate after several generations, so that 
not the child (so to speak) but the grandchild resembles the 
parents ; and there exist, probably, more complicated family 
connections, by which individuals seem to return to the origi- 
nal form by a roundabout way. 



216 UBCTUBK Ylll. 

The range of divergence is as yet far firom being exhansted. 
Every one knows that children of the same parents, thongh 
possessing a family likeness, are never perfectly alike, that 
even twins or aniTnals of the same litter still exhibit peca- 
liaritieB which enable ns to distingoish them. The range may 
be wide without transgressing the limits which separate the 
normal from the abnormal structure, and this is specially the 
case when the parents themselves occupy the limits of the 
normal' structure. Beserving the details for another occasion, 
I would here merely draw your attention to the fact that such 
peculiarities may be transmitted through several generations. 
Thus there are families in which supernumerary or webbed 
fingers have been transmitted through several generations, 
until frequent intermixture with normally formed individuals 
has led to the obliteration of such abnormities. 

To characterise the family the naturalist must study all 
these possible deviations, and it is clear that in the absence of 
direct observation he is liable to many errors. Natural histoiy 
furnishes many instances of the separation of parents and 
offspring, young and old, male and female, until direct obser- 
vation clearly established their relationship. 

Having now arrived at the first stage, namely, the recogni- 
tion of a certain type belonging to all individuals derived from 
a certain stock, we must proceed further and acknowledge 
that this iype may also belong to a number of individuals, 
which, as far as we can trace, are not descended from the self- 
same stock. Thus, for instance, taking into account the pre- 
sent condition of the globe, we cannot understand how the 
trout north of the Alps can belong to the same stock as those 
south of the Alps, separated as they ever have been by insur- 
mountable mountains ; or how the chamois of the Pyrenees 
can be directly related to those of the Alps, separated as they 
are by plains equally inaccessible to the mountain animals. 
And yet the sum of resemblances is so great that these animals 
might unhesitatingly be included in the same stock if their 
descent were not known to us. We recognise a type with 
certain definite characters which we term species, and which 
we might define as follow: — all individuals possessing such 



LSCTUU VIII. 217 

oommon characterSj which mark them as actnal or possible 
desoendants from the same parent stockj belong to the same 
species. 

Let ns for the present adopt this definition and keep to 
obseirationj whichj in most cases^ is nnable to trace actual 
descent^ bnt must attend to the characters of the individuals. 
We find in a certain region a type of animabj — a good species^ 
as naturalists would call it, — ^which is easily recognised ; we 
collect a number of such individuals, we dissect them, we ob- 
serve their developmentj compare them so as to obtain a per- 
fect knowledge of the species. The question arises now, is 
the type we have so closely studied universal and unalterable f 

Observation teaches that this question must be answered in 
the negative. We find almost all naturalists agreeing that 
species has a wide range, in which the characters of the indi- 
viduals composing it are changed. In all books and treatises, 
varieties are mentioned which are subordinate to species. But 
as regards the term variety, and the notion to be attached to 
it, its limits and relation to species, the opinions are conflict- 
ing; some authors calling that a variety which others term a 
species. LinnsBus defined variety, as any alteration produced by 
an accidental cause; GeoSroy St. Hilaire terms a variety a 
simple anomaly which does not obstruct the performance of 
any function. We may, perhaps, ask what is the limit of this I !!lr^$ 

simple deviation'; and as no general rule can be g^ven, it will \\i^^^ 

depend on the judgment of the observer what limits he assigns i t!^^ 

to variety. We find, in point of fact, that each type and each 
species has, in this respect, its own laws; that a deviation 
which is insignificant in the one may be great in another. It 
is, consequently, very difficult to lay down a general definition 
of variety, the more so as an accidental abnormity may become 
normal by its permanence. Let us examine this subject. By 
some acddentid influence a short-leg^ged ram is produced in a 
long-legged flock. This is an accidental abnormity confined 
to one individual, — ^the-case is an exceptional one, and the 
naturalist does not look upon this individual as constituting a 
variety. But this ram has descendants; the local oonditions, 
let us assume, favour the propagation of short-legged sheep 



218 LBCT17BB Yin. 

(in the case I hare in view it was done by the interference of 
man). The short legs become nnmeronSj and oonstitate a 
large proportion in the number of sheep of that region. We 
now possess a variety which, by natnralistSj is considered the 
prodnct of local influences. The variety is now described as 
the short-leggedj and in the mnseoms placed side by side with 
the long-legged sheep ; and the name of variety seems the 
more JHstifiable, since, among the lambs produced by the short 
legs, there are always some with longer legs, which seems a 
relapse into the original type. 

In the above case, it was the advantage of the proprietor 
to possess short-legged sheep unable to surmount the fences. 
He therefore interfered; he coupled his short-legged ram with 
his shortest-legged descendants, purged his flock from all the 
long legs, and ti^us he obtained, in the course of time, a short 
legged race, which is now spread over North America. Now, 
in the course of time the births of long-legged lambs have 
become rare among the short-legged sheep, and the abnormity 
has become permanent, so that man has first formed a variety, 
and finally a race, — for races are defined constant varieties, 
whose characters are permanently propagated. 

What man has done here, nature does everywhere. We 
may consider every species, with its distinguishing characters, 
as the product, to a great extent, of the influences acting upon 
it. Every day in the life of an individual is a struggle for 
existence. The individuals will be best developed where the 
struggle is easy. The conditions of life vary for each species ; 
hence each species will best thrive in one or several centres, 
but will degenerate or become extinct in others. We usually 
consider that the type of a species which is developed under 
the most favourable conditions; we consider as varieties or 
races such forms as under less &vourable conditions have de- 
viated. The mussels peculiar to the seas of our temperate 
zone become smaller, and are differently marked at the limits 
of their region, be it north or south. They miss the con- 
ditions requisite for their growth, and are no longer seen. 
But among the mussels on the (German and French coasts 
there are some which increase in size as they move towards 



LXOTUBS VIII. 219 

the north; snbh are the massels which find their vital oon- 
ditions in the arctic sea, in Ghreenland and Spitzbergen^ where 
thej acqnire their fnll development. Among the arctic mnsBels 
on the French coast, a particular type has been estabUahed, 
whichj having become permanent as an independent race, no 
mussels are now produced with the size or the markings of the 
arctic type. The smaller the region tenanted by a certain 
species, the more defined is its type; the wider the region, 
the greater the number of races and varieties. That which 
here interests us most is the inference that the abnormal form, 
and generally any deviation from any given type, by whatever 
influences it may have been produced, may, by propagation 
and transmission, g^iye rise to a variety, and that this variety 
may, by the constancy of its distinguishing characters, become 
a race, and be propagated as such. 

With regard to propagation, we observe a difference among 
races, some becoming obliterated in the progress of inter- 
mixture with other races; whilst some impart their peculia- 
rities to their descendants for many generations. Eveiy dog- 
fancier knows that the blood of a Newfoundland dog is almost 
indestructible, — ^that one crossing is sufficient to perpetuate 
some of the characters through many generations. But it is 
also known that the Newfoundland dog belongs to a race very 
probably the product of the countiy where it is found, and of 
the natural conditions of that countiy, and that this race may 
justiy be considered as a well-marked species. Those who 
include all dogs, from the Dingo of Australia to the Polar dog, 
in one species, will only look upon the Newfoundland dogs as 
a race which is distinguished above many others by the con- 
stancy of its characters. 

It is looked upon as characteristic of races or varieties that 
they admit of crossing, and that their descendants are in- 
finitely prolific. We shall, for the present, consider this axiom 
as established, though we cannot help observing that the 
proofs are not complete, and that some results in the breeding 
of domestic races do not accord with it. This much seems 
established, that in proportion as races become constant, the 
difficulty in pairing them increases, and that in the free state 



220 LXCTUBK YIU. 

raoea manifeBt as mndh antipathj to each other as so-oalled 
species^ so that extraordinary circiimstanceSy or the interference 
of man, is necessary to overcome that antipathy in order to 
effect the crossing. 

Species^ according to Linn»ns, is the corner-stone npon 
which systematic natural history rests. LinnaBos considers 
species as an originally created form. Boffon^ whose opinions 
osdllatedi tanght that all individuals which produce a prolific 
offspring belong to one species^ and according as authors at- 
tached more weight to propagation or classification, the agree- 
ment in characters, or the production of prolific descendants, 
became the centre around which the definition turned. Thus 
Andreas Wagner includes under one species all individuals 
which produce prolific descendants, without any reg^ard to 
external characters; so that the same man who assumed 
hundreds of species of animals, from mere differences in their 
fur, would at once include wolf, jackal, and the domestic dog, 
in the same species, if it could be shown that they produce, in 
crossing, prolific descendants. Agassiz, on tiie contrary, 
rejects prolificacy of offspring as a distinguishing mark of 
species, which he constructs solely from external characters 
and their relations to surrounding nature. 

The real cause of such discrepancies must be sought for in 
the practical treatment of science, and the tendency attributed 
to it. The reason why some embrace one, and others a dif- 
ferent theory, is that the results are conflicting if you start 
from any assumed axiom. Allow me to explain this point. 
We may boldly assert that, among the many thousand species 
now known, the number of which will, in the course of time, 
rise to a million, there are not one hundred whose inbreeding 
has been traced so far as to enable us to assert that they are 
infinitely prolific; we cannot even in the strictest sense assert 
this of our domestic animals, and still less of wild animals. 
As regards, therefore, the gpreat majority of species, as Oiebel 
has proved, propagation is purely hypoQietical. You will also 
observe that, in discussions on the establishment of new 
species, the faculty of propagation is taken into account. 
Men dispute about the value or worthlessness of distinctive 



UCTUBB vm. 221 

chaiacterBj and oompare these with such as are considered 
as dedsiTe in similar species ; but they never think of insti- 
tuting experiments in regard to the propagation of the dif- 
ferent species; and thus two naturalistSj though perfectly 
agreed about the definition of species, may entertain different 
opinions as regards the application of the definition^ so that 
one assumes ten di£Ferent species where the other only sees 
one species with ten varieties. In living nature, the spedfio 
character of propagation might be discoverable ; but in extinct 
animals, — ^those thousands of species which have disappeared 
from the surface of the earth and are only known to us from 
their relics, — ^such proofs cannot be g^ven; and pakdontology 
would be deprived of a basis if species could only be deter- 
mined by propagation, and not by distinctive characters. 

There can thus be no doubt that practically it is only the 
distinguishing characters which must guide us; whilst the 
test of propagation can only be applied to man, the domestic 
animals, and some others standing next to man. But when 
we tiy to combine the distingpiishing diiaracters with the re- 
sults of propagation, we meet with the most glaring contra- 
diction, inasmuch as certain animals produce a fertile progeny, 
and yet differ far more from each other than those which pro- 
duce sterile hybrids. GKebel has scientifically demonstrated 
that the races of dogs which produce a fertile progeny present 
in size, hair, colour, the structure of the skeleton, the number 
of toes, the formation of the skull and teeth, much greater 
differences than the horse and the ass, which produce sterile 
hybrids. Such, therefore, as consider all dogs as races of one 
species, must admit that, as regards the distinctive characters, 
the races of some species may be more remote from each other 
than species, — an admission which upsets all systematic natural 
history. 

Species has bees characterised as a permanent type; and it 
can easily be shown that such naturalists as assume this im- 
mutability theoretically, are practically forced to assume va- 
rieties and races. Species has also been spoken of as an 
original type, something primitive and fundamental ; and yet 
it must be confessed that, in the history of the earth, spedes 



LECTURE Vin. 

haTo arisen and hare perished like the flowers in summer. 
Species has forther been defined as a collection of individuals 
who transmit their characters regularly and indefinitely ; but 
it has not been considered that thousands of species have be- 
come extinct^ some of them even in historical times, specimens 
of which are only to be seen in our museums. To cite only 
one instance of this kind, I would mention that the great auk 
{Alca impennis), which formerly inhabited Denmark, and in 
1842 still existed in Iceland, is now entirely extinct, so that 
only some twenty of their skins are preserred in different 
museums. Species, then, is alterable by external influences, 
and arises and perishes like individuals. 

On more closely examining the definitions of race and 
species, sanctioned by usage, it may be reduced to an historical 
basis. We assume races where we know, or think we know, 
their common origin ; we assume species where their origin is 
hidden in the past. We assume races in domestic animals 
where, by our interference, we have succeeded in producing 
varieties. We assume races in mankind, because we believe 
we have evidence that the differences in form have arisen in 
historical times. No man would certainly have doubted the 
specific difference in mankind, if the unity of the human 
species had not to be defended at any price, — ^if a tradition had 
not to be supported in opposition to the plainest facts, — a 
tradition which has been the more venerated because it runs 
counter to positive science. 

As regards species, then, we hold fast by the principle that 
the genus Homo consists of several species, which deviate from 
each other as much, if not more, than most eimiadce ; and if 
the principles of systematic zoology are to be of any value, 
they must be as applicable to the human as to the simious 
species. 

With regard to general classification, we distinguish genera, 
families, orders, classes, provinces, and kingdoms ; the latter 
being the great divisions constituting the animal, the vege- 
table, and the mineral kingdom, comprehending all existing 
forms. We shall now examine the relations in which the 
species of mankind stand to this classification. 



LBCTUBB Till. 

That all linman races belong to the same genus admits of 
no doubt. The sum of characters which connect the white 
with the black, on the one hand, and separate him, on the 
other, from the most anthropoid ape, are, by the admission of 
all naturalists, so great, that they determine a separation as a 
genus and a family. But now opinions £yerge. Whilst some 
would, according to zoological characters, consider the human 
genus as a family of the simious type ; others would consider 
man as constituting a separate kingdom, of the same value as 
the vegetable and animal kingdom. Let us shortly examine 
these theories. 

It is undeniable that, in the human and the simious struc- 
ture, one fundamental plan is perceptible, which is well marked 
in most parts. The formation of the brain, the structure of 
the skeleton, the position of the bowels, — aU indicate this 
fundamental plan. But within this fundamental plan, which 
is as plain as that in the camivora and ruminants, there occur 
deviations, such as we have explained in a former lecture ; and 
the question is whether tihese deviations are sufficiently great 
to justify a separation from the ape, or whether in tlie ape 
family itself there obtain differences as great as between man 
and ape. 

Naturalists distinguish from the apes proper so-called half- 
apes {prosimice), which, as regards the form of the limbs and 
hands, are perfect apes, but are distinguished by form of skull, 
brain, and teeth. The hands are generally well-developed; 
only the forefinger of the posterior, and sometimes that 
of the anterior extremities, is provided with claws, adapted 
for scratching out the insects from fissures. These de- 
viations would scarcely render a separation necessary, as 
greater differences in the formation of the hands occur also in 
European and American apes, in some of which the thumb in 
the fore extremities is either entirely absent or curtailed to a 
stump. The differences in the structure of skull, brain, and 
teeth seem, however, sufficiently important to justify a separa- 
tion of the prasimice from the apes proper. The cranium is 
round and small, the muzzle prominent ; the teeth scarcely 
resemble those of the apes, they are serried, exhibiting no 



224 LSCT17BS vm. 

gapj as seen in most apes ; the superior incisors are sttmied, 
the lower projecting nearly horizontallj^ in shorty according to 
the dental formation^ the prostmicB seem to belong to the in- 
sectivorous mammalia. AlsOj with regard to cerebral structure, 
thej approach the insectiyora ; they possess no posterior lobe, 
but an olfactoiy bulb, not possessed by the former; they have, 
however, like the apes, a Sylvian fissure. The prosimice are 
usually considered as a sub-order, from the formation of the 
limbs, which certainly are simious; but as, despite the re- 
semblance of limbs, insectivora are separated from caniivora, 
the prosimisB might also be separated irom the ape, and placed 
among the insectivora. Whilst, therefore, many naturalists 
look upon the prosimias as a family of the primates or quadru- 
mana, and others make a sub-order of them, we might, on the 
ground of their dental and cerebral structure, claim for them 
a separate order. 

The same conditions occur in mankind. The chief differ- 
ences consist in the structure of the skull, brain, and teeth ; 
whilst t^ differences in the extremities, though sufficiently 
characteristic, occupy, as regards importance, only a secondaiy 
rank. The great preponderance of Uie cranium over the fSsunal 
part, the development of the anterior lobes and the convolu- 
tions, the serried teeth, would alone secure for man a position 
above the apes, such as is assigned to the latter above the pro^ 
simuB. When to this is added the peculiar structure of the feet, 
a distinction which is not obliterated by the prehensile foot of 
the gorilla, the separation of the human genus from the ape is 
as justifiable as the establishment of a separate order for the 
phocidoe, which, as regards cerebral and dental structure, be- 
long to the camivora, but claim a separation on account of the 
development of their extremities. 

Our opinion as rega;rds the classification of mankind is, that 
it is of the same value as that of the apes, and that both be- 
long to a common type in the series of mammals. 

It may be said that no modem author lays such stress as we 
do upon the zoological differences prevailing among mankind ; 
for the Bub-dass which Owen would create for it, is, with the 
material facts of cerebral formation upon which it was founded. 



UBCTUBX Yin. 225 

gone the way of aQ flesh. But recendy t>wo Frenchmen^ 
Geofiroy St. Hilaire and QnatrefageSj have attempted to deter- 
mine the position of man^ not according to the peculiarities of 
his organisation, bnt according to qualities external to the 
physical organism. I shall offer some observations on this 
subject after quoting the remarks of the respective authors. 
Isidore (Geofiroy St. Hilaire says ': '' Sensation and motion alone 
constitute the animal ; and aH efforts to render the definition 
more perfect, by adding other characteristics, only render it 
less philosophiod and correct. The characters, derived from 
the structure of the animal, at once distingpiished from others 
derived from its qualities, are neither essential nor constant, 
and can by no means rank with the attributes of sensation 
and spontaneous motion. 

''It is in this way that the chief objection to the esta- 
blishment of a human kingdom is removed. Let us abandon 
to the subdivisions of natural history those structural charac- 
ters by which every being is distinguished. The true know- 
ledge of the great divisions of nature, of provinces and 
kingdoms, lies in a different sphere. The animal is distin- 
guished from the plant by peculiar faculties, which are oblite- 
rated where animality ceases, and it is by virtue of these only 
that it belongs to a separate kingdom. Even so is man 
separated from the animal kingdom by his incomparably higher 
quialities and capacities, — ^by the inteUectual and moral fiicul- 
ties, which are added to sensation and motion; and it is by 
these that he constitutes the highest division in nature, — ^the 
hvman empire, above the animal kingdom. 

''The plant,'' continues (Geofiroy, "lives, — ^the animal lives 
and feels; man lives, feels, and thinks.'' In another passage 
the distinctive character of man is said to consist in "intelli- 
gence ;" in other sentences, again, it is said, " Moral life is, in 
tiie human kingdom, added to vegetative and animal life;" 
and again, " there may be degrees in the development of the 
vital, sensitive, and intellectual qualities ; but there is nothing 
intermediate between life and non-life, — ^feeling and insensi- 
bility, — thinking and not thinking." Thus, the animal, ac- 
cording to G^fioy, does not think, — man alone thinks ; the 

Q 



226 LBCTUU VUI. 

question is^ therefore^ disposed of; yet we cannot oonceive 
how so monstroas an assertion can be sastained. 

Qoatrefages is more cautions. He says^ " Shall we find the 
characters of the human kingdom in the intellectual capacity? 
Certainlyj the comparison of the mental development of man 
with the rudimentary intelligence of even the most gifted 
animals, never suggested itself to me. The interval between 
brute and man is, in this respect, so great that a perfect differ- 
ence between them was admissible. But this is no longer 
tenable. The animal does possess intelUgence; and though 
their fundamental capacities are less developed, they neverthe- 
less exist ; the animal feels, wills, remembers, deliberates, and 
the correctness of its judgment seems frequently miraculous ; 
whilst the very errors which the animal commits give evidence 
that its judgments are not the mere results of a blind and neces- 
sary impulse. We, moreover, observe great inequalities in the 
various gproups of animals. Thus, among the vertebrata, we 
see that birds much excel fishes and reptiles, but are much in- 
ferior to mammals. It would, therefore, not be surprising 
if, among the latter, we were to find some animal possessing a 
much higher intelligence ; this would only be a progress, but 
no fundiunentally new phenomenon. 

'* What we observe of intelligence in general, applies also 
to its highest manifestation, — ^language. Man, it is true, alone 
possesses articulate language ; but two classes of animals pos- 
sess voice. They, like ourselves, produce tones which express 
feelings and thoughts, and which are not only understood 
by individuals of the same species, but even by man. The 
hunter learns quickly to understand what is called the lan- 
guage of birds and beasts ; nor does it require a long ap- 
prenticeship to distinguish their sounds of love, passion, pain, 
or alarm. This kind of language is, no doubt, very ru- 
dimentary, consisting, it might be said, of mere interjections, 
but it is sufficient to establish the mutual relations of these 
creatures. But does this language differ fundamentally 
from that of man by the mechanism of its production, its 
object, and its results ? Anatomy, physiology, and ex- 
perience teach that it does not; here, also, we find a 



LBOTUBI Yin. 227 

progress^ — an unmiBiiBe development^ bat nothing absolutely 
new. 

'' Finally^ as regards the qualities of the hearty which partly 
depend on instinct and partly on intelligence^ we find their 
manifestations in the animal as we find them in man. The 
animal loves and hates ; it is known how greatly many of them 
are attached to their yoong^ and how strong is the instinctive 
hatred with which some animals pnrsae each other. It is 
known how the congenital faculties may be further developed 
by training. We also find among our domestic animals indi- 
vidual characters^ as we find among men. We all know how 
docile and goodnatured some dogs are, and how vicious and 
irritable others. Man and brute resemble each other, perhaps, 
most as regards character. 

" Where, then, shall we find this something new which is 
absent in the animal and belongs exclusively to man, and 
which would justify the establishment of a separate kingdom ? 
In order to overcome this difficulty we shall follow the natur- 
alist, and examine aU the characters of the being to which we 
are to assign a place. We have hitherto directed our attention 
chiefly to the organic, physiological, and intellectual characters 
of man; we must now consider him in his moral aspect: 
here we find two fundamental features which have, as yet, 
escaped our notice. 

" We find in every society, possessing a language sufficiently 
developed to express abstract ideas, words designating virtue 
and vice, good and evil. Where language fails in this respect, 
we find opinions and habits which plainly show that the 
notions exist, though not expressed iu the vocabulaiy. Even 
among the most savage peoples and tribes to which, by 
general consent, is assigned the lowest rank in humanity, we 
see public or individual actions performed, which show that 
man recognises something above what is physically good or 
evil. Among nations farther advanced, the whole political 
economy rests upon this basis. 

" The abstract idea of moral good and evil thus exists in 
every human society ; nothing leads us to suppose that it also 
exists in animals : here, then, we have the first character of 

q2 



228 LKCTUBX Tin. 

tlie human kingdom. In order to avoid the word consdenoe^ 
which is frequently taken in too restricted a sense^ I call morality 
that quality which ftimishes man with the above notions, just 
as we term sensibility that quality which perceives impressions. 

''There are other alUed conceptions which are found 
in all, even the smallest and most degraded, societies of 
man. Everywhere man believes in another world different 
from ours, in mysterious beings of a higher nature, which 
must be feared or worshipped; in a future life after the 
destruction of the body; in other words, the notions of a 
deity and a future life prevail as generally as those of good 
and evil. However faint these ideas may be, they everywhere 
give rise to important facts. From such notions arise a 
number of habits and usages which, even among the most 
savage peoples, are the equivalents of the greater manifesta- 
tions among civilised peoples. 

'' Never has anything similar or analogous been observed in 
animals ; we find, therefore, in the existence of these concep- 
tions a second character of the human kingdom, and designate 
the sum of the qualities which furnish man with these notions, 
— religiousness.'' 

So far Quatrefages. As will be perceived, he is more in 
accordance with the facts than his late colleague, Greoffroy ; for 
he acknowledges that the animal possesses all the intellectual 
faculties, — ^that it thinks, considers, communicates with its 
fellows ; in short, that the mental qualities are the same as in 
man, and differ only in degree. But according to him, mo- 
rality and religiousness are something perfectly distinct and 
new ; and as they occur only in man, they form an essential 
character, which distinguishes him from the brute. Let us 
examine these assertions. 

We shall assume, for a moment, that what Quatrefages 
terms religiousness is found among all peoples, without excep- 
tion ; still, this would not prove it to be a new mental quality 
in man. It would simply prove that man- forms ideas concern- 
ing certain phenomena which he cannot fathom, which the 
animal, from its inferior mental capacity, is not induced to 
take into any consideration. The idiotic cretin takes no 



LICTUBB VIII. 229 

notice of thnnder ; the ample mindecl, in ignorance of the 
cause, fears it; the heathen imagines a thnnder-god; the 
Christian, also, believes that Ood speaks in thnnder; whilst 
the inteUigent man produces himself thunder and lightning 
when provided with the proper apparatus. This is the usual 
march of religious ideas ; and I know of no sufficient reason 
for endowing the human race with religiousness as an exclusive 
quality. 

R. Wagner vindicated this religious qualily, and even 
thought that there was an org^ of faith in man. The germ, 
at least, of a beUef in some mysterious, higher power exists, 
also, in animals. The dog is evidently afraid of spectres, quite 
as much as the Breton or the Basque ; every out-of-the-way 
phenomenon not explained to it by its nose, renders even the 
most courageous dog a coward. I knew a grove which the 
peasants firmly believe to be haunted by a fieiy spectre, 
and prove it by the alleged fact that dogs which have passed 
the night in it will not re-enter it. It is the fear of the 
apparently supernatural which is the germ of religious ideas ; 
and this fear is developed in a high degpree in our domestic 
animals, the dog and the horse. The germ of these ideas, 
as well as of others allied with it, being by man developed 
into a system, becomes a faith. Mathematics has just as 
much claim, as this belief in the supernatural, to be considered 
an exclusive, fundamental quality of man. No animal knows 
mathematics, geometry; but there are animals which can 
count, though only up to a few ciphers ; and this is the germ 
of the whole edifice which man has erected, and by means of 
which he has measured the celestial spaces. In the same way, 
the animal has no fidth, but it fears something unknown ; and 
is it not the fear of something unknown — ^the fear of Gt>d— 
from which man has developed his religion ? 

With regard to morality, or the idea of good and evil, it 
cannot be maintained that it exists absolutely in man. It 
always corresponds to the condition of society ; it is, in one 
word, the result of the social condition. Whilst in the 
civilised world it is a capital crime for the son to kill his 
old decrepit father, there are Indian tribes where such an 



280 LICTUBS VIU. 

action is considered praiseworthy. The notions of good and 
evil arise from the wants of socieiy and the relations of in- 
dividuals to each other. Now if this be tme^ it is equally 
certain that the notion of good and evil is as much prevalent 
in social animals as in hmnan societies. The first step in 
society is the family ; the notions of good and evil consist^ as 
regards the child^ chiefly in obedience towards the parents, 
and as regards the parents, in caresses or punishment. Ob- 
serve now in a cat or bear family, the behaviour of the young 
and their education by the parents, and say, whether it is not 
the image of a human family in all its manifestations of good 
and evil. I grant it is cat morality and bear morality which is 
impressed upon the young, still it is a morality, and the kitten 
which does not come when the mother calls it, the two-year- 
old bear who does not properly tend his brothers and sisters, 
is as much scolded and cuffed as our dear littie ones when they 
neglect the first moral and Christian duty — filial obedience. 

With regard to animal societies, I beg to quote an extract 
from Dr. Brehm's '' Illustrirte Thierleben'^ (illustrations of 
animal life) : — 

'' The most gifted male member of a horde of apes becomes 
the leader. This dignity is, however, not conferred upon 
him by ' universal suffrage' ; he only obtains it after having 
conquered the other male competitors. The longest teeth and 
the strongest arms decide. Whoever does not voluntarily 
submit, is bitten and knocked about until he listens to reason. 
The crown belongs to the strongest, and his wisdom lies in his 
teeth. The strongest apes are usually the oldest, to which the 
younger and less experienced must defer. The leader demands 
and enforces implicit obedience. Chivalrous behaviour is not his 
aflhir; he takes the reward of love by storm. No female member 
of the horde must carry on any love affidr. His eyes are sharp, 
and his discipline severe ; he won't take a joke in his amours. 
The females who should commit themselves, are so cuffed 
that they take care not to offend again j the youthful ape 
which intrudes into the harem of his Sultan is treated much 
worse.*' 

4c « « « 4c ♦ '^ As for the rest, the leader pexforms 



LicTtJBi yui. 281 

liiB fbnctions with great dignity. The esteem which he enjoys 
imparts a certain independence to his character which is want- 
ing in the rest. He is moreorer much flattered, and the 
females are anxious to g^rant him the highest favoan. They 
are rery zealoos to free his hairy garment from troublesome 
parasites, and he receives this homage with the dignity of a 
Pacha, whose favourite slave strokes his feet. On the other 
hand, he watches carefully over the security of his subjects. 
He surveys every comer ; he trusts no one, and so he is always 
the first to discover any dan^r.^^ 

We do not understand how far the difference between the 
morality in this simian society, depending on the will of 
the leader, and that of a horde of Australians, in which the 
strongest equally lays down the law, is sufficiently important 
to base upon it a new kingdom. Theoretical absolutism knows 
no other morality than the will of the ruler. He makes the laws, 
he establishes the faith, he determines the morality ; whoever 
acts or teaches differently may be punished or killed. Does 
the morality of an absolute theoretical despotism then greatly 
differ frt>m that prevailing in a simian society. 

Thus this distingpiishing category of Quatre&ges cannot be 
sustained. These two French authors have undertaken im- 
possibilities — ^to find qualities without any material substratum. 
Where the organisation is formed after the same type, the 
qualities and functions resulting from it must exhibit the 
same fundamental unity. 

Before quitting this subject, I would, for the benefit of those 
who wish to erect for man a special throne, quote the following 
words of Wundt: — ^''Animals are creatures whose intelligence* 
differs from men only by the degree of development. There 
exists between man and brute no wider gulf than is to be 
found within the animal kingdom itself. All animated or- 
ganisms form a chain of connected beings without an in- 
terval. An antiquated psychology, with its great variety of 
mental fitoulties, draws here and there lines of demarcation. 
When we have succeeded in representing mental life as a 
whole, we are bound to admit that everything animated forms 
a part of the whole.'' 



w 



232 



LECTURE IX. 

Primeral period of Mankind.— DisooTory of HnmAa BemaiiiB MMciated 
with thooe of Extinct Animals.— Cnner^t OlgeotionB.— Human R e mftina 
in Cayerna.— Formation of CayerDa!-— Stalaotitea.— Oaaeona breoda.— 
Pftaerration of Bonea.— Mode in which the Caverna were filled.— The 
Extiaet Cayem Inhabitanta. — ^Extinct and liying Speoiea. — Extinction 
of aome apedea within the Historical Period.— Schmerling'a DiaooTeriea. 
— ^The Cavern of Engia. — Cavema of Lombrive and Lherme.^ahrottoea 
of Axcy.— Grotto in the Neandar Valley.— Grotto of Anzignao. 

Gentlsmsn^ — ^We now turn from the living to the dead. 
There ib, perhaps, no snbject of inqniiy more interesting than 
the primeral period of the * human species, which reaches 
farther back than written docoments or tradition, and to 
which we can only obtain a clue by the disoovery of human 
remains or objects of human industry. The methods used in 
historical investigations are inapplicable here, and we are fully 
justified in asserting that it is no longer the historian and the 
antiquary, but the geologist alone, who is entitled to give an 
opinion on the primitive ages, deduced from geological pre- 
mises. The traces which primitive peoples have left behind, 
the remains which testify to their existence, are only so far 
distingroished from those of extinct species of animals, that 
with their bones and teeth are found associated objects of 
industry, which su£5ciently prove that man, even at the earliest 
period, applied his mind to multiply the means with which 
nature had endowed him for the struggle of existence. The 
hyaena cracks bones by the power of its jaws. Man breaks 
them with stones to obtain the marrow. The beast defends 
itself with horns, teeth, and claws, given to it by nature ; man 
endeavours to manufacture arms and tools of bone, horn, and 
stones, and constant attention directed to these objects leads him 
on towards civilisation. Animals enjoy the warmth of fire if 



IJBCTURS IX. 233 

the^ aoddentallj meet with it ; man alone keeps it op, «o as to 
render it serviceable for yarions pturposes. As &r as our 
investigations reach into the recondite past, we find associated 
with human bones and teeth objects of art, though radelj 
fibshioned, tools of wood, stone, horn, bones, and half-baked 
clay, together with coals, which prove that man knew the nse of 
fire. Bat there are no traditions, no legends which can serve as 
guides in reference to the first period of human existence. Even 
in the oldest civilised countries, where from the earliest period 
monuments and statues speak in hieroglyphics, whence gpreat 
scholars have endeavoured to collect the old traditions and to de- 
cipher the primitive history of the country— -even in these oldest 
traditions there is no trace of a pre-historio non-metallic period 
of which stone hatchets and pile-structures testify. It is only 
the position of these relics, their relation to the beds upon 
which they rest, or by which they are covered, their association 
with other vegetable and animal remains, which can afibrd 
any due to the relation of the primitive man to the external 
world, his mode of life, alimentation, dress, habitation, cus- 
toms, manners, and social condition. 

The field, as you will observe, is very extensive; the way to 
it is dark ; knowledj^ difficult. From the fragments of the 
scenery after the theatre is burned down, we are to gpiess the 
pieces which have been played ; from the remains of those who 
have perished we are to say what part they played. Wherever we 
cast our glance, there is uncertainty and doubt ; it is only with 
the greatest caution that we can grasp a guiding thread which 
in this labyrinth may lead us to a starting point. The least 
mistake in observation may engender an innumerable series of 
errors ; every unfounded or illogical deduction may lead us so 
much astray that return becomes impossible. But the most 
dangerous rocks, against which the vessel of the inquirer must 
inevitably be wrecked, are the traditional prejudices of church 
dogmas rfud bibUcal exegesis. Whosoever here attempts any 
mediation is at once carried into a whirlpool of absurdities, 
from which no degpree of prowess as an oarsman is able to 
extricate him. But the greater the difficulties, the greater the 
satisfiustion of the inquirer who may succeed in raising a 



234 LBCTUBS IZ. 

stmotore upon the fonndBtion of facts — a Btmctnre which may 
braye both the attacks of criticism and the serpent tooth of 
hatred. In proportion as error is easy, so is onr admiration 
sincere for sach men as derote their industry and their minds 
to throw light into the Egyptian darkness. 

It is my object to lead you at once into the remotest anti- 
quity known to us, and I shall treat in this lecture of fossil 
man. Not of fanciful stone-forms, or skeletons of unknown 
animals ; not of that petrified horseman, designed upon a block 
of sandstone at Fontainebleau, and about which they quarrelled 
in Paris forty years ago ; not of the salamander of Oeningen, 
which Sddeuchzer took to be the remains of a four years old 
child, and under a portrait of which a theologian wrote the 
touching lines — '' Melancholy skeleton of a poor sinner, soften 
the stony heart of the present generation I " I shall say 
nothing of such mistakes, but shall treat of real and undoubted 
human remains, found associated with extinct species of ani- 
mals, and petrified animal bones, in strata whose great age is 
undoubted. 

I have here indicated the limitation which the expression 
" petrified" or '' fossil" must undergo, if it is to be correctiy 
applied. The question is not whether human bones are more 
or less penetrated by solutions of petrifying salts, or more or 
less deficient in organic matter; the question, on the contrary, 
is whether the primitive man saw animals different from sudi 
as now exist in our country ; whether he hunted other beasts 
than such as inhabit our forests ; whether he dwelt upon a sur- 
face which has changed since the historical period ; whether 
he survived convulsions, which destroyed a number of animals. 

Until a recent period, this question was unconditionally 
answered in the negative. Cuvier laid it down, that the 
occurrence of human remains along with bones of extinct 
animals was unproved ; that the facts adduced rested upon 
error; that the petrified Guadaloupe skeletons were recent 
formations ; and that fossil human bones would not be found 
associated with those of extinct animals. As is usually the 
case when some great authority lays down a law, so it was 
here. The facts discovered, here and there, were neglected. 



LSCTUBB IX. 285 

oonaiclered as errors^ and eyerihiiig relating to fossil man 
was set aside. When^ howeTer^ latterly, there were fonnd 
products of art, stone hatchets in beds containing hanhs of 
extinct animals, the attention was again directed to the results 
formerly obtained in the exploration of grottoes and fissures. 
The methodical examination of such spots was now carried on 
with renewed zeal, and though but a comparatiTely short 
period has elapsed since these studies were recommenced, the 
results obtained are great. But before touching upon the 
discovery of human remains in cayems, grottoes, and fissures, 
I must offer some few observations on certain geological phe- 
nomena and important facts pertaining to this inquiry. 

It has been repeatedly and justly observed that, there is 
scarcely any solid rock upon the earth which is not somehow 
torn or split ; it has even, with some exaggeration perhaps, 
been maintained, that there is not a block found of the size of ; 

one cubic meter which does not show some fissure. These !t\ 

fissures are generally very fine, andfirequently newly cemented ,§ 

by trickling water. Thus, in dark-coloured chalks, we firequently ^ 

find a network of white calcareous veins representing the 
original fissures. The lodes which are sterile or filled with '1;;;f; 

ore, are but large fissures of this kind, which have gradually 
been filled with the deposit of mineral matter. In these 
deposits, again, are found cavities not filled up. Fissures quite Ij^j 

empiy are also frequently seen. In other instances, it may be &] 

seen how the trickling water not only furnished ciystalline jj!!]'^ 

deposits, but that clay, earth, sandstone, and pebbles have been 
introduced into the fissures. Nothing is more frequent than 
to find such deposits in the fissures, so that the maigins of 
the crevices do not exactly correspond, and, if the fissure be 
not perpendicular, there are alternate contractions and expan- 
sions. Neither is it rare to find fragments of the surrounding 
rooks filling the fissures ; and there are even mountains and 
hills presenting the aspect of heaps of irregular superposed 
blocks with intermediate fissures, whose form and size is con- 
stantly changing under the influence of atmospheric action. 

Whilst, on the one hand, the trickling waters form in most 
stones crystalline deposits, it is undoubted that they also 



'SI 



m:\: 



236 LBCTUBB a. 

extract from the rocks certain elements^ and that this extrac- 
tion is nowhere greater than in the gypseous and chalk 
moohtains; because in these latter the dissolving power oi 
simple water is augmented by the addition of carbonic acid^ 
which is found in all. atmospheric waters. For this reason^ a 
deposit will be speciallj formed in such fissures, where a 
small quantity of water trickles down slowly and partly evapo- 
rates, whilst, on the contrary, where large quantities of water 
pass through rapidly, the fissure becomes rather enlarged by 
the removal of its contents. The origin of the large cavities 
in horizontal fissures is, however, mainly attributable to the 
falling in of beds deprived of their supports, which thus form 
wide spaces in the interior of the mountains. 

All these phenomena, from the finest crack to the largest 
cavern, are closely connected ; their formation being confined 
neither to time nor place ; the filling up depending on local 
conditions. Where there is no access for the water from above, 
it can only enter from the sides or springs which may rise up 
from beneath. If there be external apertures, springs, brooks, 
and streams may enter and form a subterraneous river system, 
as actually existing in many spots, but nowhere so well deve- 
loped as in Carinthia and the Krain on the platform above 
Trieste, where is found a series of subterranean lakes connected 
by rivers, partly navigable, and inhabited by various animals. 

It is customary to make a distinction between crevices of 
little width, running more or less perpendicularly ; grottoes, 
which are but short cavities, with externally wide apertures ; 
and caverns, consisting of a succession of vaults, connected by 
narrow channels. The grottoes, or balmen as they are called, 
(probably from a Celtic word) in Switzerland, South Germany, 
and France, frequently owe their origin to soft beds of marl, 
carried off from beneath the harder lime beds, which now cover 
them-; they are often only the inlet of caverns cut off by the 
closure of the fissure. Caverns, on the contraiy, are sometimes 
of surprising dimensions, extending in some cases for miles 
under the ground, frequently containing chambers one hundred 
feet in height, and as many in diameter. These chambers are 
not always situated in the same plane, but have to be reached 



LBCTUBS IX. 287 

from above or from below by ladders^ and the entrance is 
sometimes so narrow that it requires to be enlarged before a 
person can pass through. 

Having thus shortly described the formation of the crevices^ 
gprottoes, and cayems, let us glance at their internal condition. 
Most of these caverns are found in the chalk formation of old 
and recent origin. The Devonian and carboniferous limestone 
of Ireland, England, Belgium, and Westphalia; the magnesian 
limestone of the Hartz mountains ; the Jura limestone of 
France, Germany, and Switzerland ; the chalk and the num- 
mulitic masses of the Pyrenees, Alps, and Apennines contain 
caverns, some of which have acquired sufficient celebrity to 
attract numbers of travelling sight-seers. What first strikes 
such tourists is the curious form of the stalactites, which by 
torchlight assume most fantastic shapes. These stalactites 
are but the crystalline deposits of the. trickling water which 
hold lime in solution, and they appear brown or yellowish 
according as the water is impregnated with clay or earth. 
The size of these stalactites gives no certain clue to their 
age. The deposits vary even in the same cave according to 
the quantity and quality of the water. Bones and pebbles are 
rarely found in the stalactites. This only occurs when the 
cavern is entirely covered with deposits ; when the stalactite 
mass forms only a crust in the roof and the walls, but does not 
hang down in the form of icicles. 

The lime water trickling down from the roof or the walls, 
forms a crust on the floor of the cave, which, in contra-distinc- 
tion to that on the roof, is called the stalagmite crust. Corre- 
sponding to the spots where a larger quantity of water has 
trickled down, there are eminences and columns which fre- 
quently unite with those which hang down from above. 

There are grottoes without stalactites. Such caves as 
contain but few stalactites are best adapted for further 
researches. 

Beneath the stalagmite crust are usually found deposits of a 
so called osseous earth. This is usually a yellowish fatiy 
earth, a clay mixed frequently with sand, often exhibiting a 
kind of stratified form. In or beneath this day pebbles are 



:.;■■ 



238 LXCTUM IX. 

founds which xnuBt have come from a distance, as they belong 
to different formations from those fonnd in the vicinity of the 
cavem. The clay is either loose, or so penetrated with lime 
that it forms a solid cement, wluch can only be split with a 
chisel. At times there are fonnd ang^olar stones, mostly de- 
tached fragments from the walls of the cavern. The deposit 
of this ossiferous clay is frequently very thin, but in some 
cases so abundant, that it is stated that in the grotto of Ban- 
well in England, one chamber fifteen meters high is nearly 
filled with this ossiferous mud. 

We are, in fact, perfectly justified in designating this cave 
clay, mostly of a reddish tinge, which is only reached by 
piercing through the hard stalactite deposit, as osseous day; 
for in it we find frequently a considerable quantity of bones. 
Besides these bones, to which we shall presently advert, we 
meet in the clay land .and freshwater snails, which belong to 
species still existing in the same spot. 

The bones lie in this day pell-mell, without any trace of 
order. The skulls are usually separated from the lower jaws, 
the other bones of the skeleton lie scattered about. Skeletons 
complete in the relative positions of the parts have probably 
never been found ; even such a discovery as that made in the 
cave of Brixham, where all the bones of the posterior leg of a 
bear were found in their proper position, is a rare exception. 
It seems, however, that in most cases the bones had been in- 
troduced into the caves more or less with the flesh attached, as 
most of them have preserved their sharp angles and margins ; 
others, however, have manifestly been transported and rounded, 
whilst others, again, are split up, just as if they had, previous to 
their introduction, been long exposed to the action of the 
atmosphere. In many caverns, bones have been found evi- 
dently gnawed or cracked, while some presented manifest 
traces of having been worked by man. 

The preservation of bones gives no clue to their age. 
Where the stalactite roof is wanting, and the mud remained 
dry, the bones are so decayed that they crumble into dust on 
being touched. Where there is a stalagmite floor, they are in 
a better state of preservation, and have even conserved the 



LICTUBS IZ. 239 

organic matter they contained at first. In most cases^ how- 
erer, the bones have lost the greater portion of it^ and adhere 
to the tongn&— a quality which formerly, but erroneously, 
was considered as the characteristic mark of a fossil. In the 
fissures filled with bones which are found in the Mediter- 
ranean region, the red clay, as well as the bones, is frequently 
so impregnated with lime as to form a true breccia, which 
must be blasted with gunpowder, and whence the bones are 
only hewn out with considerable force. 

The due to the period in which the deposits in the fissures 
and caves took place, must be furnished by the bones and 
other remains. AnimalB of the same species lived in the same 
geological epochs, which no doubt lasted for an incalculable 
series of years ; animals of the same species belong, therefore, 
to the same geological chronology. It can, however, be easily 
shewn, that similar conditions may prevail in different geological 
epochs, and produce the same effects. When the small tunnel 
between Merges and Iverdun was commenced, there were 
found in the yellow limestone, which belongs to the lower chalk 
system, crevices filled up with brown-red osseous day, the 
traces of whidi are still visible at the southern entrance of the 
tuxmel. The bones contained therein belonged to pachyder- 
mata of the tertiary period, and were mostly identical with the 
spedes found in the gypsum of Montmartre near Paris. These 
bones were consequently much older than those usually found 
in ossiferous caves. On the other hand, in 1860, on the Stoss 
in the Muotta valley in Canton Schwytz, near a place called 
'' Barentross,'' 5,042 feet above the level of the sea, a cave was 
discovered in which a whole bear fisimily, consisting of six 
MiiTn iJi^ old and young, lay buried in a bed of day two feet 
thick covered with a crust of lime tufa half an inch in thickness. 
''The bones themselves,'' says Riitimeyer, ''are also covered 
with a thin tufa crust, and are in excellent preservation. Some 
are in possession of the College of Schwytz, others in that of 
Landammauiliif <2er Jfauer in Bmnnen. The largest skeleton lay 
in an outstretched position, the two anterior extremities seem- 
ingly broken off by a fragment of rock which fell from the roof. 
The largest sknU which I saw in Brunnen measured 285 miUi- 



-i^.] 



tn ^ 



240 LECTUBB IX. 

meters from the foramen magnum to the indsiTe alreoli, and 
200 millimeters in width at the level of the zygomatic arches^ 
and thus must have belonged to a rery large animal. A larger 
skull is said to be in the College of Schwytz. The well-pre- 
served teeth rendered it easy to ascertain that the skull be- 
longed to a brown bear. Significant is the circumstance, that 
the locality where this bear cave is situate is called upon 
the maps * Barentross,' from ' Troos,' alnua vifidis, which tree 
is abundant there, a circumstance which indicates a recent 
habitation of the cave.'' Here, therefore, is an osseous deposit 
of a comparatively recent date, at any rate much more so than 
the deposits usually found in caves. 

Before proceeding to the age of these deposits, I must be 
permitted to say a few words on the mode in which these caves 
were filled up. The bones are generally those of beasts of 
prey. In Europe, to which portion of the globe these remarks 
apply, it is chiefly the bones of bears and of hysBuas which 
have been found. These two animals inhabit caves, and as is 
proved by the cave in the Stoss, they may have been over- 
whelmed by the falling in of blocks of stone, and thus buried 
in the clay. This could, however, have happened to but few 
individuals, though several successive generations of such 
animals may have inhabited the same cave ; but the circum- 
stance that thousands of individuals are found buried together 
in such caves, shows that other causes must have been at work. 
There are proofs that some caves were inhabited by camivora, 
who introduced bones to feed their young, which was especially 
done by the hyaenas, whose coprolites contain undigested 
bones. The bears, though they also inhabit caves, to which 
they retire chiefly for hybernation, did not introduce bones. 
Again, large collections of bones are found in cavities which 
can only be reached by ladders, to which no living animals 
could have had access. Hence but few caves are entirely filled 
up with the bones of its former inhabitants, some remains must 
therefore have been introduced by som^ other causes. 

Sick and dying animals usually retire to caves and fissures, 
to die or to recover. Many bones have been found showing 
that the animals had been wounded or that the bones were 



LsoTUBi a. 241 

carious or otberwiae diseaBed. SchinerUng lias described a 
series of such diseased bones fonnd in the Belgian cayes. 
Soemmering described a hyena skull ilie parietal portion of 
which had been bitten, and aflierwards partially healed. Sucb 
animals may also haye furnished their conting^t of cave bones. 

But if these three causes were thoroughly established, we 
ought, as in the caye at the Stoss, to find entire skeletons of 
the camivora. But so little is this the case, that caves which 
have been completely explored furnished bones of several indi- 
viduals, but rarely all the bones belonging to the same skeleton. 
We shall recur to this tact when speaking of human bones. 

There remains, then, as regards most caves, only the assump- 
tion that the bones, together with pebbles, shells, and other 
relics, have been carried into the caves by water. If the bones 
show traces of having been rolled, or bleached, or dried, they 
may have been introduced in that condition. Where they are 
better preserved, they were probably floated pieces of putrefy- 
ing carcasses. As the mouilis of caves and gprottoes are fre- 
quently several hundred feet above the valleys, we are justified 
in assuming that in certain localities the watermark was much 
higher than it is now, and that the brooks cairried a larger 
quantity of water. • In many caves the deposition must have 
been effected very gradually, as shewn by the stratification of 
the mud intermixed with layers of sand and pebbles. In other 
eaves the deposition was more irregular, and probably effected 
under the influence of cross streams. The small size of the 
pebbles shows, however, that the current could not have been 
veiy violent. Violent currents may have occurred, but only 
in few localities. That caves containing no pebbles have been 
but vexy gradually filled with mud by the introduction of the 
melting snow waters is proved by the cave at the Stoss, which is 
situated at a height and in a looslity where the idea of a brook 
cannot be entertained, and which nevertheless has within a 
comparatively short time been filled with a layer of mud two 
feet in thickness. 

On examining the remains of such species as have hitherto 
been found in caves and the so-called diluvium, we first obtain 
the fact, that a' great number of species, and particularly such 






i;.:: 



242 LECTURE IZ. 

as farnish the greater number of bones, are those of extinct 
animals. To these belongs the powerful cave bear (Ursus 
spelcBtuiJ, whose skull is distinguished from the present species 
by its great size, the constant absence of the small gap-tee^, the 
curved forehead and the prominent frontal eminences, forming 
a ridge upon the forehead. Though Blainville considers all 
the remains of bears found in caves as of the same species and 
identical both with the brown bear of Europe, and the grey 
and the black bear of North America and Europe, all other 
naturalists have g^ven as the results of their labours that the 
difference between the cave bear and the present living species 
is greater than that obtaining between existing different species, 
so that we must either assume that all living bears belong to 
the same species, or that the cave bear represents an extinct 
species. Along with the remains of the cave bear there are 
found, though rarely, skulls which seem to fonn a transition 
to the brown bear. 

The cave hyena {HycBna epelcea), also, is an extinct 
species. It was larger and more powerful than the spotted 
hysBua of the Cape, the remains of which have recently 
been found in Sicilian caves. In caves of southern France 
were also found the remains of a hysBua resembling the striped 
species. The cave lion {Felis speUea), which in size and 
strength excelled the present species of lions and tigers, is also 
extinct. It is found up to the Harz, whilst an extinct species 
of large cats {Felis antiqua) resembling the panther or leopard, 
has hitherto been only found in the Franconian Jura and south 
of it. 

To the extinct rodents belongs a beaver, {T%'ogimthervum 
Ouvien) the skull of which is larger by one-fifth than that of 
the present species ; a hare {Leptu diluvianua) which is found 
in the region of the Mediterranean, and seems to occupy an 
intermediate place between the hare proper and the piping or 
calling hare, (Lagomys) at present confined to northern Asia, 
some species of which formerly existed in central Europe, but 
are now extinct ; a squirrel-like rodent, {Sdurua priaeus) which 
is essentiaUy distinguished from other species of squirrels, and 
a digg^g mouse, {Arvicola brecciensis) almost the only con- 
tents of osseous fissures in Sardinia ; even among the insec- 



ucTUBi IX. 248 

tivora^ wUch exoepting in the formation of the teeth^ are neariy 
allied to the rodentia^ a species of shrew {Sorex simiUiB), for- 
merty native in Sardinia, now perfectly extinct, has been found. 

Among the mminants the deer species were well represented, 
and belong to the extinct animals. The splendid Irish peat 
deer (Oenms ewryeeras), which in size eqoalled the reindeer, 
and possessed enormous antlers, whose size and weight seemed 
out of proportion to that of the animal; the gigantic deer 
{Gervw samanenna) which occurs in northern France, and 
some less-known species found in French cayes, are all extinct. 
So too are certain antelopes {Antdape OhrUtoU and dichoioma) 
found in caves of the south of France, a wild goat {Ibw Oeven^ 
narwn) of the Cevennes, and other two species of oxen {Bob 
primigemua), of whidi we shall speak when treating of domes- 
tic animals. 

Of aU extinct species the pabhydermata have exdted the 
greatest attention. No horses, of which an extinct species 
(Bquus foBBiUs) has, however, been discovered in France ; but of 
the hippopotamus, rhinoceros, and elephants, some perfectly 
preserved carcasses, espeoally of the latter, have been found as 
ftr north as the coast of the Arctic sea. There existed probably 
several species of extinct river horses {HippopoiatMiB PenJU 
landi, major, minor) extending to England and Bussia, which 
could as easily have supported themselves in the marshy lakes 
and large rivers of the diluvial period, as they can now in 
central Afiica. In Europe we find two* different spedes of ele- 
phants ; the one of which (ElephoB mendiondli$) was essentia% 
confined to the Mediterranean region, where it occurs along 
with a rhinoceros {BihinioceTOB lepiorhinua), which resembles 
the double-homed rhinoceros of the Cape; whikt the other 
species, the mammoth {Elephas frimigenMul), and another 
species of rhinoceros {BMnoceros <ieftorM»iM),canying two homa 
upon a nose, supported by an osseous septum, was enabled by 
a warm hairy coat, which is wanting in the present species, to 

• Sir ChariM IjeD, in bis recent eddzeea to the Britieh Aeeodation «t 
Beth, makee the louowinffobeerTatioiia on thia point t "Wo hare noir« thoro- 
fDve, eridfliioe of man ha^ng ooedeted in Europe with three meoiee of ele- 
phente, two of them eitinot(nAme]j, the Memmoth end the EUfka» cmMfmuX 
tad % tldrdf the eeme es that which etm e ur r i f e e in AfUoa."— Edxtob. 

' b2 



1 '. 



244 LieruBi n. 

support exiBtence in the northern regions. It seems remark- 
able that an elephantine species^ the mastodon, which in the 
alluvial formations of North America replaces the elephant, 
is also represented in Europe by a species {^astodon angiisttr 
dens) which appears in the old layers of the tertiary period. 

We shall presently have to examine whether these Tarioua 
species, which, excepting the mastodon, resemble the present 
living species, have become extinct at the same period. 

All other species hitherto found in caves and the alluvium, 
agree with the existing, excepting in size, which seems to 
increase in the older bones. It has, however, been justly 
observed, that this character is insufficient for the distinction of 
species, as it frequently depends on the abundance of food, and 
facility of procuring it. One of the bear skulls found at the 
Stoss, far exceeds in dimensions any of the brown bear recently 
found ; yet, in the bear menagerie of Berne, they have, accord- 
ing to Biitimeyer, brought up bears whidi attained an equally 
colossal size. Pictet seems, therefore, perfectly justified in 
declining to assume difference of species from the mere size 
of the fossil bones. On examining the list of bones hither- 
to found, we observe that almost all mammals of the present 
fauna of Europe, excepting some few and not easily to be 
distinguished species, or manifestly imported domestic animals, 
were represented in the diluvial period, so that the fauna of 
Europe was richer then than it is now. Pictet enumerates all 
these species, and shows that but a few small species are want- 
ing, and that, even recently, species, such as the porcupine and 
the moufflon, the ancestor of our domestic sheep, have -been 
discovered in Italy. There can, therefore, be no doubt, that 
most living species existed in the diluvial period ; though it is 
going too far to deduce from this that no new creation or 
origin of species had occurred within or since the diluvial 
period. In the same way as the extinct species disappeared 
at different periods, so may the present existing species have 
arisen at different times, though within the same great epoch. 

As regards living species, the remains of which are also 
found in the caves and alluvial mountains of central Europe, 
there is, again, found a difference, in so far as many of these 
species have changed their habitat, and have entirely withdrawn 



UBCTDBX nc. 245 

firotn the region ihey previonaly oocnpied. This phenomenon 
is not peculiarly Btriking, as it is repeated within historical 
times. The deer, the beayer, the ibex, formerly plentiful in 
Switflserland, have now entirely disappeared. The wolf is ex- 
terminated in England ; the bear is so in the greater part of 
Germany. On casting a glance at this departure of species, it 
seems sing^ular, that most of such as formerly inhabited central 
Europe have retreated northward ; that consequently at the 
diluYial period there existed in the heart of Europe a fauna^ 
the remains of which are at present only found in the north. 
These northern, but formerly central-European animals, in- 
clude ihe glutton, the icebear, hamster marmot, the lemming, 
the reindeer, the elk, the aurochs, the musk ox, the walrus. 
Some of these species are apparently becoming extinct, as the 
bison {Bison Europams), of which there exists only a single herd 
in a Polish forest. Others hoyer, as it were, on the boundary 
of the German continent, as, for instance, the elk^ which inha- 
bits only a small portion of the coast of the Baltic, but is found 
in Scandinayia, and Bussia: others haye retreated to the 
Arctic cirdcj as ihe lemming, glutton, and reindeer ; others^ 
again, now inhabit the icy mountain regions, as the chamois, 
marmots, and ibex. Whilst among ihe extinct species types 
are found, which are at present confined to regions south of the 
Mediterranean, as lions, hyaenas, and riyerhorses; we find among 
the departed species scarcely a well-founded instance of a re- 
treat to the south; and as regards the extinct species, as the 
elephant and the rhinoceros, we may condnde that they retired 
to the north, step by step, until they found the limits of their 
existence in Northern Siberia. This yiew is supported by ihe 
fact that the "collared lemming" {Lemmu$ iorqtMUus), at pre- 
sent existing in the highest north beyond the forest region, is 
now only found in the ossiferous fissures of Northern G^nnany^ 
but neyer further south. 

Since, then, of the extinct species^ ihe cognates of which at 
present inhabit southern climates, some had by their woolly 
skin been enabled to support the cold, it giyes rise to the 
presumption, that other species, with whose bones only we 
are acquainted, but of whose integuments nothing is known, 
may haye been similarly protected from the cold. As it is 



I't' 



246 IiKOTUBS IX. 

fhrtlier known^ that the tiger of south Acda makes excarsions to 
Siberia^ up to the 50 deg. north latitude^ and even in regions^ 
as in the Amoor^ where the mean temperature in the winter is 
— 20 deg. B. ; and as we may suppose that the cave tig^r was 
equally enabled to support the cold ; and as even the hysanas^ 
which inhabit northern Africa^ are found on the highest ridges 
of the Atlas mountains^ covered in winter with ice and snow^ we 
are fully justified in concluding, that from the beginning of the di- 
luvial period there reigned in central Europe a much lower tem- 
perature than at present, and that the animals, with the increase 
of heat, at least partially retired northward, following the 
temperature to which they had been accustomed in central 
Europe. A considerable portion of central Europe may, at 
the beginning of the diluvial period, have presented the same 
aspect as the damp and marshy plains of Poland, Lithuania, 
and Siberia do now. 

We have to some extent wandered from our subject. In 
endeavoaring to give you a sketch of the society in which the 
primitive man lived, and showing the conditions in which 
human remains are found in caves and fissures, I have invo- 
luntarily digressed to describe the climate of the period which 
these remains indicate. Let us then return to our starting 
point, and examine the caves and fissures in relation to the 
remains they contain. 

History shows that caverns were at all times either places 
of refuge^ or habitations for more or less civilised peoples. The 
ancients speak of troglodytes, or cave dwellers^ in Asia Minor, 
Greece, and Italy. Christian and heathen assemblies, when 
subject to persecutions on account of their religion, were held 
in forests and caverns. Csesar gave orders to his lieutenant 
Crassus that the Oauls should be shut up in the caverns of 
Aquitania and destroyed, just as the famoas warrior Pelissier 
smoked out the Arabs who objected to having French civilisa- 
tion forced on them. 

Certain caves and fissures served as places for execution, iiie 
crim i nal s being thrown down and abandoned to a miserable 
fate ; other caves were used as burial places. Most caves and 
gprottoes serve even now as places of refuge for shepherds in 
tempestuous weather, or even as temporary dormitories. It is 



LECTURE EC, 247 

thns not surprising that in many grottoes and caverns are 
found linman bones or objects of art and industry from remote 
periods to the present time. Thus in the cave of Mialet near 
Andnze in the Cevennes were found fragments of pottery^ 
Roman lamps^ the statuette of a senator in his toga^ in yellow 
burnt day, also Roman antiquities with polished stone hatchets 
and other stone weapons which belonged to an earlier period. 
In one part of the grotto was a graye filled with human bones 
dug in a sandy clay containing bones of the bear. In other 
spots of alluvial soil were found objects of art manifestly more 
recent than the ossiferous day which it covered. In the back- 
ground of the grotto were seven or eight bear skulls so sur- 
rounded by stone blodcs, which had become detadied from the 
roof, as to resemble a monumental group. There is no doubt 
that aU these objects must belong to a later period, as it is 
historically proved that at the time of the dragoonades of 
Louis 2U.V, the persecuted Protestants worshipped in this 
cave. I merdy cite this example to show that sudi late depo- 
sits occur partly above and partty between, and in the osseous 
day itself, in the absence of a stalactite roof, or if it has been 
subject to the exploration of intruders. But all these recent 
intermixtures in the caves may be easily detected on careftd 
examination. 

The finding of human bones in the same condition as the 
animal bones is diflTerent when they are met with imbedded in 
clay showing no sigpi of having been disturbed, and when they 
are intermixed with the bones of extinct animals covered by a 
stalactite roof imbedded in stalagmite, so that bear- and human 
bones are cemented in one mass. In such cases, and especially 
if the discovexy is made by carefiil and trustworthy observers, 
there can be no doubt that man who was buried with the bear 
also lived with him. To establish this fact, I shall dte a few 
instances which inspire us with confidence from the diaiacter 
of the observers, and which will assist us in our investigations, 
as regards the origin of mankind and the di£Eerent races. 

Dr. Schmerling of lidge published in 1883 a dassical work 
on the caves of his own country. Each of these caves, some 
of which have now disappeared by being quarried out, was 



248 LXCTUBX IX. 

minntely explored by him and some of them emptied of their 
contents^ and each bone separatelj examined. Scbmerling 
observes on the condition of the fossil human bones in his pos- 
session : — '' They, like the thousands of bones which I have 
collected within a short time, are characterised by the degree 
of their decomposition^ which is quite the same as that of the 
extinct animals. All, with few exceptions, are broken ; some 
are rounded, as is frequently observed in other bones. The 
fractures are transverse or oblique ; nowhere a trace of being 
gnawed ; the colour, varying from yellow to black, does not 
dijSer from that of other bones. These are all lighter than 
fresh bones, excepting such as are covered with a layer of chalk 
tuff or have their cavities filled with such a deposit." 

The most important object in Schmerling^s collection is the 
upper part of a skull from the eyebrows to the occipital 
foramen, which was found in the cavern of Engis at the depth 
of 1^ meter, in an osseous breccia one meter in width, 1^ me- 
ter in height, attached to the wall of ^the cave. The earth 
which covered this skull showed no trace of having been dis- 
turbed ; it contained the remains of small animals, teeth of the 
rhinoceros, horse, of hyaenas, bears, and ruminants, whidi sur- 
rounded the skull on all sides. In order to reach the cave, 
SchmerUng and his companions had to descend by means of a 
rope attached to a nearly perpendicular rocky wall. In a sort 
of antechamber five meters in width, six meters high, and 
seventeen meters deep, was seen near the opening of the cave 
a layer of osseous earth two meters in thickness. In this were 
found, besides the usual animal bones, an incisor, a vertebra, 
and a finger bone, all human, together with several stone 
hatchets of triangular shape. A little beneath this cave was 
a second aperture leading to another chamber, twelve meters 
deep, five meters high, and four meters wide ; this again led 
into a semicircular galleiy which contained many bones, and 
terminated in a narrow fissure preventing any further advance. 
There is on the other side a rising gallery leading into a small 
hall, which seems filled with osseous earth. Here it was that 
the skull, which we shall henceforth caU the Engis skull, was 
discovered. Besides this, was found the skull of a younger 



UCTUBB IZ. 249 

indiyidnal at the bottom of the cave^ and also an eleplianfa 
tooth. This BknU was entire^ but when Schmerling tried to 
lift it np it fell into dust exceptyig some pieces of the jaws. 
The other human bones found by Schmerling^ clayidej radius^ 
and carpus^ as well as bones of the foot^ did not excite so much 
interest, but they showed that they belonged to three different 
individuals. Schmerling had the whole cave emptied, but he 
did not succeed in finding the component parts of the whole 
skeleton. In front of the aperture of the cave was osseous ; 

earth, covered with a luxuriant vegetation. It was thus cer- | 

tain that only separate putrid portions of human bodies had Z 

been carried into the cave by the waters along with the bones ^ 

of bears. The difficulty of access and the absence of certain ^ 

bones render the assumption that several human bodies had j^i 

been buried in the cave impossible. "^ 

In another cave, that of Engihoul, there were also found, r^ 

and under the same conditions, the remains of at least three ;'^ 

individuals. Here were only found some insignificant cranial i :£3 

fragments, though a larg^ quantity of the bones of the extre- ^" jjT 

mities. There was also found a piece of the radius and of the C|9 

elbow cemented together by stalactite, and Schmerling calls ^s J 

attention to the fact that all conditions, including the peculiar -^^ 

distribution of the bones, were quite the same as with the 



bones of other animals. K: 



In Southern France there runs along the Pyrenees a chain 
of low chalk moimtains, which are remarkably torn up and 
fissured. Two caves found in this range, namely the caves of 
Lombrive and Lherm, Department of Aridge, have recently 
acquired importance by the discovery of entire skuUs and re- 
markable implements. I give you the details, because a pam- 
phlet pubUshed at Toulouse by Messrs. Bames, Gkyrigon, and 
Filhol does not seem to have excited any attention, and also 
because I was fortunate enough to examine two skulls which 
Dr. Grarrigou brought to Geneva. It is the more surprising 
that Lyell should have taken no notice of this discovery, as we 
know that he has at least heard of it, and as this discovery is 
in evezy respect more important than many others made in 
England which excited so much attention. 



•Hi ^ 



I- 



250 LICTUBB IX. 

The cave of Loinbrive, say tlie authors, ifl about 4,000 
meters in length. It consists of a series of wide halls, which 
are connected by long and jiarrow passages. Here and there 
are side galleries. In some parts the roof is so low that we 
must creep through. The entrance has been widened hj a 
small tunnel. Tourists have for a long time visited the cave on 
account of the stalactite formations. The ground and the walla 
Fig. 84. Section of the Cave of LombiiTe. 




a, h. Section of, jpaesing through the Caye. c. Interior of the Cave. 
1. Stalactites. 2. Stalagmite crost of the floor. 8. OsaiferotiB day. 4. 
Hasticdlay. 6. Gbavelj with small pebbles. 6. Large roUed stones. 

exhibit traces of having been scooped by water, presenting 
stripes, furrows, and deposits of gravel, sand, mud, and bluish 
clay. The deposits are also found in the small side grottoes, 
which frequently lie above the level of the chief cave. They 
contain bones, and are here and there covered by stalagmite, the 
surface of which resembles the surface of the sea ruffled by a 
light breeze. 

The cave has two entrances, at a little distance from each 
other, through which the waters escaped, in a direction indi- 
cated by a gradual elevation of the floor of the cave backward, 
but especially by a perpendicular precipice, which abruptly 
divides the cave into two portions. Five fire-escape ladders are 
requisite to ascend this precipice. Above it there is a long 
narrow passage, from which but Uttle water escaped, so that 
the posterior and wider portions of the cave formed at one time 
a large pond, in which the most interesting deposits were 



LSCTUSl IZ. 251 

fonnecL The floor of the cave still shows a small pond^ on the 
right side of which was formeriy an opening. There the de- 
posits of pebbles and mud rose to the roof^ forming a large cone, 
which obstmcted the fissnre through which the waters entered. 

The cave lies &r above the influence of the present state of 
the waters, on the dedivity of a steep mountain, in which, 
among others, open also the remarkable caves of Sabard and 
Niauz, which are on the same level, show the same deposits, 
and were probabty connected at an earlier period. In the 
valley of Yiodessos, above the village Niaux, are seen well- 
characterised diluvial formations, composed of the same ele- 
ments as those in the caves. 

The deposits in the cave consist of regular layers of rolled 
stones, sand, day, and mud, which are very distinctly seen in 
the background of the caverns where the stalactite roof is 
wanting. 

Laige rolled stones, sometimes a meter in diameter and 
rather disconnected, form the lowest stratum (6, fig. 84), some- 
times resting immediately upon the jura lime, sometimes upon 
the stalagmite. Where this layer is exposed, it resembles the 
bed of a forest brook, upon which walking is rendered difficult 
(6, fig. 84). 

These two layers of rolled stones contain all specimens of the 
rocks of the Pyrenees; they are identical with the rolled j| 

stones of the diluvium of the adjoining valleys, where are also f; 

found rolled fragments of stalactite. !;] 

Above these rolled stones lies a stratum of grey plastic day, 
(4,) whidi is pi*eserved in but few spots, having been washed 
off* in the rest. 

A fine ferruginous and calcareous sand, a real loam (3), 
forms the uppermost layer of the diluvial deposit; it fills up 
the parietal grooves, and even the grottoes, to a height of ten 
meters above the level of the cave. In some spots, where 
there was a rotary motion, it forms considerable devations. 
In this loam, and sometimes in its stalagmite incrustation, lie 
human bones intermixed with those of carnivorous and herbi- 
vorous animals, namely, of the brown bear, urns, reindeer, 
stag, horse, and some undetermined species of a spiall kind of 



-i 



252 LscnrBB n. 

ox, and a Bpedes of dog differing firom the fox and jackal. The 
bones are chiefly found in dose intermixtnre in the middle of 
the caye^ in a large gallery^ where there^ no doubt, existed a 
small lake. All these bones present the same physical and 
chemical characters^ being light, sonorous, and friable, adher- 
ing to the tongue, of the same colour, and containing the same 
amount of nitrogen. Many bones are broken in pieces and 
rolled, especially in the case of the skulls, some still covered with 
flesh, which, by its decomposition, imparted a disgusting odour 
to the osseous breccia. In a calcareous breccia, formed of 
broken and rolled bones of several hundred individuals, there 
was a whole skull, and near it some broken, not rolled, frag- 
ments of bone, belonging, probably, to the same individual. 
A second smaller skuU has since been found. Among objects 
of art may be mentioned some perforated canine teeth, which 
were probably worn as amulets or trophies. 

These skulls, which we shall describe presently, and which 
at any rate are almost the best preserved we possess, belong 
to a period in which the reindeer, the nrus, and the old bear, 
resembling the brown bear, lived in the Pyrenees, but when 
the cave-bear and the cave-hysBua had already diaappeared. 
These skulls are therefore not so old as those found in the 
Belgian caverns. 

In the same Department is the cave of Lherm, of but little 
depth, but with narrow or wide passages in every direction. The 
walls are bare, but here and diere covered with large protu- 
berances. Nowhere are furrows or channels indicative of the 
passage of water to be seen. The bottom is almost every- 
where covered with a thick layer of red mud, containing no 
rolled stones, but is in many places covered with a hard crys- 
talline stalagmite. The entrance to the cave, obstructed by 
large blocks, leads into a galleiy, the stalactites of which can 
be easily detached, whilst the mud is only present in small 
heaps. The gallery divides into two passages, the right lead- 
ing down a terrace into a wide hall, to which some side grottoes 
impart an irregular form. From the roof hang down some 
stalactites; the thick red mud is covered with stalagmite; 
there is mud in the side grottoes of the same kind, but without 



LBCTUU EC. 268 

Btalagmite. The passage to the left is narrow and winding, 
leading almost horizontally to an abrupt precipice^ beneath 
which a large hall opens, the roof being formed by loose blocks 
which threaten to faU at any moment. The floor of this cave 
is yeiy dedivitons. On the elevated spots are large heaps of 
ossiferous mud, and in the depression there is a bed of osseous 
mud incrusted with thick, smooth, and uniform stalagmite. 
In the most precipitous spots there is a threefold alternation of 
mud and stalagmite. 

In this ossiferous mud were found, along with teeth, shoul- 
derblade, armband foot bones of man, a number of bones of the 
cave bear, the old brown bear, some few remains of the cave 
hyasna, cave lion, dog, wolf, and some species of deer. Of 
the cave bear there were seven skulls, fifty half lower jaws, 
above 800 teeth and aU the bones of the skeleton, and some 
bones of embryos. The human teeth were found in a thin 
mud layer intermixed with hyena and bear teeth, under a thick 
stalagmite covering which was so crystalline that when struck 
with the hammer it split into large crystalline planes. This 
crust had never been disturbed. Besides the human remains 
were found evidences of human industry : a triangular flint 
knife, a round bone of the cave bear wliich had been trans- 
formed into a cutting instrument, three lower jaws of the cave 
bear, the ascending rami of which were perforated for the pur- 
pose of hanging them up, and the trochings of a deer carved 
and pointed. The most remarkable weapons however con- 
sisted of tweniy half jaws of the cave bear, from which the 
ascending ramus had been struck off and the body of the lower 
jaw had been so carved that it presented a convenient handle. 
The projecting canine tooth thus formed a hook which might 
serve as a weapon, or a hoe for digg^ing up the earth. Had 
we found, say the authors, but one sample of these singular 
tools it might have been objected that it was merely accidental, 
but having found twenty, all worked in the same manner, how 
can we speak of accident T We are moreover enabled to fol- 
low the method by which the primitive man gave this form to 
the jaw. In each of the twenty jaws may be seen the traces 
of incisions made with the edge of a badly shaipened flint 



254 LSCTUBK IX. 

knife. From the absence of rolled atones and the condition of 
the mad^ wluch contains many excrements of hyenas^ as well as 
traces of coals and fire^ the authors conclude that beasts and 
human beings inhabited the cave of Lherm alternately^ but 
that at aU events man lived simultaneously with the extinct 
cave beasts, since he worked their bones into weapons and 
tools. No valid objection can be made to this deduction. 

A convincing proof of man having been the contemporary of 
the cave bear has been furnished by the exploration of the 
grottoes of Arcy near Avallon in the Department of the Yonne. 
M. de Yibraye, who explored these grottoes, ^e lai^st of 
which attains, including its halls, a length of 876 meters, whilst 
the second or the fairy g^tto in which most bones are found 
reaches only 150 meters in length, distinguishes in these caves 
three kinds of deposits. The lowest deposit, intermixed with 
rolled stones from the granite of the Morvan, lies immediately 
upon the Jurassic lime, in which the cave is imbedded, it fiUs up 
depressions and thus forms a stratum of variable thickness. 

There are found in it the cave bear, the cave hysBua, the rhino- 
ceros with a bony septum, the mammoth, the river-horse, the 
urus and the horse. In this lower stratum, which has a mean 
thickness of about one meter fifty centimeters, was found, among 
a largre accumulation of bones chiefly belonging to cave bears, a 
human lower jaw, and subsequently a human tooth. The jaw, 
externally, resembles exactly the bones of the cave bear, which^ 
however, have mostiy a thin carbonaceous crast, the result, 
probably, of the decomposition of the skin and the soft parts 
still attached to them. The middle layer of about seventy-five 
centimeters in thickness consists almost entirely of calcareous 
fragments from the mountain. The red cement which connects 
the lower stratum of rolled stones, forms here, only an in- 
crustation of the fragments. In this second middle layer, bear 
and hyaena bones are no longer met with, but numerous bones 
of ruminants, including those of the reindeer. Quite on the 
top is a very irregularly disposed stratum of marly day, of 
white-yellow colour, fatty and soapy to the touch. 

Though the jaw, found under such circumstances, gives no 
clue as to the race, it afibrds, nevertheless, like the Belgian 



LICTURK IZ. 255 

caves^ an irrefragable proof that ihe middle «tratnm of Aicy, 
with its bones of mminants and the reindeer^ corresponds to 
that stratum of Lombrive in which the skoll was fonnd. 

Let OS now torn to Germany. 

In a valley of the Dussel^ near Elbeifeld^ in the so-cslled 
Neanderthal, which forms a wild fissnre in lime stone, there 
was a little grotto, about fifteen feet in length, ten feet 
broad, and eight feet high, opening in an almost perpendicular 
rock W above the level of the valley. From the top the cave 
could be reached by a steep path whidi led to a small ledge 
where the gprotto opened. The Neander ravine has been used 
as a marble quany, and the left side which contains the grotto 
is nearly ezhaosted. The progress of the quany led to the 
exploration of the g^tto. There was found in it a stone-hard 
layer of loam, presenting a horiaontal surfisuse without calcareous 
sinter, but with fragments of brown rolled gravel, a dilu« 
vial deposit which occurs in all caves and g^ttoes of the 
Dussel valley, and contains, in some places, bones of the bear, 
as in Sundwich and Honnethal. In this ossiferous mud, con- 
taining rolled gravel, two feet below the surface were found the ;|' •^ 
bones of a human skeleton, with the skuU lying in the same ;|| ; j 
horizontal plane towards the entrance. The loam adhered so |[^ 
strongly, that the workmen took no notice of the bones, but ; "^ 
scattered them about, believing them to be the bones of bears, ^[ 
until Prof. Fuhlrott of Elberfeld, to whom we are indebted 
for an account of this discovery, declared them to be human, |[ . 
and saved from further destruction the cranium, the femoral 
and humeral bones, a clavicle, a portion of the pelvis, the 
scapula, and several fiagments of the ribs. The bones adhere 
strongly to the tongue and are covered on the surface with 
minute spots, which, under the magnifying glass, proved to be 
groups of dendritical markings, as also seen upon the bear bones 
of the neighbouring caves. Though these marking^ afibrd no 
absolute proof of antiquity, such arborescent infiltrations of 
metallic matter have also been observed in Roman bones, and 
as dendrites may be rapidly formed under favourable circum- 
stances by the introduction from the loam of salts of iron 
and manganese, they still furnish an important indication, inas- 



256 LBCTUBi n. 

mnch as the bones of the cave-bear and the elephant^ imbedded 
in the same loam^ present similar dendritic ciystallisations. 
''This indication/' says Fnhbott^ "is confirmed by the circam- 
stance^ that the conntry between the Diissel valley and the 
neighbouring railroad station^ Hochdahl^ to the level of the 
margins of the Neanderthal ravine, is covered with a stratum of 
loam fifteen feet thick, which seems identical with the loam of 
all the grottoes ^nd caves which contained human bones. That 
this loam bed belongs to the diluvial period is, apart from other 
reasons, confirmed by the last palsBontologrical discovery in that 
spot by the mammoth remains, which were found December 27, 
1858, in one of the Domap lime-stone quarries (on the Steele- 
Yohwinkel railroad), about thirteen feet under the surface in a 
fissure fourteen inches wide, which was filled up with a loamy 
mass, analogous to that of Hochdahl. These mammoth remains 
shew that the inclosing mass belongs to the diluvium. Now, 
since the Domap (Devonian) lime-stone forms the eastern con- 
tinuation of the Neanderthal lime-bed, and as the spot where 
the mammoth remains were found is scarcely more than four 
miles distant from the Neanderthal, it becomes more than 
probable that the respective loam deposits in the fissures and 
grottoes of both localities have the same geological origin, and 
both belong to the diluvial period. But if the mammoth 
remains are undoubted fossils, then the human bones im- 
bedded in the same diluvial mass may also be fossil, and we are 
thus sorely tempted to assign to the human race, perhaps to 
a primitive form of it, as high an antiquity as to the antedilu- 
vian pachydermata.'^ 

The decomposing corpse was undoubtedly washed into the 
grotto along with the loam and the rolled gravel, when the 
waters stood high, and as there is no trace of a more recent 
deposition, and the age of the loam is sufficiently proved by 
the presence of bear and mammoth bones found in this 
loam, and as, moreover, this skull presents peculiar characters, 
which distinguish it from all modem skuUs, there can be but 
little doubt that the owner of that skull lived at the time of 
the mammoth and the cave bear. We shall term this skull, to 
be described hereafter, the Neander skull. 



LBCTT7BS IX. 257 

There are^ to my knowledge, no human remains at present 
known to which may be ascribed a higher antiqniiy. The 
hnman remains found by Esper and Bosenmuller, in the Fran* 
conian caves; by Schlotheim^in the gypsum quarries of Eostritz, 
in Saxony; the remains which Marcel de Serres, de Christolj 
and Tourtnal^ dug out from the caves near Montpellierj are 
either lost or inaccessible to examination. Concerning the 
structure of all these skulls^ I found but one notice in a paper 
by Schaaffhausen, entitled, ''Contributions to the knowledge of 
the oldest race skulls/' according to which Link is said to have 
found amongst Schlotheim's collection a skull with a remarkably 
flattened forehead. In all these researches, particular attention 
must be paid to the age of the human bones, which must be in- 
ferred frx>m the animal bones associated with them. In this 
respect we find, even in the few human cave skulls, frx>m pre- 
historical times, important differences. Thus the Engris and 
Neander skulls belong to an earlier period ; those of liombrive 
to a later period of the same epoch. In all these cases the ,r;^]p 

conditions under which the bones were found are identical. The " ^ 

human corpses were washed into the caves along with the animals ] rjt 

they lived with, and imbedded in the same mud. !^ 

There are other caves which furnish dedsive evidence, that !! a 

they served as burial or fireplaces, where, besides the remains, 
flint weapons, coals, and worked bones, are found intermixed Ei 

with ttedi bones, or such as served for food. One of the most : ^ 

interesting of such caves has been recently described by Lartet. 

In the vicinity of Aurignac, in the department of the Haute 
Qaronne, is a Idll of nummulitic limestone, called the beech 
mountain. At present no beeches are found, nor exists there 
any tradition of their having formerly flourished there. On 
the slope of this eminence, about thirteen to fourteen meters 
above tiie brook, is seen the entrance to a grotto, about three 
meters wide and two and a-half meters deep. The entrance 
to this grotto was formerly concealed by a heap or iahu. 
The sportsmen knew that there was a hole into which the 
rabbits escaped when, pursued by the dogs. A labourer, em- 
ployed to repair the neighbouring road, one day introduced 
his hand into the hole and extracted from it a large bone. He 



258 LSCTUBl IX. 

at onoe suspected the existence of a cave, and having removed 
a portion of the tahis, he came, after a few hours work, to a 
thin slab of sandstone, placed vertically, which completely, 
with exception of the hole used by the rabbits^ closed the 
opening, which led to an arched recess containing a number of 
human bones, ianongst the bones extracted were two entire 
skulls, which afterwards could not be recovered. The workman 
talked of his discovery, the curious flocked to the spot, there 
was great agritation ; and as nothing can be more disagreeable 
to the Imperial governors than agitation, the mayor of Auri- 
gnac ordered all bones to be coUected and to be re-interred in 
the parish cemetery. Had it been a common provincial village 
mayor who gave such an order, constituting, as it were, a 
crime against science, we might have pitied his ignorance ; 
but this undertaker, we are sorry to say, was a doctor of 
medicine I In short, the bones were interred after the mayor 
had ascertained that they belonged to seventeen different indi- 
viduals ; and when Lartet, after the lapse of eight years, visited 
the place, no man in the whole community could or would 
inform him where these bones had been interred, so that these 
relics, so interesting to science, seem lost for ever. 

Besides the human bones were found some teeth oflai^ 
mammals, distinguished by Lartet as the grinders of the horse 
and aurochs, canines of the hyaena and cave lion, and fox's 
teeth. There were also found small perforated discs, appa- 
rently made from the shell of a species of cardium, whiph could 
be strung together as a necklace. 

When Lartet, in the autumn of 1860, visited the grotto, 
then only half a meter in height, there was on the floor a layer 
of loose earth, which contained some human and animal bones, 
as well as flint implements. This layer extended beyond the 
arched sepulchre, and it remained doubtful whether the slab 
of sandstone which served as a door, was fixed or only placed 
there. At all events the upper layer was the same within and 
without the cave, and it is probable that the slab was removed 
after every burial/ From the dimensicois of the grotto and 
the number of ::^^|6die8, Lartet concluded that they had been 
placed in a cabnc^l^iiig attitude, like the Peruvian mummies. 



UCTUBl IX. 



269 



The grotto was isabseqiienflj^ under Lartef s supervision, ex- 
plored layer by layer, and yielded the following results :— 

In front of the grotto the inequalities of the rock had, by 
slabs of sandstone, been transformed into a kind of hearth. 

Fig. 86. Seofcion of the GxoHo of AuJgiiM. 




1. The inner Tult. 2. The zabbit-biirrow which led to the diiooveKy of 
the grotto. 8. Hmma bones. 4. Bnbhiih, with bonei and inuplements in* 
■ide the grotto. 6. Babhiah oataide the grotto. 6. I>epoait of dndera. 7. 
Bock. 8. Tblna of gntTel, which conoealed the dab of aandatone, 10« 
Placed T9ttio§Bj agiunat the entrance. 9. Slope of the hill oorered with 
gzATeL 

upon which was a layer of ashes and charcoal, about fifteen 
to twenty centimeters thick. 

The sandstone slabs, which formed this rude hearth, showed 
here and there the effect of the fire. The layer of charcoal 
thinned off towards the grotto, and did not actually reach it. 
In this layer were found many teeth of herbirora, and hun- 
dreds of fragments of bones, some of which were carbonised, 
while the greater part were manifestly broken and gnawed by 
large camivorous beasts. As also ooprolites of hysdnas were 
met with in the same layer, Lartet concludes that the long 
bones had been broken by man for the sake of the marrow, 
and that the remains of his repast were taken adyantage of by 
hyaonas. This conclusion is supported by the discoreiy in the 
layer of ashes and charcoal of about 100 flint knives witii which 
the incisions upon the bones were made. These flint knives 
were probably manufactured on the spot, as in the neighbour- 
hood of the hearth were found the nuclei of some blocks frt>m 

s2 



':^ 



260 LEGT17BS DC. 

wliich splinters had been strack off^ and a ronnd pebble with a 
central depression on each side^ a portion of a kind of rock not 
found in this part of the Pyrenees. There were also found 
two roundish pebbles with angular facets which maj have 
served as slingstones^ besides a number of implements^ arrow- 
heads^ and knives made of reindeer horn. There were also 
discovered the canine tooth of a young cave-bear singularly 
worked on the outside and perforated in its whole length, 
worked reindeer homs^ and disjointed laminsB of a mammoth 
molar from which the enamel had been detached. 

In the rubbish which covered the interior of the sepulchral 
vault were found, as already observed, some few human bones, 
the most finished flint implements, the best worked reindeer 
horns, some well preserved bones of herbivora neither broken 
nor gnawed, and a large number of teeth and jaws of camivora. 
But nowhere existed any cranial fragments of mammals ; and it 
was quite evident that the remains of camivora had been intro- 
duced into the sepulchre for a special purpose. 

Lartet gives a list of the animals whose remains could be 
identified. The list includes from eighteen to twenty foxes, 
five to six cave-bears and cave hyenas, three wolves, one to 
two badgers, and some few teeth of the cave-lion (Felis spelceaj, 
the wild cat, the pole-cat, and the common bear. Among the 
herbivora he found twelve to fifteen aurochsen f Bison EuropceusJ, 
as many horses, ten to twelve reindeer, which thus constituted 
the chief food of man in that region ; whilst of the roe there were 
only three or four, and of the mammoth, the rhinoceros, the wild 
hog, and the gigantic Irish deer, there were scarcely any remains 
of each specimen. It appears that these few bones were those of 
swift animals as well as of the pachydermata, which could not 
at that period be easily overcome by man ; for the bones of the 
rhinoceros, which were found split and deprived of their mar- 
row, belonged to a very young animal. 

There is no doubt that the interior of the grotto of Aurignao 
served as a sepulchre, whilst at the entrance there was a hearth. 
It is probable that teeth and jaws of the beasts of prey, which 
an individual had killed in his lifetime, were buried with him 
as trophies, or may be to provide him with aliment during his 



UBOTUBS IX. 261 

YoyBge to another world, as is the custom with many primitive 
peoples. In any case, this grotto famishes another proof that 
man was the contemporary of extinct animals^ npon which he 
fed, and that consequently the age of mankind reaches back 
to a veiy remote period. 

In the ossiferous caves of Brazil, explored bj Lund with so 
mnch perseverance, there were also found amongst the remains 
of extinct animals human skulls with receding foreheads. 
These skulls, as far as I know, have not been closely examined C 

nor compared with the races now inhabiting South America. O 

Is it necessary for me to enumerate all those caves, in which, .:^ 

it is true, no human bones were found, but the products of man's f>z 

industry, flint and horn implements and hatchets, &c., among i've: 

the teeth and bones of extinct animals in the same condition ;.o 

deep in the ossiferous loam, deep under the stalagmite f The : :2:^ 

conditions, with sUght differences, are evexywhere the same, :^ 

so that the proofs would be mere repetitions. K the evidences ! ;^ 

could be refuted as regards one cave, it would affect them all. ; ;j^;j 

As such, however, is not the case ; as the evidence is irrefra- ' -^ 

gable not merely with respect to the explored caves of Italy, \ !^ 

France, Germany, and England, but also as regards the caves \ \^ 

in North and South America, we may confidently assert that ; ,;: 

the facts obtained from the exploration of caves and grottoes ' "J 

are sufficient to prove that man existed at the beg^inning of the { 

diluvial period, and was the contemporary of the extinct 
animals. 



LECTURE X. 

Hmnui 'R^«»^«« from Deniae, near Poy.— Fimndiilnit ■peoalatioiu.— Dilo- 
Tium in tbe Somme YaUey. — ^Flint Implement!. — Human Jaw. — ^Dila- 
▼inm of JoinTille.— DfluTinm of Hosne. — ^Branlian CaTerna. — AllnTinm 
of Koirth Ameiioa.— OiTiliaation of FkimiliTe Peoplea.— SknDa of Bngis 
and the Keander Yall^.— Proportiona of iheae Geaaia oompaved to 
thoee of living raoea of Mankind and Apea. 

Qkhtleuxs, — We have, in the preceding leotore, given an 
aocamnlation of proofs that man existed oontemporaneonslj 
with the extinct aninialH in the so-called dihiyial period. But 
as the deposits in fissures and caves always present some extra- 
ordinary mysterious character, it may not be out of place to 
examine such human remains as are found in alluvial formationsj 
in the open soil, where we shall meet with some additional im- 
portant facts in relation to the age of the strata. 

In 1844 an account was published of the discovery of a 
human skeleton, or rather of several human bones, in a volcanic 
block, found in the vicinity of Puy, on the slopes of the extinct 
volcano Denise. The remains consisted chiefly of two pieces 
of the upper jaw, the frontal part of the forehead, some other 
cranial parts, a lumbar vertebra, a portion of the radius, and 
two metatarsal bones. The block itself consisted of light 
porous tuff, in which the bones are imbedded, and behind which 
is a harder stone, consisting of alternate layers of clayish 
lava. Blocks of a similar kind, a product of the last eruption 
of the now extinct volcano, are frequently met with in volcanic 
alluvia ; they, perhaps, formed at first mudstreams, which, on 
drying up, became more condensed. In these tuff blocks, in 
the vicinity of the town of Puy, are found the mammoth and 
the rhinoceros with a bony nasal septum, whilst in the other 
tuffs, which evidently belong to older eruptions of the same 
volcano, other animals occur, which, according to French 
naturalists, belong to an older Fauna. The human bones found 
in Denise thus belong to the same period as the bones of the 



LicTusi X. 268 

Belgian oaves, which were oontemponmeoiM with tiie mammoih 
and care bear. The bones are, nnfortnnatelj, insufficient to 
determine the primitiTe race of Aurergne. The preserved 
cranial bones do not, however, shew any great deviation from 
the form at present obtaining in that region. According to all 
appearance, for hitherto they have not been dosely examined, 
they most closely resemble the cranial type represented in the 
caves of Lombiive. 

No sooner was attention excited, and the importance of the 
Denise discovery established, than firandnlent specolation laid 
hold of it. There are, at present, blocks in the possession 
of some persons, into which the bones have been inserted arti- 
ficially, and an eminent naturalist of that connty, M. Bravard, 
informed the Geological Society of France that he had detected 
a skilfiil workman in the act of so introducing them. From 
this it has been inferred that the block first fonnd was also a 
connteifeit, bnt its authenticity is now established. Cases of 
this kind need not surprise us. No sooner is a disoQvexy made 
than collectors flock to the spot, the English specially, oflTering 
high prices. There are some quarries which yield the owner 
more by their petrifactions than by the building materials they 
yield. The greater the demand the higher the price, and the 
greater the inducement to deception and fraud. The workmen 
themselves now fabricate the desired articles, or produce some- 
thing new, in which they are as inventive as were the monks 
of the convent Bheinau, who, of the slabs of Oeningen, with 
fossil fishes and salamanders, compounded the most Semtastio 
creatures. A similar case occurred recently in Switzerland. 
When the railroad near Concise was in course of construction, 
there was found in the Lake of Neufchatel a pile structure of the 
stone period, from which were extracted a large number of 
bones of deer in all stag^ of workmanship. When the work- 
men, who at first took little notice of these objects, found 
out that antiquaries pounced upon them like hawks upon 
sparrows, they raised the prices, and when the articles became 
scarce they provided themselves with worked staghoms. 
Many an antiquaxy was thus taken in. Mr. Troyon, the con- 
servator of the Museum of Lausanne, purchased in good fisdth 



264 LXCTUBB z. 

a whole collection of these articles and exhibited them in the 
Moseum^ where the fraud was detected by some more acnte 
observers. This frauds however^ as little invalidates the 
genuineness of the €r8t articles founds as the fabrication of old 
pictures^ stataes, and mosaics, which is now so snccessfnlly car- 
ried on in Italy, can diminish the value of the genuine original 
antiquities. 

Let us return to our subject. The volcanoes of Auvergne 
and the Ehine, which in prehistoric times vomited forth mighty 
streams of lava and ashes, have become extinct since the time 
of the mammoth, cave bear, and the reindeer. The volcanic 
tuff, enclosing the above-named animals, is contemporaneous 
with the deposit in the caves. The fossil man of Denise is, 
however, as far as we know, the only human relic found in this tuff. 

In the diluvium of France and England, on the other hand, 
have been found so many stone and bone implements, that they 
deserve our attention, as their discovery has given the first 
impulse to researches in this new direction. We may, how- 
ever, observe at once that, excepting one lower jaw, the anti- 
quity of which is still contested, no human fossil bones have 
been found in the diluvium, but only implements, so that the 
race question remains unsolved. It is just possible that some 
old graves, such as those discovered in Mecklenburg, of which 
more hereafter, belong to that period ; but the contemporaneity 
is far from being established, and further researches are needed. 

In the North of France, especially in Picardy, the soil is 
chiefly composed of white chalk, containing in its horizontal 
strata regnlar layers of flints. In former times, when flints, 
alike for purposes of peace and war, possessed a high value, 
which they retained until the invention of lucifera and percus- 
sion caps, there were in Picardy and the Champagne large flint 
manufactories which procured their material from the subsoil. 
We shall see that this manufacture of flint implements dates 
from the remotest antiquity. 

This chalk formation was, no doubt, at a former period 
covered by tertiary formations, thus forming an almost uniform 
plateau which gradually thinned off towards the sea. These 
tertiary formations were mostly of a sandy nature, and thus it 



UBCTURX X. 265 

was that every brook gradually washed off the tertiary forma- 
tion and transformed its harder parts into rolled pebbles. 
Hence we only find the tertiaiy formation at a distance from 
rivers, specially from the main stream of the Somme, upon the 
platean, and mostly corered by the old dilavinm, a fatly day 
or brick earth, itself mostly derired from the destmction of the 
tertiaiy formation, and forming an extremely fertile bed about 
five feet thick, which contains no fossils. Into this old diluvium, 
as well as into the tertiary strata, and deep into the chalk, have 
the streams and brooks dug their beds; and the valley in which 
each of tbese streams flows, a valley of comparatively consider- 
able width, is thus bordered on both sides by a chain of hills, 
the slopes of which towards the stream consist of white chalk, 
above which at some distance is spread out the fertile loam, 
while beneath lie the sandy tertiary strata. The bed of the 
Somme, near Amiens, is nearly a mile in width, but enlarges 
considerably from below Abbeville down to St. Yaleiy. In 
this river-bed, as well as in the neighbouring valleys, occur form- 
ations which are manifestly more recent than the excavation 
of the river bed, the tertiaiy strata, and the alluvial formation 
of the platform. These formations within the old river valleys i 

claim our special attention, as they contain human remains. 

Ilg. 86 SeotUm of the Y all^ of tlie Somiiie* at Abberflkj after Brestwioli. 




5. The liTer Somme. If. Sea-lereL 1. Peet in the TiUey. 2. Saltfaoei&t 
Letten. 8. Flint mTel repoaing upon oholk. 4. Gt^ dilnrinm, with bonei 
and htttoheta. 6. Caloareoua lo«n or loeaa. 6^ Brown daj and vegetaUe 
aoiL 7. Chalk. 

On the sides of the valley there are comparatively very slight 
deposits of rolled gravel, marl, sand and day, forming two 
different terraces, to distinguish which a practised eye is requi- 
site. In the lowest terrace, from twenty to forty feet thick, there 
is immediately beneath and upon the chalk a layer ten to fourteen 



!^^ 



266 UCTUBS X. 

feet thidc of ooarse^ wliite^ chalky sand^ with flints bnt little 
roUedi abont three inches in diameter, intermixed with many 
flint balls, washed forth unbroken from the dudk, and forming 
a confhsed bed in which layers of fine sand alteniate with sandy 
marl. In the fine sandy layers are freqnently found sea- and 
fresh-water shells still existing in the district, excepting a spe- 
cies fOyrena fluminalisj, which at present is only met with in 
the Nile and some parts of High Asia, namely in Cashmir. 
Here and there the fresh water shells are intermixed with the 
strand mussels of the sea which still live in a neighbouring 
canal, showing that the sea made frequent irruptions &r into 
the land. Besides this, there are found in this inferior bed of 
the lower terrace, in immediate contact with the chalk soil, 
fossil bones, and, associated with them, flint implements, of 
which more anon. The bones found in this bed are generally 
those of the mammoth, the rhinoceros with a bony septum, the 
fossil horse, the aurochs, the gigantic deer, the reindeer, the 
cave lion, the cave hyaena, and other extinct cave beasts. 

This older stratum generally presents an irregfular surface, 
with eminences and depressions, as seen in all beds deposited 
by the irregfular flow of the waters. Above it lies fine white 
silicious sand, with rounded pebbles and thin beds of marl, in 
which also here and there some fragments of the bones of ex- 
tinct animals are met with. This bed has manifestly been 
deposited at a later period ; it has a mean thickness of six feet, 
and contains no other petrifactions. 

Upon this lies a bed of brown clay, mixed with a few angu- 
lar fiiints, filling up the depressions in the surface of the second 
bed, and passing here and there into an ochrous sand which 
contains no fossils. The surface is even, and covered with a 
layer of common earth of considerable thickness. Old graves 
occasionally found in this terrace sometimes pass through the 
superior brown clay bed to the white sand bed, but never reach 
its bottom. They are known at once, being filled mth brown 
earth and human bones. 

The upper terrace is similarly constructed, so that it is not 
easy to point out any difference. 

The central parts of the valleys are generally filled with peat 



LBcruxi z. 267 

bogs^ iQMliing oooaaonaUy a thiokiiesB of thirty feet or more. 
Theoe peat moon haTe been distiiigoiBhed as old and recent. 
The old peat bed is said raroly to be more than one meter 
thidc. Thereare fomid in it in eveiy direction tnmks of alders, 
oaks, firs, hasels, and bones, speciallj of the beayer and the 
common bear. This old peat is in some spots oorered with 
sand dnnes. It reposes upon a bed of sand and gmvel resting 
upon chalk, firom which it is separated by a layer of brown or 
black impervions marty clay. 

In onr endearonrs to decipher from the abore description 
the history of the yalley of the Somme, we arrive at the con- 
dnsion, that this yalley was excavated after the deposit of the 
allnyia on the table land; that the terraces had at alater period 
been formed by smaller streams, after which a temporary in* 
crease of water in the streams caused these terraces to be 
washed off, so that they are only preserved in certain spots ; 
that the rolled gravel and the marly day whidi now form the 
bottom of the peat bogs, are the deposits of the waters which 
scooped the valleys, after which the formation of the peat com- 
menced. The formation, however, of the old peat in the vici- 
nity of the sea has frequentiy been intermpted by the irmption 
of the sea, which covered it with sand. 

The alluvial formations upon the platform correspond with 
those which the Parisian geologists term diluvium dea plaieaux. 
The lower bed of the terraces, with the pebbles, large blocks, 
elephant bones, and flint implements, corresponds to the grey 
diluvium of Paris pXluvium grisj ; the upper layer, with its 
silidous sand and gravel, to the red diluvium of the French 
(VUuviwn rougej ; the brown layer to loam or loess. 

Must I repeat the toudiing stoiy of how Boucher de Perthes, 
a meritorious but somewhat eccentric antiquary of Abbeville, 
first found the singular flints in the g^y diluvium, how he 
went with his discovexy a-begging from door to door, and 
found no hearing ; how, at length, some of his neighbours, and 
next some Englishmen, became interested, until Amiens, Ab- 
beville, St. Adieul, Menchecourt, and other locaUties of the 
valley of the Somme became the resort of geological and archsdo- 
logicffJ pilgrims, who visited these places either to be convinced 



268 LICTUBS X. 

or to graiher new facts^ whilst not a few allowed tliemaelyeB to 
be orerreached by the workmen^ who soon established a reg^ular 
manofactoiy of flint implements. It must be admitted that 
the coolness with which the news of the discorery was at first 
received^ was partly due to the exaggerations of the discoverer^ 
from which charge he is not altogether free even now ; for he 
sees in some of these worked flints rade delineations of human 
and animal heads^ and in others instruments for catting the 
hair and nails. We may reasonably doubt whether art^ in its 
rudest beginning, included hair-dressing in the primeval epoch 
of the human species. 

I shall pass over the desperate attempts made to explain 
away the formation of these implemente. They afford a 
melancholy proof of that disposition to regain, at any price, 
even at the expense of common sense, a lost position. It is 
proved, beyond any doubt, that these flinte have been fabricated 
by man's hand ; that they owe their origin to no other cause ; 
that they lie in beds which, since their deposition, have never 
been disturbed ; and that they unquestionably date from the 
same period as that of the extinct animals. 

Let us now examine the flint implemente. They are veiy 
rudely fabricated, and manifestly split off* horn the flint stones 
found in the district. Two stones were struck against each 
other until one was shattered, and such splinters collected as 
appeared suitoble for being worked. As the flint pebbles have 
a round or oval form, it is natural that the splinters should more 
or less exhibit the same shape, and that the centre of the pieces 
should be thicker, and present an edge lengthwise. Flint has 
nearly the same fracture as glass. On some of the stone 
hatchete is seen the crust which flinte imbedded in chalk 
always present. These instrumento were either not finished^ 
or the workmen found that condition suiteble for their pur- 
pose, and so left them as they were. The edges are mostly 
sharp. There can be no doubt but these implemente have 
been manufactured on the spot, or in the vicinity, as they 
are but little rolled. This assumption is further supported 
by the circumstance that the hateheto are mostly found at 
the base of the formation in large quantities, as during the 



LBCTUBl X. 269 

few jears that attention has been drawn to this subjeot manj 
thousands have been extracted from the Somme valley. It 
is this qoantiiy which affords additional evidence of their 
being worked^ for a single sample may have been the effect 
of accident^ but not so many thousands. 

Three forms have been distinguished. The so-called knives 
or flakes {eclats) are the least worked; they are thin elongated 
pieces^ with cutting edges, ronning to a more or less sharp 
point, and manifestly the result of few blows. 

Fig. 87. Flint Knife in the Oeneva Hnseom, pzeeented by Bonoher de 
Perthes. Sox&oe and r 




Among the splinters caused by the breakage of large flints, 
such were selected as resemble the blade of a knife, which 
were used for cutting meat, Rkinning animals, &c., as is also 
shewn by the worked bones of which we have spoken, and 
which still shew the indentations made by their flint knives. 

The two other forms are more finished ; they are spear- or 
lance-shaped. The lance-shaped are longer, some eight inches 
in length, finely pointed, thicker, and more massive at the 
broad end, so as to form a sort of a handle. The instru- 
ments of oval shape have been mostiy worked by gentie blows. 
From the form and workmanship, as well as from comparison 
with pieces of a later period, which are more perfect, it may 
be shewn that these implements served for wedges. The savages 






270 JilCTU&B X. 

Fig. 88. Oral-Ahftped Stone Hatohet, flhazpened. Both from the aftme plaoe. 




Fig. 89. 



o. The original Chalk Cnuit. 
Lanoe-ehaped Stone Hatohets. Snrfiboe and Profile. 





in the islands of the Pacific^ whOj when disooYered, were 
ignorant of the nse of metal ; the Indians of North and South 



v^ 



LICTUBB X. 271 

America, all worked and made use of similar flint im- 
plements. 

The condition of tlie stone liatchetsfomid in the valley of the 
Somme also bears evidence of their great activity. As already 
observed, many of the implements are encrusted with the same 
film as the flint in its chalky bed. All those made from 
dark grey flint show also a coloration (called by the French la 
patine), more or less penetrating into the interior and corre- 
sponding to that of the gravel in the same strata. In some 
spots it is white, in others yellow or dark brown. This colora- 
tion extending to all the edges and surfaces, and penetrating 
equally into the interior structure, furnishes ample evidence 
that the period, during which the tools have lain in the strata, is 
of equal duration with that of the broken gravel forming 
part of the same bed. In some spots the surfaces have 
dendrites like those on the Neanderthal skull ; these, however, 
furnish no. absolute proof of great age. ij;*^ 

Beside the stone hatchets no other traces of human industry i!;^| 

were found excepting some small round bodies perforated in '^^ 

the centre, which are fossils found in the chalk, and known :| 

by the name 0o9emopora globularis. At first it was suggested j|^ 

that the hole was artificial, until it was found that many of !| 

them still imbedded in the chalk were equally perforated; 
the central portion, being of a more spongy texture, had 
probably been scooped out during decomposition. As rows of 
them have been found in juxtaposition, it is probable that these 
bodies had been strong together as beads and worn as oma-* 
ments, which is the more likely, as some of these beads, belong- 
ing to a later period, have been found which were evidently 
artificially bored. 

Human bones have long been sought for, but in vain, and 
LyeU, who possesses a mania for explaining eveiything, did 
not neglect this opportunity of writing an explanatoiy treatise 
on the absence of human fossils in the valley of the Somme. 
But at last a human jaw was found at Moulin Quignon, near 
Abbeville (March 29). 

The jaw was carefully removed by Boucher de Periihes.from 
the lowest bluish ferruginous stratum, resting immediately upon 
the chalk. One of the molars is still in the jaw, the socket of 



272 



LBOTUBJB X. 



the last molar, which mnst have been lost during life, wa. 
closed up, the other open alveoli were filled with Band. The 

Fig. 90. The Moulm-Qiiigndii Jaw, outside Tiew, from M. de QoatrefiftgeB* 

photognq^li. 




Fig. 91. The Moulin-Qoignon Jaw, inaide view, from M. de Qaatre&gee' 

photograph. 




vd the same black coating as the hatchets found in the 
The form of the jaw presents miny peculiarities 



LXCTUBIB X. 



278 



The angle formed between the ascending and the horizontal 
ramus is very open^ the ascending ramus veiy low and broad, 
its head nncommonly ronnd, and the posterior margin curved 
inwards, as in the marsupials. All these characters may 
separately be met with in some European skulls, but they are 
never found in such combination. Doubts respecting the 
authenticity of this jaw, raised chiefly by English naturalists, 
have, after a long investigation, been removed, as we shall show 
hereafter. The jaw of Moulin Quignon is the first, and hitherto 
the only human fossil obtained from the stratified diluvium, 
and, from the combination of many characters, no doubt 
belongs to a peculiar race, which cannot be determined until 
more such discoveries are made. 

The proceedings of the above congress excited general interest 
and gave rise to different interpretations. The members them- 
selves did not seem quite clear as to the results obtained. Dr. 
Falconer, for instance, had^no sooner crossed the Channel than 
he began to raise doubts against what he could not well deny 
in France in presence of the facts. I feel, therefore, bound 
to enter into further particulars concerning the points at issue. 

The succession of the beds in the spot where the jaw was 
found is represented in the subjoined figure. 

Yig. 92. Section of the Beds at Moalin-Quignon, after 0. Dimpre. 










274 LSCTUBB z. 

ThlcVnew In mttnm. 

1. Vegetable eartih - - - - - 0-80 

2. Qt^ nndifltiiTbed sand* with broken flints - - 0-70 
8. Yellow argillaoeooB sand* mixed with large and little rolled 

flints, below whioh is a bed of grey sand without flints - 1-50 
4. Yellow fermginoiis sand, mixed with less thiok bat more 
rolled flints, below which is a bed of less yeUow sand. 
In this bed Bonoher de Perthes fimnd fragments of a 
tooth of the Mammoth, and some flint hatchets - 1*70 

6. Black argillo-femiginoas sand, colonring and sticking to 
the hand; small pebbles, more rolled than in the higher 
beds. In this bed were found flint hatchets, and the hn- 
man jaw. a. Marks the spot where Quatre&ges found two 
• flint hatchets in the presence of the Congress, h. The. 
spot where Boucher de Perthes found a flint hatchet : 
and e. where he found the jaw, March 28, 1868. d. Is the 
spot where Dr. Fslooner found another hatchet, April 14^ 
in the presence of the Congress ... 0-50 

Thickness of the alluTium - - 4*70 
6. Abedof ohalkwithanixregnlarsur&oe. 

The objectioAB raised by Elie de Beaumont^ Perpetual secre- 
tary of the French Academy, deserve some special notice ; in 
order to obviate misapprehension, I shall state them nearly in 
his own words : " I am of opinion/' says this geologist, " that 
the alluvial deposits excavated from the gravel pit at Monlin- 
Qnignon do not belong to the diluvium proper. 

" In my opinion this apparent diluvial formation belongs to 

such deposits as I have formerly called alluvium 

These formations are synchronous with the formation of peat, 
and may, like it, contain human bones and the products of 
himian industry ; but such deposits which represent a kind 
of post diluvium, and are formed by detached fragments, 
transported by atmospheric influences, thunderstorms, snow, 
fi^st, and rain, may contain what the small diluvial deposits 
collected on the surface or the fissures of the rocks contain, 
namely, bones and teeth of elephants, etc., which belong to such 
bodies as are less apt to be destroyed by atmospheric influ- 
ences or transportation. 

'' The men and elephants, the bones of which are found in 
such deposits, need not, therefore, have been contempora- 



'.J 



LICTUBS z. 275 

neons, and the different state of their cartilageB appears to me 
to prove that they belong to different epochs. With regard to 
the flint implements^ it seems to me natural to assign them to 
the stone period of the Swiss pile works. Since now these 
pile works are co-ordinate with the present level of the lakes, 
they mnst necessarily be post-dilayian, for in all the Swiss 
lakes, even those whose beds were not excavated by the erratic 
or dilnvian phenomenon (if there be such), we can only date 
back the present level of the waters to the last effects of this 
mighiy phenomenon, which left the bed of eveiy lake in that 
condition in which we see it at present. 

'' I do not think that man co-existed with the mammoth ; I 
still adhere in this respect to Cuvier's opinion. Cnvier's opi- 
nion is that of a genins, and has hitherto not been refuted.'' 

Mibie-Edwards, the celebrated professor of zoology, imme- i ':U 

diately replies, that he will give no opinion respecting the age i^ 

of the beds at Monlin-Qoignon, which concerned the geolo- i^ 

gists; but as regards the contemporaneity of man and the i' ^j 

extinct animals, he must formally declare that it rests not -i 

merely upon the discoveiy at Moulin-Quignon, but upon a if 

great number of fistcts ascertained in different countries. |f 

Quatrefages also declares that, though for a long time he ad- 
hered to the view of Cuvier, he now entertained a different 
opinion. 

According to all observations which I have cited in this 
work, there can really be no doubt on this subject. It is well 
known that more recent alluvial formations contain well pre- 
served remains of destroyed beds; nothing, for instance, is 
more common than to find in the strata immediately overlying 
chalk, whether they belong to the tertiaiy or more recent for- 
mations, flints and silidous petri&ctions from the chalk bed. 
Why, then, should not detadied elephant and human bones 
be found intermixed in a recent diluvium f No doubt, such 
may be the case; but when such discoveries are made in 
the most different locaUties, when not merely rolled and worn 
away fragments of bones, but connected parts which manifestly 
must have been covered with flesh, are found associated with 
human bones and numerous remains of man's industry ; if these 

t2 



llr 



276 LBCTUBK X. 

aniinal bones bear traces of workmanship^ effected when they 
were in a fresh state, the aspect is changed. Were it possible 
to expnnge (rom science the discoveries of Schmerling, Lartet, 
and many others, the jaw of Monlin-Qoig^on might, as is sug- 
gested by Beanmont, be considered a perfectly isolated case. 
Bat as these facts, perhaps unknown to the celebrated acade- 
mician, are on record, it is impossible to treat a multitude of 
facts as a collection of exceptions. 

With regard (apart from this jaw) to the parallelism of the 
stone hatchets of the valley of the Somme (and, by the way, of 
many other localities) with the pileworks of the Swiss stone 
period, it will excite both in the archaeologist and palsBontolo- 
gist a smile of incredulity; in the antiquary, because the 
hatchets of the diluyium bear traces of different and more rough 
workmanship, whilst the Swiss implements indicate a much 
higher culture and a more recent epoch ; in the anatomist, be- 
cause the Swiss pile-works, as Biitimeyer has shown, present 
a different Fauna, in which there is no trace of extinct species, 
and which are perfectly distinct from those of the diluvial de- 
posits. Whoever has read with attention the accumulative evi- 
dence given in a previous lecture, will find that I need not here 
prove again that the ingenious opinion of Cuvier, if it was 
such, has been in every respect refuted, and that the parallel- 
ism of the deposits of the Somme valley with the Swiss pile- 
works has turned out an unfortunate attempt void of any 
foundation. 

We shall pass on now to the geological aspect of the ques- 
tion. I shall here summarise the assertions of Elie de Beau- 
mont, and those of his opponents whose names are of not less 
weight in geology. 

In a note read August 10th before the French Academy, Elie 
de Beaumont expresses himself thus: — '' My theoiy rests chiefly 
on the distinction between the real or Alpine diluvium and cer- 
tain gravel deposits which, like those of Moulin-Quignon, more 
or less resemble the diluvium. 

'' I attribute the origin of the latter to the effect of stiU 
acting forces, the action of which has, in my opinion, been mo- 
mentarily interrupted by the diluvial phenomena, whilst other 



LxqruBi z. 277 

geoIogistB, in opposition to my opinion^ ascribe even the diln- 
viam to still acting forces. Beference has been made to pre- 
sent agents^ only in another form than mine ; the origin of the 
sandbank of Monlin-Qnignon has been ascribed either to the 
action of floating iceblocks stranded in the Somme creeks^ or 
to the varions level-changes of the general mass of the conti- 
nent. It does not seem to me justifiable to' assume such gprand 
phenomena for the explanation of such small effects, but I 
must be permitted to observe, that, if the sandbank of Moulin- 
Quignon really owes its origin to either of these two different 
phenomena, it manifestly does not, in my opinion, belong to 
the real diluvium. 

" It is equally manifest that if this same sandbank of Moulin- 
Quignon is the product of a mixture of the elements of the grey 
and the red diluvium, it cannot belong to the grey diluvium, 
which is the proper alpine diluvium, and which, I agree with 
Cuvier in considering as corresponding to the extinction of the 
fossil elephant and as preceding the apparition of man. 

''Attempts have, nevertheless, been made to prove that I J 

am wrong in distinguishing the gravel of Moulin-Quignon, as ^ 

well as many other deposits of flint, sand, and loam upon the ' f 

platforms of Picardy, from the Alpine diluvium, and my views "^ 

have been criticised because I very simply had recourse for the 
formation of these deposits to thunderstorms, frost and snow 
as the acting causes. I shall oppose to these critics a few 
ciphers. 

'' 1 . The sandbank of Moulin-Quignon lies, according to Bou- 
cher de PertheS) thirty meters above the level of the Somme, 
near Abbeville, consequently thirty-nine meters above the level 
of the sea. At a distance of less than two kilometers there are 
spots which, according to the map, have an elevation of sixty- 
one, sixty-three, and sixty-seven meters ; at a distance of less 
than three kilometers there is one spot eighty meters, and at 
five kilometers are spots one hundred meters high. Taking 
into consideration the difference of elevation in proportion to 
distance, it will be found that the declivities from these points 
towards the sandbank of Moulin-Quignon all exceed the hun- 
dredth or 0, M' 22', 58, that is to say that this fall is ten times 






278 LXOTUBI z. 

greater than the upper limit of the fall of the navigable riTors^ 
and that this fall even exceeds that of the Isere^ Arve, and 
Bruche in the Yosges^ where these rivers^ in the vicinity of 
their sources^ flow with great rapidity, causing great devasta- 
tions. All that is required is a heavy fall of snow or rain for 
the waters to effect similar devastations upon the undulating 
and loosely connected stony platforms of Picardy. Who could 
thus undertake to determine the limits of the greatest effects 
of this kind, which might have been produced on the environs 
of Abbeville since the stone period f 

'' It has been particularly pointed out that the sandbank of 
Moulin-Quignon is older than the peat of the banks of the 
Somme. This gravel deposit seems indeed to date from the 
stone period, whilst the peats of northern France are partly 
more recent than the Boman roads. If this be true, it is easily 
understood how the bones of the elephant and the rhinoceros 
may have undergone the removal which produced these and 
other deposits. They were then less petrified and less fragile 
than now; it remains nevertheless true, that the deposit at 
Moulin-Quignon, as well as the peats, have been formed by 
still acting causes, and belong, like the peat, to the present 
period. 

'' This gravel bank is composed of such variable deposits, 
which have been formed and are still forming on the surface of 
the earth by the agency of atmospheric influences, and which 
I designate by the name of alluvium of the slopes, in contra- 
distinction to the fluviatile alluvium which forms the planes of 
the valleys. The alluvium on the slopes is very abundant in 
the north of France on account of the composition of the ter- 
tiary strata covering the chalk, in the mass of which the undu- 
lations of the ground enter. 

'' The alluvia on the slopes are forming daily during every 
fall of rain ; some are formed in the garden of the Luxemburg, 
where the sand is scattered upon the paths, expressly as it were, 
to produce this little phenomenon. The alluvium on the slopes, 
that in the valleys, and the peats, are to be considered, in their 
totality, essenti'dlly synchronous, 

'' I will not enter into further particulars, but wait until the 



1) 



LBCTUBI Z. 279 

jaw found at Moulin-Qaignon has been analysed. I find, with 

Boucher de Perthes, that this analysis can afford no absolute 

solution, but I also share the opinion of the English savants, 

that the analysis of a bone, foond in a doubtful position, is 

essential. The natural chronometer, such as the Diines, the 

river-deltas, and the waterfalls, yield no absolute measures. 

The disappearance of the animal matter of a bone, is in itself 

a kind of natural chronometer, which, though it must be 

reduced to its fair value, is not to be neglected. I should be •* 

glad to see the jaw of Moulin-Qaignon chemically compared, C 

not only with fossil bones from the real diluvium, but with .::: 

human bones, extracted from Gaelic or Gallo-Boman g^ves, ^^ 

and also with bones preserved in the catacombs of Paris.'' «-: 

Before proceeding further, I beg to offer a few remarks. As L j> 

late as in the month of May, Elie de Beaumont asserted the H.;: 

synchronism of the peat and the gravel bank of Moulin-Qui- ,.^ 

gnon, and supported his view by the circumstance that human j^ 

bones, wood, horn, stone, bronze, and iron implements have all 
been found in the peat. But, it seems, in the month of August, »i 

Moulin-Quignon becomes considerably older, but stiU remains |f 

in the same epoch, being thrust back to its beginning, the stone ^ 

period, whilst the peat is advanced to the Boman period. It " 

would be just the same to assert that Homer and King Otto 
were contemporaries because they belong to the -same epoch, 
namely, the historical period of the Greeks. 

Elie de Beaumont goes further. Moulin-Quignon is formed 
by still acting forces ; the Alpine diluvium, on the contraxy, is 
formed by other causes which momentarily intermpted the 
forces still acting in nature. Here is the rub. The present 
theoiy is that the diluvial period was of a very lengthened 
duration, and also that the present forces, glaciers, and waters, 
were in continued action, and that the diluvial period merged 
into the present without any perceptible interruption, and that, 
as we have shewn, the extinct animals died off very gradually, or 
retired, or were transformed into present species. The whole 
theory of Elie de Beaumont, reg^arding the Alpine diluvium, is 
founded upon an error of fact. 

He has mistaken beds of NageJfluhe (conglomerate of the 



280 LSCTtJBS X. 

Alps), interposed between molasse strata, for dilavium, and has 
compared these beds, for which no fossils have yet been found, 
to the allavinm of the valleys where elephant bones have been 
met with. Hence this transposition of the dilnvinm into another 
epoch ; hence tliis repudiation of still acting forces, as regards 
the above formations, for which he invokes unknown forces, 
which cannot at present be traced in nature. 

As regards the slopes, there is a small point which must not 
be forgotten, namely, that the motion of water does not merely 
depend upon the fall, but also upon the mass, and that a 
navigable river flows down more rapidly than a small brook, and 
that rain water remains, to a certain extent, stationaiy. 

With respect to chemical analysis, it may be said that the 
amount of organic matter only then furnishes a kind of natural 
chronometer when the respective bones are found in the same 
positions. If this be not the case, the chemical analysis has 
scarcely any importance, as those influences, which deprive the 
bones of their animal matter, act with greater intensity in one 
locality than in another. 

The note of Elie de Beaumont, which we have rendered ver- 
batim, is partly an answer to the communication of Hubert, 
laid before the academy in May, which I also subjoin. H^ert 
is intimately acquainted with the environs of Paris, and has, 
with other geologists, taken part in the Scientific Cong^ss. 

'' The celebrated Secretary of the Academy of Sciences,** 
writes Hubert, '' ought to have noticed that we were specially 
occupied in investigating this question ; that we are far from 
confounding the various accumulations of conglomerates ; that 
we have shirked no difficulties ; but that these difficulties do 
not invalidate the facts that man has existed in France since 
the beginning of the quatemaiy or diluvial period. 

'' With regard to the special locality of Moulin-Quignon, I 
have declared at Abbeville, that this conglomerate, consisting 
partly of broken or entire and frequently large flints, which 
seem to have come from the subjacent chalk, and are cemented 
together in a brown firm clay, which here and there contains 
sandy parts ; I have declared, I say, that this fonnation does 
not, in my opinion, belong to the lower diluvium, which occurs 



LICTUBS Z. 281 

at 8t. Acheul, near Amiens^ at Mencheconrt^ and other localitieB 
in the yiciniiy of Abberille^ and in which flint implements are 
foond aflsodated with the bones of the mammoth and rhinoceros 
tichorhinns. 

'' I therefore consider the deposits of Monlin-Qoignon of a 
more recent origin, and incline, in this respect, to the opinion 
of Elie de Beaamont ; but this learned g^logist adds, that 
this deposit is sTnchronons with the formation of the peat, with 
which I cannot agree. The stratification at a mnch higher 
lerel, the nature of this stratification which indicates the action 
of water in rapid motion, do not admit of a relation between 
the phenomenon to which this deposit owes its origin, and the 
conditions which gave rise to the peat. The peat formation is, 
in my opinion, much more recent, and in it the waters present 
relations similar to the present, and which would be vainly 
sought for in the conditions which may be inferred from the 
flint deposits at Moulin-Quignon. 

" I consequently rank this formation among the diluvium, 
but I have declared on the spot that I cannot exactly determine •» 

its constitution, as may be done with the well known deposits " 

of Menchecourt and St. Achenl. 

'' To render the subject more plain, I crave permission to 
describe the phenomena of the diluvium in the north of France 
as established by geologists who have specially studied this 
subject. 

'' 1. Excavation of our present valleys by erosion, a work of 
long duration, which required large masses of water. 

'' 2. Development of the Fauna of the mammoth upon the so 
formed soil of France, which was covered with forests inhabited 
by the elephants and rhinoceros, forests of which scarcely any 
traces are left, whilst the animals which inhabited them have 
left their bones in the soil. 

''Formation of the lower alluvium of our valleys, by streams, 
gpravel below, sand above, with numerous relics of mammoth, 
rhinoceros tichorhinns, and flint hatchets, in the valley of the 
Somme. These deposits have filled up the previously scooped 
out valleys to a height of ten to fifteen meters, so that at Paris 
they rise thirty-five to forty meters above the level of the sea. 






> 



282 LSCTUBX z. 

This portion of the aUnyiiim is^ on acconnt of its colour^ fre- 
quently called grey dUxiviwn, 

" 3. Deposition of calcareoos loam^ called loess, which always 
contains lime knolls of the same shape^ whether on the banks 
of the Rhine or at Paris^ which overUes the preceding stratmni 
and marks a new phasis in the quaternary period. 

" 4. Formation of a gravelly deposit^ the broken flints of which 
are cemented in red loam and quartzose sand^ which contains no 
organic remains^ is never clearly stratified^ and lies partly upon 
the grey diluviumj partly upon the loess, as may be plainly 
seen in the vicinity of the new church of the Quartier de Deux 
Moulins, or upon the ealcaire groasier, as may be seen on the 
platform of Maison Blanche and Montrouge. 

" This deposit, usually called the red diluvium, which was 
previously, but erroneously, believed to be overlaid by the 
loess, lies mostly in channels, which are scooped out in the sub- 
jacent strata. All geologists know the singular bag-like de- 
pressions, which sometimes form well-shafts of five, ten, and 
fifteen meters in depth, intersecting both solid and moveable 
stone masses. These also are the efiects of different pheno- 
mena of the quaternary period. 

''When the subjacent diluvial strata, where they are in contact 
with the deposit, show no excavation, there are seen in the 
bottom one or two horizontal layers of firm brown or reddish 
clay, which sometimes contains a layer of ferruginous sand ; 
and if bag-shaped depressions are present, this clay lines their 
walls, and thus envelopes the red diluvium, which it separates 
at the same time from the loess and the grey diluvium. 

'' The red diluvium spreads generally over the ground and 
the side waUs of our partly filled up valleys ; and rises in the 
vicinity of Paris to a height of at least sixty-five meters, but 
does not reach the heights attained by the loess. 

" 6. The surface of the red diluvium was itself washed off by 
the waters, which stratified its upper masses, and mixed it 
with grey loam. This deposit is still seen at the gate of Ivry. 

" 6. After these successive processes our valleys were again 
scooped out, but manifestly under new conditions. The de- 
posits hitherto mentioned adhered to the walls of the valleys. 



UBCTUBS z. 288 

and the form of the ground sar&ce became what it is now ; 
though in these newly scooped ont valleys nnmerons other 
greologioal processes took place^ the investigation of which has 
scarcely commenced, bat which, nnqnestionably, assign this 
final excavation to a very remote period. 

" The grey and red diluviom are fomid with all their cha- 
racteristics at St. Achenl, Mencheconrt, and in many other 
places of the Somme valley ; loess also occurs there, but in a 
very rudimentary form. 

" The numerous flint-hatchets which testify to the existence 
of man in the beginning of the quaternary period, have been 
found in the grey diluvium, which is covered by its double 
undisturbed mantle. 

" This deposit of Moulin-Quignon shows neither the cha- 
racters of the grey nor of the red diluvium, but seems to 
be the result of a mixture of both, produced by disturbed 
waters ; perhaps, by the same waters which scdoped out the 
valleys. 

" The last excavation was, perhaps, not a simple phenome- i 

non ; for the deposit of Moulin-Quignon is, as has been shown, |f 

intersected by vertical, natural shafts, resembUng those pro- 
duced by the red diluvium ; but differing so far that the latter, 
as seen at St. Acheul and Paris, are filled with the red dilu- 
vium, whilst those of Moulin-Quignon are filled with a mani- 
festly more recent clayish matter, resembling vegetable soil. 
This is, perhaps, an indication of a seventh phase in the quater- 
nary period. 

" The formation of the peat deposits must, in my opinion, be 
placed in an epoch subsequent to the above periods. 

'' In conclusion, I would just observe that the natural shafts, 
which intersect the g^vel brook of Moulin-Quignon, can no 
ways be considered as haying fieivoured the introduction of the 
jaw in question to the bottom of the deposits.'' 

'' The jaw was situate in a bed of black flint, perfectly dis- 
tinct from the shafts, and the ferruginous substance had 
filtered through a fissure which pervades the whole mass from 
the surface down to the bottom, and which was itself filled 
with the same ferruginous mass, which it had carried down at 



:> 



284 LxcTuas x. 

an indefinite^ bnt at all erents veiy remote period. The 
coloration and' the incrustation of the jaw is accordingly a 
pnre accident^ bnt just on that account a guarantee against 
deception/' 

So far H^ert. We learn from it that the Parisian geolo- 
gist, like ourselTeSj considers the diluvial period to have been 
of long duration, during which a number of phenomena suc- 
ceeded each other, which required long periods of time. There 
is no question here of supernatural forces no longer acting, 
which are imagined only by such as cannot convince them- 
selves that slight forces may, within a proportionate length of 
time, produce extraordinary effects. The position of the loess 
immediately upon the grey diluvium does not seem so strange 
to us ; it may be parallelised with the loess at Cannstadt, so rich 
in bones of the elephant. 

The following is a report of the concluding part of a Lecture 
delivered by M. D'Archiac, Professor of Geology in the Jardin 
des Pigmies, on the 19th of June. 

" Whatever be the authenticity ascribed to the human jaw 
of Moulin-Qm'gnon, this discovery possesses only a secondary 
importance. It is a very simple fact, confirming other proofs, 
which by their number and universality have a much greater 
value. If the flint hatchets cannot be ascribed to accident ; if 
they are really the products of human industry, however rude ; 
if they must be held to furnish as irrefragable evidence for the 
existence of man before the formation of these deposits, as the 
bones of the mammoth, the rhinoceros, the hippopotamus, and 
of the cave lion, bear and hyaena, furnish for the existence of 
these animals, it becomes of little importance whether or not 
the remains of man are found in these deposits. 

'^ The question is answered by the fact itself, and it is of 
secondary importance whether the sand and gravel of Moulin- 
Quignon are quaternary or not. The essential result, the 
theoretical point which predominates over all others, namely, 
the antiquity of man and his co-existence with the extinct 
species of large mammals, loses nothing of its value, if it be 
founded only upon the products of human industry, instead 
of the discovery of human skeletons.^' 



UBCTUBB X. 285 

'' Wbat lias been said of the caTems of liege, and what we 
shall BAjf ia quite sufficient to answer satisfactorily the other 
part of the question. 

" From the fiftcts before us we cannot, in the present state 
of our knowledge, but assume, that the flint hatchets of the 
environs of Amiens and Abbeville are situated in undisturbed, 
essentially quaternary beds, along with the bones of extinct 
species, and, unless peculiar circumstances come to light, we 
must also assume that the jaw of Moulin-Quignon dates from ^ 

that period. :: 

"We must here touch upon a point, hitheii^ but little |^ 

noticed; I mean the determination of the age of these de- :^ 

posits, or rather of the rank they occupy in the quatemaiy I 

series. To what time of this period, disturbed by so many 
phenomena, do these beds correspond f '^, 

'' This determination appears to us at present easy, unless ]* 

we search for comparisons in the south [in the Alpine dilu- ;^ 

vium, G. v.], where they do not occur, and where we cannot ^ 

estimate their value ; but when we proceed to the north-east, ,^ 

the Netherlands, where the whole quaternary series stands in ii 

its true relation to the upper tertiary strata, both above and 
below the present sea level, or still better, when we proceed 
more northwards to the eastern counties of England. 

"The deposits of clayish, sandy or flinty conglomerates, 
which are found in the basin of the Somme and in all the small 
brook-valleys which run from the Oise direct to the sea, all lie 
directly upon the chalk, and, excepting those cases where 
lower tertiary formations interpose, we see no intermediate 
deposit which may enable us to estimate the immense time 
which must have elapsed between those deposits which are at 
present superimposed upon each other. 

" But on the other side of the Channel, the flint hatchets, 
which are identical with those of the Somme valley, lie in fresh 
water strata deposited in the cavities of the boulder day. Thia 
is shown by the sections in the environs of Hoxne in Sufiblk, 
Bedford, and the coast of Norfolk, near Mundesley. These 
sections proye that the fresh-water formations are more recent 
than the quaternary marine deposits of England, Scotland, and 



286 LBCTUBB Z. 

Ireland^ and consequently mnch younger than the Norfolk 
crag^ the accomnlations of bones of the Elephaa meridionalia 
and atitiquus. 

" Wliat is the animal world which characterises the beds in 
which traces are foond of a rude industry the genuineness of 
which cannot be easily doubted ? — ^land and fresh water shells, 
which, with few exceptions, still inhabit these regions, patchy- 
c2drmaf a, ruminants, and comtvora; XisaxieljjEleph^is primigenius 
and antiquus, Rhinoceros tichorhintis, Hippopotamus major ^ CeV' 
vus iarandus, Cervus unfigaceros, Bos primigenius and mosehaitas, 
Eqmis fossilis, Felis spekea, Hyasna speUjea, Ursus spelams, etc. 
That is to say exactly that assemblage of species which we 
find in the fluyio-marine beds of Menchecourt, in the sandy and 
flinty alluyium of localities near Abbeville and Amiens, as well 
as in the valley of the Oise near Chauny. 

'' The analpgy of these Faunae on both sides of the Channel 
is still more strikingly proved by the occurrence near Menche- 
court of the Corbicula consobrina or Jluminalis, which occurs 
from Grays Thurrock, on the left bank of the Thames, up to 
Hull on the Humber, and is also found in the borings of Ostend. 

" The remains of this Fauna of invertebrate and vertebrate 
animals were found in the great deposit of sand, clay, and 
rolled flints, which extends over the east and south of England, 
and which there, as on the continent, was in some places suc- 
ceeded by a g^velly clayish deposit which corresponds to the 
older alluvium. 

'' In now comparing the results obtained on the other side 
of the Channel with the deposits of the Somme valley, we must 
necessarily consider the latter as not much older than the fresh 
water formations of the south of England, and contemporaneous 
with such strata as beyond the Channel contain the Fauna of 
those large mammals which lived during the quaternary period. 
The deposits of the Somme valley and the basin of the Oise 
are thus younger than the boulder-clay, than the Norfolk crag, 
and belong in fact to the phenomena which occurred in the 
second glacial period. 

" Thus, on the one hand, the comparison of these deposits 
with those of the adjoining departments in the east, where the 



LBCTUBl X. 287 

relation of the sfarata to each other is more evidentj permits us 
to determine the period to whioh they belong ; and, on the 
other hand, this comparison with those in Belgium, England, 
and Holland points out to us the place they occupy in the 
series of deposits of this period. 

" We may, therefore, with Worsaae, distinguish two stone 
periods. Tbe one, antedUuvianj characterised by rudely hewn 
flints, precedes these last quaternary deposits; the second, 
the later or pre-hiatorie period, the weapons and implements of 
which indicate a less barbarous condition, comprehends the < 

time when the population in Denmark accumulated the kitchen* j^ 

middens, and that of Switzerland, Ireland, and other regions ^ 

built the pile works.'' 

The reader is now, from these extracts from Elie de Beau- ^' 

mont, Hubert, and d'Archiao, enabled to draw his own conclu- 
sion. As far as I am concerned, I am glad to find that I, !!, 
simultaneously with d'Archiac, and quite independently, have j|: 
arrived at the same results, namely : that the appearance o£ g 
man on the continent (independent of Desnc^ers' discoyeries, S 
which were then unknown to us) occurred in the period after f 
the deposit of the boulder-clay. 

You may easily imagine that the search for stone hatchets 
and flint tools as found in the valley of the Somme, extended 
soon to other parts. Similar discoveries were presently made 
in other spots. If I preferentially mention those made by 
Oosse in the neighbourhood of Paris, the reason is, that the 
stratification has been closely examined and determined. 
Charles D'Orbigny thus describes the section of the diluvium 
at JoinviUe, about six miles from Paris : — 

Upon the fresh water chalk of St. Ouen, which belongs to 
the tertiaiy formation, rests a layer of about two meters, 
seventy centimeters in thickness, of so-called grey diluvium, 
with granitic pebbles, intermixed with large erratic blocks, in 
which, besides bones of mammals and teeth of the mammoth 
and rhinoceros, are found fragments of sea- and river-shells 
from the subjacent tertiary cretaceous strata. Upon this grey 
diluvium reposes a bed of white marly sand, about seventy 
centimeters thick, in which are found marly knolls, as in the 



288 LECTUBB Z. 

loess ; and which contams^ besides some fragments of mam- 
mals and reptilesj a large quantity of well-preserFed land and 
fresh water shells^ of which thirty-seven species have been de- 
termined, all of which still occur in the surrounding country, 
or in the south of France. These shells were, no doubt, de- 
posited in a lake, which extended far beyond both banks of 
the Seine. Above the fresh water stratum lies another of 
grey diluvium, half a meter in thickness, containing granitic 
and porphyritic pebbles, but only a few fragments of fresh water 
snails, which seem to have been washed up from the subjacent 
stratum. Then comes a marly sandy layer of grey colour, with 
but few pebbles, without shells, seventy-five centimeters thick, 
and then comes the red diluvium of quartzose sand with pebbles, 
for which the chalk flints and the granite porphyry of Morvan 
have furnished the materials, which are coloured and cemented 
by the red ferruginous marly clay. This red diluvium, which thus 
partly consists of the same elements as the grey diluvium, 
.reaches a thickness of seventy centimeters, and lies imme- 
diately beneath the loam or loess, which is here only thirty 
centimeters thick, though in many places much thicker, and 
covered by vegetable soil. In the lowest stratum of the grey 
diluvium in a suburb of Paris, at La Motte Piquet, Gk>sse 
found, amidst numbers of bones of the elephant, rhinoceros, 
and the horse, flint hatchets of the same kind as those of 
Amiens. One of these hatchets was attached by sand to a 
bone, so that there was no doubt that both were imbedded 
together. 

Since that time a number of similar discoveries have been 
made in England, of which I shall only mention such as de- 
monstrate the parallelism of the respective beds with those of 
France. 

In 1801 John Frere communicated a paper to the English 
Society of Antiquaries, in which he reports that he has found, 
at Hozne, near Diss, in Suffolk, worked flints at a depth of 
twelve feet in a stratified soil, which had been dug up for brick 
earth. Under a foot and a-half of vegetable earth was day seven 
and a-half feet thick, and beneath this a layer of white fine sand, 
one foot thick, with 8hells,and under this two feet of gravel, which 



LBCTUBl X. 289 

OQntaaned the worked flints. Frere found also in the Horizon- 
tal strata the jawbones and teeth of a large animal unknown 
to Um ; and saw five or six liatchets within the space of a 
square yard. 

Fig. 08. Section at Hoxne, after Plrestwioh. 




M, Jf. Bea-lereL 1. ffigher lerel asad orerljiiiff the basin. 2. Upper 
■and of the baein. 8. Lower laad with bonea and batoheta. 4. Peaty ou^ 
for brick-maUng. 6. Boolderdaj. 6. Sand and graveL 7. Chalk. 

Prestwich very recently examined this spot^ and found the 
pit from which some hatchets were extracted^ but no bones. 
Among the bones found there at an earlier period, were those 
of the elephantj the horse, and the deer. A minute examina- 
tion established the fact that the chalk at the bottom is here 
covered with sand and gravel, upon this lies the lower glacial 
drift, which extends over nearly the whole of England and 
Scotland, namely, boulder day and large blocks, which came 
from the north, specially fro^ Norway. In this day a basin 
seems to have been scooped out, the lowest bed of which is 
formed of a peaty and clayey stratum, impervious to water. 
In this bladL stratum fragments of the oak, yew, and fir have 
been recognised. Upon this bed lie the sand and gravel 
whidi contain bones of mammals, stone hatchets, with firesh 
water shells, amongst which the common river shell, valvata 
pisdnalis, abounds; nor are the common pond snails wanting. 
Finally, this fresh-water basin is overlaid by a layer of sand 
and gravel of apparently very recent origin. 

Similar discoveries have been made in other English coun- 
ties. I shall not dwell on these, but would merely draw your 
attention to the fact that all these beds are deposited above 
that day stratum, with pebbles and blocks, which the English 
term glacial drift, or boulder-day. Whilst in all localities in 
France where these implements are found, one stratum, corre- 
sponding to the gladal drift formation, is entirely absent, or at 



290 UCCTUBB z. 

least not demonstrated^ it is plainly seen in England^ and 
may^ therefore^ serve for comparison with the discoveries 
in Switzerland^ where glacial formations play an important 
part.. I mnst also observe that in some beds in England^ 
in conjunction with the bones of the mammoth and the rhino- 
ceros^ have been fomid bones, not only those of the reindeer, 
bat also of the musk-ox; and that remains of this animal, 
which has now retired to Northern America, on the confines of 
the Arctic region, have also been found in the old alluvium of 
the E[reuzberg near Berlin, as well as in the valley of the Oise, 
at Chauny in France — another proof of the retreat of the 
diluvial Fauna to the north. 

Having thus treated of the remains found in cav£ and the 
diluvium in Europe, which prove man to have been the con- 
temporaiy of extinct animals, we may be permitted to cast a 
glance at what has been done in other parts of the world. I 
must here mention, in the first place, the Brazilian caves, 
which have been so successfully explored by Dr. Lund. The 
circumstances were almost entirely the same as in Europe. 
There were the same deposits, the red ossiferous clay covered 
with stalagmite, and the caves abounding with animal bones, 
mostly belonging to species now extinct. But these extinct 
species are as closely allied to those which at present exist in 
South America, as the cave-bear and the cave-hyaena is to the 
now existing bear and hy»na. The peculiar character which 
distinguishes the South American Fauna has been preserved. 
There are marsupials, antbears, lamas, armadilloes, as they 
still exist in South America. It is probable that when inves- 
tigations shall be carried on by as many inquirers as is the 
case in Europe, the list of these peculiar species will be con- 
siderably enlarged. Be this as it may, this much is certain, 
that even in Brazil man was the contemporary of the extinct 
animals, and that the human remains found by Lund were in 
the same condition as those of the extinct animals. Unfortu- 
nately Dr. Lund's crania have not, as &r as I know, been 
closely examined. According to one observer they possess the 
type of the American skulls, which, in my opinion, does not 
amount to much, as a great many diiSerent types occur in 



UBCTUBB Z. 291 

America. There are progBathoiia and ordtognathous crania, 
dolichooephalio and brachyoeplialio sknils even amongst the 
existing Indians. 

In Anstrab'a, where cave deposits of extinct marsupials are 
found; in New Zealand, where the bones of those extinct 
gigantic birds, the moas, are found in large quantities, exist 
as well the most convincing proofs of the co-existence of man 
with extinct species of animals. We do not attach much 
weight to the moa, as there are traditions among the Indians 
of their having fought them, so that the species appears to 
have been but recently exterminated. 

The alluvial formations of North America also show that man 
was the contemporary of extinct animals. Lyell reports nearly 
as follows : " At Natchez there is a fine range of bluflEs, several 
miles long and more than two hundred feet in perpendicular 
height, the base of which is washed by the river. The lower 
strata, laid open to view, consist of gravel and sand, destitute 
of organic remains, except some wood, silidfied corals, and 
other fossils, which have been derived from older rocks, whilst 
the upper sixty feet are composed of yellow loam, presenting, 
as it wastes away, a vertical face towards the river. From 
the surface of this clayey precipice project in relief the perfect 
shells of land snails, of the genera Helixj Helieina, Pupa, 
Oydostoma, Achatina, and Suceinea. These shells, of which 
we collected twenty species, are all specifically identical with 
those now inhabiting the valley of the Mississippi. 

" The resemblance of this loam to the fluviatile silt of the 
valley of the Rhine, between Cologne and Basle, which is 
generally called ' Loess,' and Lehm is most perfect. 

" In both countries Uie genera are the same, a^d as, in the 
ancient alluvium of the Rhine, the loam sometimes passes into 
a lacustrine deposit, containing shells of the genera Limneus, 
Planarbis, and OycUu, so I found, at Washington, about seven 
miles inland or eastward from Natches, a similar passage of 
the American loam into a deposit evidently formed in a pond 
or lake. It consisted of marl, containing the shells of Limneus, 
PlanarhU, Paludina, Physa, and Oyclaa, specifically agreeing 
with the testacea now inhabiting the United States. With the 

u2 



292 LKCTxrBx x. 

land shells before-mentioned are foond^ at different depths in 
the loam, the remains of the mastodon ; and clay immediately 
nnder the loam, and above all the sand and gravel entire 
skeletons of the Megalonyx, associated with the bones of the 
horse, bear, stag, ox, and other qnadmpeds, for the most part, 
if not all, extinct species. This great loamy formation, with 
terrestrial and freshwater shells, extends horizontally for aboat 
twelve miles inland or eastward from the river, forming a plat- 
form about two hundred feet above the great plain of the 
Mississippi. In consequence, however, of the incoherent and 
destructible nature of the sandy clay, every streamlet flowing 
over what must originally have been a level table land, has cut 
out for itsielf, on its way to the Mississippi, a deep gully or 
ravine. 

" This excavating process has, of late years, proceeded with 
accelerated speed, specially in the course of the last thirty or 
thirty-five years. Some attribute the increased erosive action 
to the partial clearings of the native forest, a cause, of which 
the power has been remarkably displayed, as before stated, 
within the last twenty years in Georgia. Others refer the change 
mainly to the effects of the great earthquake of New Madrid, 
in 1811-12, by which this region was much fissured, ponds 
being dried up and many land-slips caused. 

''In company with Dr. Dickeson and Colonel Wailes I visited 
a narrow valley, hollowed out through the shelly loam, recently 
named " the mammoth ravine,'' from the fossils found there. 
Colonel Wiley, a proprietor of that part of the State of Missis- 
sippi, who knew the country well before the year 1812, assured 
me that this ravine, although now seven miles long, and in 
parts sixty fj^et deep, with its numerous ramifications, has been 
entirely formed since the earthquake. He himself had ploughed 
some of the land exactly over one spot which the gully now 
traverses. 

" A considerable sensation was recently caused in the public 
mind, both in America and Europe, by the announcement of 
the discovery of a fossil human bone, so associated with the 
remains of extinct quadrupeds in '' the mammoth ravine" as 
to prove that man must have co-existed with the Megalonyx 



UBCTUBE X. 

and its contemporaries. Dr. Dickeson showed me the bone in 
question^ admitted by anatomists to be part of a hnman pelvis^ 
being a fragment of the os innommatum. He felt persnaded 
that it had been taken out of the day underlying the loam^ in 
the ravine alladed to^ about six miles fix)m Natchez. I ex- 
amined the perpendicular cliffs which bound a part of this 
watercourse^ where the loam, unsolidified as it is, retains its 
yerticality, and found landshells in great number at the depth 
of about thirty feet from the top. I was informed that the 
fossil remains of the mammoth (a name commonly applied in 
the United States to the mastodon) had been obtained, toge- 
ther with the bones of some other extinct mammalia, from 
below these shells in the undermined cliff. The bones were 
stained or black, and were in the same condition as the fossil 
bones of other mammals with which they were found.'' Never- 
theless, Lyell was then of opinion that the bone might have 
been dislodged from some old Indian g^ve near the top. 
Now, he observes, such a theoiy would not be resorted to if 
the bones belonged to any other animal, but as this discoveiy 
of a human pelvis was the first he ever heard of, he ventured 
an explanation which he at present is not inclined to insist upon. 
On reviewing all these discoveries, we are forced to admit that 
the facts are few in number, though they furnish us with some 
starting points, which deserve our attention. We are entitled 
to assume that the cave population, in which the camivora pre- 
dominate, was contemporaiy with the elephant and the rhino- 
ceros, whose remains are chiefly found in the stratified alluvial 
formation. The appearance of both may have been simulta- 
neous, though they may have become extinct at different 
epochs. We must take into particular consideration, that just 
from the appearance of the cave-bears and the mammoth dates 
an uninterrupted chain of phenomena reaching down to the 
present period : that at different periods species became ex- 
tinct or were exterminated by man, whilst, perhaps, some new 
species, though few in number, were developed. It is, there- 
fore, not surprising, that if man appeared on the scene simul- 
taneously with the cave-bear and the mammoth, some species 
of mankind should also have become extinct, whilst others 



( 



294 LICTUBE Z. 

were preserved, propagated, and fbriher developed. I shall, 
in the next lecture, haye to treat of the relation of man to sor- 
ronnding nature, as well as of the development of the so-called 
diluvial period and its sub-epochs. This lecture I shall con- 
clude with some observations on the condition of primitive 
peoples, and the relation of their race to existing races. 

As regards the primitive culture of man, it was manifestly 
confined within very narrow limits. The Belgian and West- 
phalian caves, the sepulchre in Aurignac, the alluvial formations 
can alone give some clue. No other implements of that period 
have come to hand, except some rude stone weapons bearing as 
yet no trace of any polish. Though these have only been 
found in spots where they were originally fabricated, still it is 
somewhat striking that of that period none of better work- 
manship are found, none of them have a handle of staghom or 
bone, as seen in tools belonging to a later period. Even the 
bear-jaws fashioned into weapons show no trace of polish, as 
seen in those of a more recent period. The pieces are simply 
struck off as if with a sharp stone. 

With respect to aliment, we have no trace of any other than 
animal food. Nowhere do we find any traces of vegetable 
food, not even hooks or nets for the capture of fish. Man 
attacked his prey like the wild animals, by cunning, speed, 
or strength, so diat with his simple stone weapons he even 
mastered the young rhinoceros. Man provided his dress from 
the skins of animals, which he sewed together with sinews 
by means of needle-shaped bones. ELis dwelling was probably 
a nest or a hut, constructed of boughs, perhaps, but little 
better than those constructed by the anthropomorphous apes. 
This primitiye man possessed no domestic animals, and no- 
where is there any trace found of them. The dog seems to 
have been the first animal which, at a later period, became 
attached to man. 

This is the paradisiacal state of the primitive man, so far as 
it is known to us, as narrated by those silent witnesses, the 
stones and bones. From such a low condition, compared to 
which that of the so-called savages of the old and new world 
is a refined civilisation, has the human species gradually ex- 



LXCTUSS z. 295 

tiicated itself, in a bitter straggle for existence^ wliich it was 
well able to xnaintain, by being gifted with a larger amount of 
brain and intellig^ce than that possessed by the sorronnding 
animal world. 

Bat even this amoant of intelligence was comparatively bat 
a moderate one^ as shown by the cram'a dating firom that 
period. We possess but two imperfect specimens of this kind 
— ^the skoll of the Neanderthal and that of Engis^ which we 
shall now examine. 

The skuU of Engis, of which, thanks to Dr. Schmerling of 
Li^ge, G-eneva possesses a fine cast, is more perfect than the 
Neander skoll; for on the right side, besides the frontal bone 
and the parietal bone, the greater part of the occipital and 
mastoid process, wii^ the meattu a/udUorvus, are well pre- 
served ; whilst of the Neander skoll we only possess the roof 

Fig. 94. Engifl Skull in Ptofile. 




of the craniom, the &cial bones being entirely absent, and the 
base of the skoll destroyed. This, no doobt, is very onfor- 
tonate, as regards the proper estimation of the skoll. Thos it 
is impossible positively to determine whether the skoll was 
prognathoos or orthognathoos, thoogh the presomption is that 
it was prognathoos. As little can the form of the face be* 
determined, still less the formation of the angles at the base 
of the skoll. We most, then, rest satisfied with what we 
possess, and draw oor dedoctions accordingly. 



296 LBCTUBS X. 

The EngiB skoll is of medium size and belonged to an aged 
Bubjectj for the sutures are here and there obliterated^ the 
ooronal suture especially. Possibly the skull is that of a 
female, as the bones are thin in comparison with those of the 
Neander skull. Viewed from aboye, the skull presents a 
longish oval form ; its greatest width is in the posterior third ; 
.the apex, somewhat obtuse and rounded, is in the forehead. 
It is decidedly a long head, for the greatest length to the 
greatest width is as 100 to 70*1, a proportion which, accord- 
ing to Welcker's table, approaches nearest the Esquimaux 
skull, and is scarcely different from that of the Negro and 
Austral-Negro. This length and narrowness of the skuU, 
with the small elevation of the forehead and the form of the 
orbits so widely apart, induced Schmerling to characterise it 
'as an Ethiopian skull, which at that time was the more excus- 
able as but little attention had yet been paid to the Australian 
Fig. 96. Top view of Engia SkuU. 




race. The Engis skull, however, is at once easily distin* 
guished from that of the genuine Negro by its slight curva- 
ture behind the orbits, where the Negro head seems com- 
pressed ; consequently, too, by the lesser depth of the temporal 



LXCTUBE z. 297 

foBS89 and by the form of the occipital part of the skull, which 
in the Negro is more globular. Viewed from aboye, well cha- 
racterised Negro heads appear more simious than the Engis 
skull. 

" The front view/' says Huxley, " shows that the roof of the 
skull was yery elegantly and regularly arched, and that the 
greatest transyerse diameter was a little less below the parietal 
protuberances, than aboye them. The forehead cannot be 
called narrow in relation to the rest of the skull, nor can it 
be called a retreating forehead. On the contrary, the antero- 
posterior contour of the skull is well arched, so that the distance 
along that contour, from the nasal depression to the occipital 
protuberance, measures about 18'75 inches. The transyerse 
arc of the skull, measured from one auditory foramen to ihe 
other, across the middle of the sagittal suture, is about 
thirteen inches. The sagittal suture itself is 5*6 inches long. 

''The supraciliary prominences or brow-bridges are well, 
but not ezcessiyely; developed, and are separated by a median 
depression. Their principal elevation is disposed so obliquely, 
that I judge them to be due to large frontal sinuses. 

" If a line be drawn, joining the glabella with the occipital 
protuberance, no part of the occipital region projects more than 
one-tenth of an inch behind the posterior extremity of that 
line, and the upper edge of the auditory foramen is almost in 
contact with a line drawn parallel with this upon the outer sur- 
face of the skull. A transverse line drawn from one auditoiy 
foramen to the other, traverses, as usual, the fore part of the 
occipital foramen. The capacity of the interior of this frag- 
mentary skull has not yet been ascertained.'' 

Thus far Huxley; to whose description I would add, that 
assuming the hne from the occipital protuberance to the gla- 
bella to be horizontal, the cranium is so arched that its grreatest 
height would £bi11 behind a perpendicular drawn upon it, through 
the meatus (mdUoriua, and that the slight vaulting of the oc- 
ciput, as well as low position of its protuberance, g^ve it a 
significant character. Though not a very striking occurrence 
in civilised skulls, it is so in the okuU of a savage, to find the 
muscular lines and ridges so little developed, especially when 



298 LXCTUBIB X. 

we compare them with those of the Neander sknU. Ad to the 
rest I agree with Professor Hnxleyj who says : — " I confess 
that I can find in the remains of the Engis skull no character, 
which, if it were a recent skull, would g^ye any trustworthy 
clue to the race to which it might appertain. Its contours and 
measurements agree veiy well with those of some Australian 
skulls which I have examined ; and especially has it a tendency 
towards that occipital flattening, to the great extent of which, 
in some Australian skulls, I have alluded. But all Australian 
skulls do not present this flattening, and the supradliary ridge 
of the Engis skull is quite unHke that of the typical Aus- 
tralian. 

'' On the other hand, its measurements agree equally well 
with those of some European skulls/' (According to Welcker's 
table, there is not one European skull which, as regards the 
proportion of length to breadth, can be compared with the 
Engis skull.) *' And assuredly there is no mark of degrada- 
tion about any part of its structure. It is, in fact, a fair 
average human skull, which might have belonged to a philo- 
sopher, or might have contained the thoughtless brain of a 



From the materials at my command, I cannot altogether 
agree with these last remarks of Huxley. The exceptional 
length and narrowness of the cranium, with its slight elevation, 
conditions a proportionately small internal capacity. It is the 
projection of the approximated frontal eminences which makes 
the forehead appear arched. But from these frontal protu- 
berances the arched Hue to the vertex is rather flat, and conse- 
quently the anterior lobes of the brain but little developed. 
These proportions, however, concern only the individual deve- 
lopment of the cerebral mass. The essential character for 
determining the race lies in the proportion of the length to the 
breadth, and in this respect the Engis skull is one of the most 
ill-favoured, beast-like, and simious skulls we know of. In 
Welcker's list there are, no doubt, some very few (probably 
belonging to females) exceptionally long skulls of Europeans, 
which approach or even exceed the length of the Engis skull, 
namely, one French, one Dutch, and two Finnish skulls. But 



iscTUBX z. 299 

these Bktills differ so widely from those of their cognates, that 
they can only be considered as abnormal exceptions. Still it 
is somewhat striking that the Dutch sknlls are, on the whole, 
longer than those of all other Europeans, and specially of the 
Germanic peoples, an indication, perhaps, of the commixture 
of the oldest race with its typical cranial form with the peoples 
now inhabiting these parts. 

In my opinion, which is, certainly, not founded on numerous 
inyestigations, this Engis skull holds an intermediate place 
between that of the Australian and the Esquimaux. Of the 
latter, it possesses the comparatively thin bones, the scantily 
developed brows, the height of the profile in the posterior part, 
and the proportion of the diameters. Of the first, it has the 
oval form of the cranium, the rounding of the parietal line, the 
flat forehead, and the outline of the roof of the cranium. I 
know of no living cranial form which perfectly agrees with that 
of the Engis skull, but I have in some Swiss crania (of the 
fourth and fifth century) near Biel, Grenchen, and Solothum, 
seen forms much resembling the Engis skull even in the chief 
measurements. 

Fig. 96. The Neander SknU in Profile, after a plaster cast. 




The Neander skull, of which the Geneva museum, thanks to 
Prof. Fuhlrott, possesses a cast, differs in many respects from 
the Engis skull, though it resembles it in some. I shall give 
the description in the words of Prof. Schaaffhausen, who first 
anatomically examined it. '' The cranium is of unusual size, and 
of a long elliptical form. A remarkable peculiarity strikes us 



800 LEOTU&E Z. 

at onoe in the extraordinary development of tlie firontal sinnses, 
by which the supraciliary ridges coalescing in the middle be- 
come so prominent^ that aboye^ or rather behind them^ the 
frontal bone presents a considerable depression^ whilst a hollow 
is also formed in the region of the root of the nose. The fore- 
head is narrow and flat, but the middle and posterior portions 
of the cranial arch are well developed. The semidrcolar line, 
indicating the upper attachment of the temporal muscle, though 
not strongly developed, ascends to more than half the height 
of the parietal line. On tlie right orbital ridge, is observed an 
oblique furrow indicative of some injury received during life ; 
upon the right parietal bone is a depression of the size of a 
pea. The coronal and sagittal sutures are on the exterior 
nearly, and on the inside of the skull entirely e£B9iced. The 
lambdoidal is open ; the frontal is indicated exteimally by a 
slight ridge, and where it joins the coronal, this ridge idso be- 
comes slightly protuberant. The sagittal sature is grooved, 
and above the angle of the occipital bone ; the parietal bones 
are depressed. 

Fig. 97. Neander Skoll^ top view. 




LtCTUBB X. 301 

^' There is no valid reason for considering the enormous deve- 
lopment of the frontal sinnses in the remarkable Neander sknll 
as an individoal or pathological abnormity; it is xmmistak- 
ably a racial type^ and stands in physiological connexion with 
the striking thickness of the bones of the skeleton^ exceeding 
by one-third their nsnal strength. This expansion of the 
frontal sinnses, which are appendages to the respiratory organs^ 
indicates both strength and endurance in mnscnlar activity, as 
shown also by the development of all the ridges and processes 
to- which the muscles are attached. That large frontal sinuses 
have this signification is confirmed by other observations. 
Pallas distinguishes by this mark the wild from the tamed 
horse. According to Cuvier, it distinguishes the fossil cave 
bear from the living species; according to Boulin, the wild 
boar from the domesticated hog, the chamois from the goat, 
and, finally, the bony and muscular bulldog from all other 
species of dogs. To determine the facial angle, which, accord- 
ing to Owen, is in the large apes rendered difficult by the 
projecting orbits, is in our skull rendered more so by the 
absence of the nasal spine and the auditory meatus. But if 
the horizontal plane be taken from the remaining portions 
of the orbital plates, and the ascending line is made to touch 
the surface of the frontal bone, behind the prominence of the 
supraciliary ridges, the facial angle amounts to no more than 
56^. Unfortunately, no portion of the facial bones, so import- 
ant for determining the form and expression of the head, has 
been preserved. The cranial capacity, compared with the great 
strength of the corporeal structure, apparently indicates a 
small cerebral development. The skull holds nearly thirty-one 
ounces of millet seed, and as from the proportion of the want- 
ing bones six more ounces should be added, the contents of 
the whole cranial cavity might be taken as thirty-seven ounces. 

''Tiedemann estimates the cranial capacity of Negros at forty, 
thirty-eight, and thirty-five ounces of millet seed. The cranium 
holds rather more than thirty-six ounces of water, which cor- 
responds to a capacity of 1,033*24 cubic centimeters. Huschke 
estimates the cranial capacity of a Negress at 1^127 cubic 
centimeters ; that of an old Negro at 1,146 cubic centimeters. 



302 LBCTURS X. 

The cupaoity of Malay slnills^ measared with water^ equalled 
thirty-siz to ihirty-ihree ounces; whilst in the diminntiYe 
Hindoos it diminishes to twenty-sevta ounoes. 

" Under whatever aspect," say s Hnxley ^^^we view this cra- 
ninm, whether we regard its vertical depression, the enormous 
thickness of its supraoiliary ridges, its sloping ocdput, or its long 
and straight squamosal suture, we meet with ape-Uke characters, 
stamping it as the most pithecoid of human crania yet dis- 
covered. But Professor Schaaffhausen states that the cranium 
in its present condition holds 1,033*24 cubic centimeters of 
water, or about sixty-three cubic inches; and as the entire 
skull could hardly have held less than an additional twelve 
cubic inches, its capacity may be estimated as at about seventy- 
five cubic inches, which is the average capacity given by 
Morton for Polynesian and Hottentot skulls/' 

'' So large a mass of brain as this would alone suggest that 
the pithecoid tendencies, indicated by this skull, did not ex- 
tend deep into the organisation ; and this conclusion is borne 
out by the dimensions of the other bones of the skeleton given 
by Professor Schaaffhausen, which show that the absolute 
height and relative proportions of the limbs were quite those 
of an European of middle stature. The bones were, indeed, 
stouter, but this and the great development of the muscular 
ridges noted by Dr. Schaaffhausen are characters to be ex- 
pected in savages. The Patagonians, exposed wi&out shelter 
or protection to a climate possibly not veiy diaHimiUr from 
that of Europe at the time during which the Neanderthal man 
lived, are remarkable for the stoutness of their limb bones. 

'' In no sense, then, can the Neanderthal bones be regarded 
as the remains of a human being, intermediate between man 
and apes. At most they demonstrate the existence of a man 
whose skull may be said to revert somewhat towards the 
pithecoid type — just as a carrier, or a pouter, or a tumbler, 
may sometimes don the plumage of its primitive stock, the 
eolumba lioia. And, indeed, though truly the most pithecoid 
of known human skulls, the Neanderthal cranium, is by no 
means so isolated as it appears to be at first, but forms in 
reality the extreme term of a series leading gradually from it 



LSCTUBS X. 303 

to the higliest and best deyeloped of hmnan orania; on the 
one hand^ it is closely approached by the flattened Anstralian 
skulls of which I have spoken^ fix)m which other Australian 
forms lead as gradually to skulls having very much the type of 
the Engia skull; andj on the other hand^ it is even more 
closely affixed to the skulls of a certain ancient people 
who inhabited Denmark during the stone period^ and were 
probably either contemporaneous with or later than the 
makers of the ' refuse heaps'^ ' Kjokkenmoddings' of that 
country. 

'^ The correspondence between the longitudinal contour of 
the Neanderthal skull^ and that of some of the skulls from the 
-'-^J tumuli at Borreby, very accurate drawings of which have been 

made by Mr. Busk^ is very dose. The occiput is quite as 
retreating^ the supraciliary ridges are nearly as prominent^ and 
the skull is as low. Furthermore^ the Borreby skull resembles 
the Neanderthal form more closely than any of the Australian 
Fig. 98. Skull from a TomtQiiB at Boneby: Danish Stone Ftoiod. 






-;TI:5 






il'.-S' 



.Jail* 



■.^'^ 




:, ^y skulls do^ by the much more rapid retrocession of the fore- 

l)^ \ head. On the other hand^ the Borreby skulls are all some^^ 

^ c^ y what broader^ in proportion to their lengthy than the Neander- 



804f LBOTUSS X. 

thai sknll^ wliile some attain that proportion of breadth to 
length (80 : 100) whioh constitates brachycephaly/' 

Fully ag^eing with these observations^ I will only add some 
few remarks. The least deyeloped sknll of Borreby (see fig. 
98) stands far above the Neander skull by the arched elevation 
of the middle head^ but differs from it entirely by the form of 
the occiput and the great breadth of the skoU^ which renders 
it decidedly brachycephalons. The only distant similarity be- 
tween these two types consists in the flattening of the fore- 
head and the projection of the eyebrows. Apart from size^ the 
forehead of the Neander skull is that of an idiot or micro- 
cephalus. Up to the occiput^ which presents different pro- 
portiionSj the profile of the idiot^ which Owen delineated for 
comparison with the chimpanzee (see fig. 47^ p. 145)^ cor- 
responds with that of the Neander skull. As surely as a man 
of the white race with a brain like that of the Hottentot 
Yenus^ justly remarks Gratiolet, would be an idipt^ so surely 
would a white man with a Neander -skull be an idiot in ihe 
midst of his more gifted race. 

But apart from the height of the skull^ the development of 
the forehead and eyebrows^ I still find a great similarity be- 
tween the Engis and the Neander skulls^ which becomes striking 
when viewing them from above. The Engis skull is somewhat 
narrower; its length in proportion to its breadth being 10 : 7^ 
which in the Neander skull is 100 : 72 ; but in other respects 
we have the same lines^ the same glBneral form. Taking now 
into consideration that the female skull is on the average 
smaller than the male ; that it is narrower and longer; that its 
roof considerably predominates over the base ; that its bones 
are thinner^ and that the muscular attachments as well as the 
eyebrows are always less developed; and considering further 
their simultaneous appearance in the same region, and the 
oscillations which the Austral-Negros also show in the deve- 
lopment of the eyebrows, the forehead, and the height of the 
skuU, I arrive at the rather hazardous conclusion that both 
skulls belong to one and the same race, and that the Neander 
skull belonged to a muscular but stupid male, while the Engis 
skull, perhaps, belonged to an intelligent woman. 



LBCTUBS X, 



805 



The examination of the cast taken from the internal sorfaoe 
of the Neander sknll, kindly sent me by Professor Fohlrott^ 
folly confirms the opinion derived frxDm the inspection of the 
bones. As already stated^ some at least of the principal con- 
volutions of the cerebral sorface^ as well as the vessels and 
the so-called Pacchionian glands^ leave impressions upon the 
inner surface of the skull and admit of some comparisons. 

On comparing the side-view with that of the external 
surfSEK$e^ reduced to the same scale^ namely^ fig. 94^ or the 
top view with fig. 95j we are immediately struck by the 
difference in sizOj which is mainly the result of the great thick- 
Fig. 99. Cast of the cerebral BorfiMe of the Neander Skull, side Tiew. 




ilg. 100. Same cast viewed from above. 




ness of the cranial bones. Professor SchaaffhauseUj of Bonn^ 
who compared this cast with that of an Austral-negro^ has the 

X 



306 LISCTUBB Z. 

foUowing obseryatioiiB in the TramsacUona of the Natural His- 
tory Sodeiy of the Lower Ehine. '' This cast shows the greatest 
similarity^ as regards cerebral deyelopment, to that of an 
Aastralian^ placed by the side of it. The proportions in the - 
former are^ as regards size, rather more fayonrable than in the 
latter. But the difference in the cranial shape is also exhibited 
in the form of the braini The length of the hemispheres of 
the Neander skull amoonted to 173, the width of the anterior 
lobes to 112 ; the greatest width of the brain 136, the greatest 
height of the brain above a line connecting the extreme points 
of the anterior and posterior lobes, 67 millimeters. These 
extreme measures are in the brain of the Austtal-negro : 164 ; 
100 j 125; 77. Lucae found, that although the brain of Euro- 
peans is on the average 300 grammes heavier than that of the 
Australian, that of the former is neither in length nor in height 
much greater than that of the latter, but exceeds it much in 
width. It is noteworthy that this difference in race type is 
traceable in the remotest period, when there were, in our parts 
of the globe, men who stood in the same inteUectual scale as 
the Uving Australian savage.'' 

I hfive had a cast taken of the cranium of a Swiss skull 
in the Museum of Bern, which I have called an '' Apostle 
skuU,'' and which is at the service of my friends. The 
greatest length of the hemispheres of this cast is 180; width 
of the anterior lobes 110; greatest width of brain 127; 
greatest height, which, on account of the greatly developed 
Pacchionian glands, cannot be exactly ascertained, about 63 
millimeters. On reducing these numbers, on the assumption of 
the greatest length =100, we obtain the following comparable 
proportions : — 

OMt Length. Width of anterior Oreeteet width. Height 

lobes. 

Neander sknU 100 - 64-7 - 78-6 - 88-0 

AoBixaliaii 100 - 00*9 - 76-2 - 46 

Apostle 100 - 61-1 . 70-6 - 86 

I know not whether these measures can be really considered 

as mecusures of the cerebral development — ^for if this be the 

case, the Neander skull would in every respect stand above 

those of the Australian and the Apostle skull; whilst, accord-* 



IJMTTQBX X. 307 

ing to the general form^ the rererse is the casej at least as 
regards the relation of the Neander skull to the Apostle sknU. 

On yiewing the Neander cast from the side^ the frontal lobe 
seems remarkably small and separated fit>m the vertical oonvo- 
lations by a deep depression^ across which the large blood- 
vessel of the cerebral membrane ascends nearly perpendicularly. 
At the same time^ the imprints of the convolutions are compara- 
tively broad and coarse — ^like those in the Hottentot Venus, 
whilst these very convolntionsj which are indicative of the con- 
voluted state'^f the whole brain, are more numerous and more 
curved in the Apostle skull, nay, were on the surfiEice of the 
fit>ntallobe so fine, that they left only an undulating mark. 
We observe the same condition in the lower parietal temporal 
lobe, where at least two floors eire as plainly indicated as in the 
Orang and the Hottentot Yenus. 

Not less remarkable is the break in the posterior lobe pro- 
vided with some few coarse convolutions — a break which is so 
considerable, that we might be induced to believe that the 
transverse occipital fissure is developed in the same manner as 
in the ape. This break is also seen when viewed fit>m above. 
Over the apex of the right occipital lobe the kteral venous 
sinus winds up to the vertical, as Schaaffhaosen justly contends, 
against Huxley's opinion. The characters of cerebral develop- 
ment, still recognisable, thus indicate a veiy degraded human 
race, approaching the simian type. 

But whom did this primitive race of Europe resemble most f 
— ^the Australian, the most disgusting type of living savages I 
Poor Adam I Poor Eve 1* 



* The anthoi^t MtfOMm on thii oooMJcm is not baaed on aoj well aaoer- 
tained ikot. There ia no ohanoter in the Keanderthal aknn to ahow that it 
belonged to the Anatnlian or aoj other face. Much leaa ia there any ve»> 
eon to anppoaethat thia aknn repreaenta the primitiTe reoe of Enrope : with- 
out wiahuig to diapute in the leeat that it maj be of a Teiy hish antiqnitj. 
With xeapeot to the xaoe-chanMsten of the Neander calTariom, Ij^. J.Bamard 
Dkwim, a moet competent and painataking obaerFor, haa jiiat giren hia opi- 
nion in theae emphatie words :— "The peculiar tana of thia Keanderthal 
example, I am aat&fled^ ia the reanlt of a nmoatoaiB, and ia not in anj way 
to be regarded aa a raoe-charaoter." See MBmain rtad hd^itr* ik§ AmihrcpO' 
logieal BoeUt^ ^ London, toL i, 1864: Trflbner and Co.— Editob. 



z2 



308 



LECTURE XL 

The I>ilayial Period.— Berolutioitf and TnuuitionB.— Oladal formation. — 
Boulder-Claj.— Old AUnTinm.— Termixial Morainee and Emtio Blocka. 
—Slate-Coal, and iti Fonnation.— loe-aea and Glacial Sonnation in the 
Korth— In England.— Table of Diluvial Stzata.— Length of Time. — 
Chronologioal Calcnlationa in the Deltae of the Mi— iiiaippi and the Kile. 
— Impoeaibility of a Unirenal Deluge* 

Gbntlixek, — Onr inyestigations conceming man's appear- 
ance upon the globe have, indeed, famished us with a clue as 
to the geological period in which that event occurred, but 
leaye us in the dark as to the determination of the year or cen- 
tury. With regard to the geological period, we may state at 
once that it is the last period we treat of, since which there has 
apparently been no interruption down to the present time. We 
possess, at present, no fieMsts for determining the age of human 
fossils calculated by centuries or millenniums. All that we are 
entitled to say is, l^at these remains are very old, reaching far 
beyond the time assigned by current traditions and legends 
conceming man and the creation of the earth. When treating 
of more recent remains we shall have an opportunity of men- 
tioning the attempts which have been made chronologicaUy to 
determine the age of some reUcs from the overlying strain in 
which they were found. For the present, we shall consider 
the geolo^cal period in which man first appeared. 

I must begin with a confession. There was a time when 
the history of the earth was construed from individual, inde- 
pendent periods, separated from each other by mighty revolu- 
tions. It was assumed that, during the intervening periods of 
rest, a new creation arose, propagrating and accumidating until 
the crest of the earth suddenly bursting, chains of mountains 
were formed, vast regions became submerged, and sea- 
covered tracts laid bare. After every revolution, which des- 



LECTUBS XI. 309 

troyed every living beings a new creation took place with more 
perfect formsj according to a premeditated plan by the inter- 
ference of a personal creator. I confess that the Bimpliciijj 
cleamessj and, so to speakj mathematical precision with which 
this theory was propounded by the highest authorities greatly 
captiyated me in my. younger years — excepting, perhaps, the 
idea of the interference of a personal creator, which I found at 
all times difficult to reconcile wiih the laws of sound reasoning. 
If this creator, as RoUe alleges, is the keystone of the whole 
system, my disbelief in his interference has probably contri- 
buted to my speedy rejection of the whole theoiy. A con- 
tinued examination of these questions from erery point of 
▼iew, and a thorough investigation of the facts upon which any 
part of the theoiy rests, led me and the majority of my contem- 
poraries to the conviction that there were no such independent 
periods in the histoiy of the earth, but only a gradual develop- 
ment. Here and there, temporary and local convulsions may 
have occurred, but these were confined to comparatively small 
regions of the surfiMse of the earth, and nowise extending their 
destructive effects over the whole globe. The various species 
of living beings, plants, and animals, did not become extinct at 
once, like fire at the approach of the Fohn (a moist south wind 
on the lakes of Switzerland), and rekindled after its passage. 
Species are constantly disappearing from the list of living 
beings ; but new ones arise, and the aspect of the remains of 
extinct life in the strata chatiges as gradually as that of the 
species at the present time. Instead of sudden revolutions, I, 
on the contraiy, merely behold infinitely long periods of time, 
during which the effects of apparentiy small forces, acting in 
the smallest visible proportions, gradually accumulate until, sud- 
denly as it were, tiiey reveal their might. It would lead us 
too far to enter upon this subject more foOj; but I felt bound 
to touch upon it, to prevent misapprehension of what foUows.- 

The end of the tertiary period, which we do not separate 
from the present by a sharply defined line, but by abroad trans- 
itional margin, was, doubtless, distinguished by a somewhat 
warmer climate, from that which at present obtains in central 
Europe, and which is, by the way, rather exceptional when com- 



310 LICTUBB XI. 

pared with other regions of the earth. Whilst in the middle of 
the tertiary period, pahns were growing in Switsserland, and high 
Califomian pine trees in Iceland^ the end of the tertiary period 
was marked by a nunber of evergreen plants, with a temperature 
in Switzerland like that of Italy ; on the shores of the Medi- 
terranean neither plants nor animals show the evidence of any 
conditions which might have been detrimental to the life of 
man in the tertiary period. Jnst as at present, man can live in 
the same climate as the ape, the hippopotamus, the elephant, 
and the rhinoceros, so could he have existed side by side with 
these animals and their corresponding Flora in the tertiary 
period. That human fossils may, at some future time, be 
found in the tertiary strata, is rendered probable by the dis- 
ooveries of M. Desnoyers, member of the French Academy, 
who found traces of the existence of man in strata older than 
the quaternary deposits. These consist in striae, or incisions, 
some very fine, which were apperently produced by the aid of 
flint knives, upon the bones of large animals, found in a sand- 
bed of St. Prest, near Chartres, on the banks of the Eure. 

*^ The sand-beds of Saint-Prest,'' says Laugel, in his descrip- 
tion of the departments of Eure et Loire, in 1860 — ^that is to 
say, at a time when the dispute about the relative age of the 
diluvial beds had not yet commenced, and consequently there 
was no motive for ascribing to these strata a greater or less 
antiquity — '' the sand-beds of Saint-Prest have nothing what- 
ever to do with the diluvial deposits proper, which, on their 
part, are connected with the excavation of the valleys. They 
fill up a lateral depression which must have existed before the 
excavation of the Eure valley. The section of the sand-pit 
presents, beneath a thick layer of surface clay first, banks of 
gravel, then beds of white sand containing pebbles, and at the 
bottom beds of very fine white sand. In the whole sand-pit, 
excepting these lower fine sand-beds, there are found large 
worn-down blocks of flint, sand-stone, sometimes a siliceous 
conglomerate ; some veins in the lower parts contain also por- 
tions of felspar, mixed with transparent quartz.^' 

The sand-pit of Saint-Prest contains, in the lowest part, 
imbedded in the fine sand, a large number of the bones of 



UCTUSS XI. 311 

ezHnct animals ; among others a species of elephant, rhinoceros, 
hippopotamus, large stag, horse, ox, three species of deer, and 
a hffge rodent, which seems to have held an intermediate posi- 
tion between the beaver and the paca; the remains of species 
of pachydermata : ElepKas meridionalU, Rhinoceros leptorkinus 
and Hippopotamus major, agree perfectly with the species 
foimd in the viciniiy of Asti, in the Amo vallej, and in the so- 
caUed Norwich-crag; strata which nndonbtedly lie beneath 
the dilnvial beds proper, and have hitherto l>een considered as 
belonging to the most recent tertiary formations. 

These three species differ entirely from the mammoth 
(Mephasprimigenius); the rhinoceros (Rhinoceros iichorhinus) ; 
and the dilnvial hippopotamus ; just as the Megnceros Camu- 
torum differs from the Megaceros Hibemieus, and the horse 
from the diluvial horse, belonging probably to that species 
from the Amo valley,* which is known by the name of Ejuus 
pUddens. Lyell, in his work which appeared in 1863, stiU 
asserts that tiie Elqphas meridionalis had not yet been found 
associated with man. 

Now if it could be proved that the bones in the deposits of 
Saint-Prest bear indeed the traces of the human hand, which 
markings must have been made before the deposition of these 
bones in these old sand-beds, then the age of mankind is necessa- 
rily removed beyond the diluvial epoch, and further back into the 
tertiary period. An unprejudiced person will not feel surprised 
at this ; there are no sufficient reasons against the assumption 
that man may have lived in the tertiary period in countries 
inhabited by elephants, rhinoceros, oxen, horses, and apes. 

Desnoyers found, on some bones which he extracted from 
the sand-pit, and subsequently upon all the bones preserved in 
collections, traces of incisions, consisting mostly of transverse, 
straight, curved, or elliptical striae. Upon the cranium of an 
elephant he found a triangular cavity, apparently produced by 
the point and barb of a flint arrow. The skulls of the huge 
deer seem all to have been broken by a blow upon the frontal 
bone at the root of the horns. The antlers are broken in pieces 

• And oonuiKm in B"gi<*^ depoiiU. — Sditob. 



312 LxcTxmx XI. 

to serve as handles^ some were longitadinally split for the sake 
of the marrow. Similar characters have been observed in the 
kitchen-middens, as well as in the bones of the Swiss pile 
works. 

Desnoyers's discovery was confirmed by leading men in sci- 
ence. It is trae that MM. Robert and Bayle objected (evidently 
to save the theory of Beanmont) that the scratches on the bones 
in the collection of the EcoU dea Mines of Paris had been made 
by the preparer of the specimens, who scratched off the ad- 
hering sand with a chisel. Desnoyers found, however^ no dif- 
ficulty in proving that the objection was puerile, for four 
reasons : because the bones not in the Ecole des Mines have all 
the same strisB; because the bones taken directly from the 
sand-pit also have them j because in these notches there are 
sandgrains, and therefore the bones must have been thus 
marked before they were imbedded ; and, finally, because the 
said white sand adheres so little to the bones, that no chisel, 
but only a little water, is required to cleanse the bones. 

As, however, Desnoyers^s discoveries must as yet be consi- 
dered as isolated, we are still justified in asserting that, gene- 
rally speaking, man has only appeared in Europe and North 
America during the so-called diluvial, post-pliocene, or quater- 
nary period. 

There is ample evidence, that this last period was accom- 
panied with a considerable refrigeration of our hemisphere, 
which increased so much that at a certain period the whole of 
Switzerland, the Scottish Highlands, Scandinavia, and a por- 
tion of North America were covered with ice. The question 
now arises : Did man exist in France, Belgium, and England 
before or after this glacial period ? The question is so far in- 
teresting, that in case of man's pre-ezistence the glacial period 
may have put a stop to his existence in the aforesaid regions. 
But let us examine the geological conditions apart from man. 

Everywhere in Scandinavia, North America, and England, 
as well as in the vidniiy of the Alps, we meet with a formation 
which is generally called glacial-loam or boulder-day. This 
formation, of marl or plastic clay, which in all countries is used 
in brickmaking, is spread over the surfaces in layers of varying 



LSCTUBS n. 813 

thickness. It overlies the platforms^ foIlowB the slopes of 
mountains down to the vallejs, it fonns frequently the bottom 
which prevents rivers from farther excavating the valleys } it 
contains in the North larg^ angular erratic blocks^ or rounded, 
scratched, and striated rolled stones in the viciniiy of the Alps 
and the Scandinavian mountains. Where the formation re- 
poses upon soUd rocks, the latter are polished, grooved, and 
striped like the rocks passed over by a glacier. Most geolo- 
gists of the present day agree as to the origin of this formation. 
It is the glacial loam produced by the grinding of the rock 
under the weight of the moving ice masses, which also pro- 
duced the scored stones. Where these latter only exist, it is 
the lower moraine which so presents itself; but where large 
blocks occur, then either the earth-moraine has coalesced with 
the fundamental moraine, or the angular blocks have been 
carried upon the moving ice masses and deposited in the loam. 

On taking, for the present, this formation as a starting 
point, we find that but few land and fresh-water deposits are 
known which intervene between this formation and the tertiary 
period. That the tertiary period did not suddenly enter the 
glacial epoch, seems to be proved by the condition of those 
teildary strata known in England as " crag." There was also 
found, near Cromer, on the Norfolk coast, a group of beds 
underlying the glacial loam, but characteristically distinct from 
the tertiary period. There are sunken forests which, in many 
spots, are exposed at low water. The roots of the broken off 
trunks are still in their natural position, and the loam in which 
they are imbedded is black from the intermixture with vege- 
table matter. The fir, pine, yew, alder, oak, and sloe grew 
here in a marshy soil, in which the white, and yellow water 
lilies, marsh-trefoil, frogsbit, and other aquatic plants of our 
present Flora, were found. There were also discovered fossil 
bones of three species of elephants, of the mammoth, rhino- 
ceros, hippopotamus, of the extinct large beaver, of horses, 
oxen, deer, the common beaver, and the water rat, of the wal- 
rus, the narwhal, large whales whose carcasses had been washed 
ashore. 

This fresh-water formation, the insects and shells of which 



St4 LBCTUBI n. 

belong to living species^ must therefore be separated fSrom other 
diluyial formations^ in so far as it contains along with eztinctj 
many of the existing species^ and the plants^ at all events^ 
aie of the same kind as are found in the later deposits above 
the glacial loam. The spread of the glaciers^ therefore, does 
not, as hitherto believed, mark a new epoch, a new section in 
the history of the earth ; it only changed temporarily the as- 
pect of the earth, of the Fauna and Flora, where it occurred. 
After the retirement of the glaciers and the Arctic sea to its 
present northern confines, the antecedent condition was re- 
established; the Fauna and Flora returned to their native 
district, excepting some species which became extinct. We 
are, however, far from asserting that no new species arose 
after the retirement of the glaciers. Desor has with great 
acumen shown the fallacy of such an assumption, and if we 
accept the theory of the transformation of species, there is no 
reason why this metamorphosis should not proceed as well in 
the present as it did in periods gone by. 

Let us now examine the various deposits, which have occurred 
since the glacial period, and let us commence with Switzerland, 
where the comparison with the process still in action in the 
Alpine chain gives a clue to the origin of the above phenomena. 
The glacial loom is, in that country, a more or less grey or 
bluish clay, without any trace of stratification, and in which, 
near the Alps and almost on the whole plains of Switzerland, 
are found polished and furrowed stone boulders. This forma- 
tion is obviously connected with the large angular erratic blocks 
on the slopes of the Jura, which, on the Chasseron, in Waad- 
tand, rise to 1,600 meters above the level of the sea, or 1,000 
meters above that of the lakes. It is now generally admitted 
that these blocks have been deposited by the glaciers, which 
have spread over almost the whole plain of Switzerland, and Swiss 
geologists have succeeded in nearly determining the limits of 
these old glaciers which reached far up the Jura. I must refer 
you to the map of Escher von der Linth, which you will find in 
my text-book as well as in my Principles of Geology, and in 
which the limits, which these glaciers reached at the time of 
their greatest expansion, are marked. 



LiCTUU n. 815 

Morlot, with whose dedacidons^ as regards two glacial epochs, 
I do not agree, lias, nevertheless, veiy clearly shewn the 
connection between the blocks and the glacial day. Bach 
enormons masses of ice mnst, by their nnder snrfiKses, produce 
a corresponding quantity of till, hence the glacial day is found 
in immense quantities near the Alps, for instance, near the lake 
of Geneva, where it is forfy feet deep. It is also dear, that at 
a time when the ice masses reached the highest cliSs of the 
Jura, no angular blocks could have been deposited upon the 
levd land, and that the lower blocks on the Jura must belong 
to the period of recession, during which the formation of the 
glacial clay continued as long as the motion of the gladers 
upon the soil. But it is not less clear, that at the time of this 
greatest extension, but few Alpine pinnacles rose above the 
Swiss ice-sea; that, consequently, but comparatively few blodcs 
could be transported upon the ice, and therefore no perfect 
moraines could be formed, as is the case with smaller gladers 
which receive the detritus from more extensive rocky tracts. 

Upon this glacial day in Western Switzerland we find, in 
many places, considerable beds of pebbles, gpravel, and sand, 
whidi are, by the infiltrated lime, so cemented together as to 
form a spedes of gompholith. The pebbles frequently attain 
the size of a man's head, or even larger. They show no traces 
of grooves or striaB, but are simply rounded and dean ; nowhere 
is cky or marl attached to them ; they are manifestly rounded 
by the action of water. One of the finest specimens of such 
deposits may be seen near Geneva, where the heights of St. 
Jean and the woods of Lancy, through which the bed of the 
Rhone runs, consist of such old alluvia, which are also found in 
great extent in most other parts of Switzerland. Of particular 
deposits of this kind in Eastern Switzerland I shall speak on 
another occasion. 

It is clear that these old aUuvia could only have been depo- 
sited after the retreat of the gladers towards the Alps. As 
the retreat of a glader is effected by the melting of its mass, 
which necessarily produces an accumulation of water, it is 
evident that the recession of colossal glaciers gave rise to tur- 
bulent streams, which here and there excavated their beds, but 



316 LKonrBi xi. 

in otHer places formed temporaiy lakes. This retreat of the 
glaciers was manifestly a very complicated phenomenon^ as the 
main features of the formation of the soil, as they exist at 
present, were already extant (by which assertion we deny what 
has recently been asserted, namely, that the glaciers at the 
period of their greatest extent scooped ont, in the soft molasse 
soil, valleys and lake basins). The glaciers remained longer 
in the valleys and the basins, and sent forth branches between 
the molasse hills already firee from ice.' It must farther be 
taken into consideration that snch a retreat was never uniform. 
The alternation of colder or warmer years, and consequent 
variations of the limits of glaciers and of their elevation are 
common phenomena, and the history of our Alps speaks of 
meadows and fields, alternately covered with, or free from 
glaciers. Many accurate local investigations are requisite 
before 'we shall possess a full account of the retreat of the 
glaciers in Switzerland, though we have a general notion of its 
main features. 

The retreat of the glaciers is evident at some distance from 
the Alps, in the great valleys and lake basins, where the ice 
continued as such for a longer period. In the immediate 
vicinity of the lakes of Geneva, Sempach, Ziiiich, Hallwyl, 
Oreifen, and Pfaffikon, in the valleys of the Aar near Berne, of 
the Beuss near Bremgarten, of the Limmath near Baden, may 
be seen terminal morains, which testify to the preservation of 
the glaciers in the lake basins and deeper valleys. 

Morlot very justly observes, that this persistence of the ice 
must have continued for a considerable time, as some of these 
moraines are of immense size. But this preservation must 
have been attended with same phenomena which accompany 
the retreat of glaciers. Glaciers which stretch forth their icy 
tongues through the basin of the lake of Geneva, up to Geneva 
and Nyon, which penetrated the Beuss vaDey up to Mellingen, 
the Limmath valley up to Baden, and probably filled up the 
basin of the lake of Constance, must necessarily have produced 
larger masses of water than the present dwarfs, whidi cannot 
transgress the limits of the inner Alps. The same alluvial 
formation was deposited in front and on the sides of these 



UBCTUBS XI. 817 

glacierBj and above these formations angular blocks were de- 
posited and pushed forward by the extreme end of the glacier. 
Escher has shown, that in the whole district of Bnrgdorf, 
Wangenj and Langenthalj westward, and eastward oyer Bragg 
to Eglisan, there is such an allnvial formation, in which are 
seen blocks floated by the ice from several basins ; but where 
they were transported by the solid ice, they are less in num- 
ber. In the vicinity of these ice-tongues, which persisted 
during the retreat, have been found lake basins produced in 
the manner described. The waters may at that time, as Mor- 
lot assumes, have been one hundred and fifty to one hundred 
and eighty feet above their present level, and then gradually, 
when the retreat recommenced, after forming several teiraces 
of about one hundred and then fifty feet above their present 
height, may have ultimately descended to their present level. 

Finally, there commenced a further retreat after the stop- 
page. Several terminal moraines show that this retreat was 
not effected without fresh halting places which correspond 
with the alluvial terraces on the plains, and each of these 
stoppages may have continued for a long period, for here also 
we find moraines of remarkable size, which required a long 
time for their formation. That during this whole period of 
retrogression, the formation of glacial clay, of alluvia, of rolled 
pebbles, and the transportation of angular blocks upon float- 
ing icebergs, continued uninterruptedly, is undeniable. 

I am fully aware that my theory is in antagonism with that 
of many geologists, who assume two separate ice periods, be- 
tween which the older alluvia are said to have been deposited. 
Morlot, CoUomb, and many others, especially English authors, 
defend this dualism, whilst Desor has always insisted upon 
the unity of the glacial period. Both parties agree as to the 
facts, but not as regards their explanation. The old alluvium, 
no doubt, overlies everywhere the old glacial day with the 
polished rolled stones, and equally without doubt, above this 
old alluvium lie angular blocks intermingled with glacier clay 
and recent alluvium. The stratification of the terminal moraines 
in the valleys and lake basins of level Switzerland above and 
upon the old alluvium is however nowhere demonstrated, and 



818 LXCTUBB XI. 

it seems to me that we are justified in assuttung, that sudi 
blocks as rest npon the old allnvitim have not been transported 
directly by glaciers, but by floating ice blocks. If, indeed, the 
glaciers had any infinence npon the soil, as asserted by some 
English authors, the influence must have been proportionate to 
the acting mass. A glacier measuring several thousand feet in 
thickness, which must be assumed to account for the blocks 
found on the Jura, must have scooped the soil rather deep, 
whilst an extremity of a glacier scarcely 100 feet thick, might, 
for some short distance^ pass over a gpravelly soil without dig- 
ging deeply into it. Charpentier, I believe, cites sudi an in- 
stance in Wallis, where, after the stay of the extremity of a 
glacier for a number of years upon vegetable earth, immediately 
after the retreat perennials appeared, as if the glacier had ex- 
ercised no influence upon the soil. But it must be considered 
that this can only apply to the extremity of a comparatively 
very small and thin glacier. We may, therefore, assume that 
in some spots during the retreat, not merely a stoppage but 
sometimes an advance took place, during which the extremity 
of a glacier passed a certain distance above the previously de- 
posited old alluvium and also deposited blocks. But we can- 
not believe that the glaciers spread again in this manner over a 
great portion of Switzerland, as in this case they would from 
their weight and size have necessarily scooped out all the older 
drift and alluvial formations, and destroyed aD the loose sand 
and gravel masses. 

In East Switzerland we meet with various phenomena, con- 
ditioned by the existence of buried forests and peat bogs. In 
the vicinity of IJtznach and Diimten, on the lake of Zurich, and 
near Morschwyl, on the lake of Constance, there are consider- 
able beds of slate-coal, which manifestly belong to the period 
we speak of, having originated from the peat bogs, which have 
been overwhelmed and compressed by enormous masses of 
drift. This peat bed consists mostly of mosses and reeds, 
rushes and marsh-trefoil, upon which, at first pines, and then 
firs and birches, grew. The disposition of these layers is as 
follows : — 

The subsoil of the whole region is formed by molasse, the 



LBCTUIUB XI. 819 

beds of which are somewhat vertical. Upon ihe heads of these 
beds rests slate day of considerable thickness with boulders, 
and large angular blocks, so that this clay manifestly corre- 
sponds to the glacial clay. The existence of these large anga- 
lar erratics, hitherto unnoticed, in the lower clay beds, has 
recently been clearly demonstrated by Messikomer's examin- 
ation of pile bnildingps. Then come coals in horizontal strata 
nearly twelre feet thick, and npon the coals, drift with clay and 
rounded blocks, and upon them angular erratics, which, in onr 
opinion, have been floated and not directly deposited by gla- 
ciers; The substratum had hitherto not been sufficiently 
attended to, hence it was believed that the coal beds had been 
formed before the glacial extension; but Messikomer's re- 
searches have shown that the coals overlie the glacial day, and 
had therefore been formed immediately after the retreat of the 
gladers, after which they were covered with the old alluvium 
and floated erratics. 

On comparing the coal beds of England with those of 
East Switzerland, they appear at first sight so strikingly iden- 
tical, that it leads to the belief that they belong to the same 
period, and were formed simultaneously either before or 
after the glacial extension. But as such is not the case, and 
as the two respective formations are, on the contrary, separated 
from eadi other by the gladal period, it follows that this glacial 
extension must have been an intermediate event, which even 
in countries where it occurred produced no important diange. 
There is no doubt, as we shall presently see, that there have 
been, specially in the North, great dumges produced in the 
level of various regions. It is probable, that at least before 
the commencement of the gladal period, if not immediately 
after it, England and the north of France, Denmark and Nor- 
way were connected, whilst, on the other hand, large districts 
towards the east, now dry land, were under water. With the 
increase of cold in the north, the northern population retreated 
southward, an immigration rendered evident by the present 
composition of the Fauna of the German Ooean and the Baltic. 
Again, with the cold it retreated, as we have shown, towards 
the north. Such immigrations and emigrations, like the phy- 



320 LBCTUBS ZI. 

sical change of the sui&oe, and the transpoeition of day, 
gravelj sand, etc.j require long periods of time. 

Every person who carefully examines the enormons accamu- 
lations which the glaciers and the rivers, sprang from them^have 
deposited upon Swiss soil, must admit Uiat only a long series 
of centuries, the number of which can scarcely be estimated, 
could have effected them. This assertion may be proved by 
the estimation of some individual factors of the beds. We 
have seen that the coal bed of Dumten forms but a moderate 
intermediate stratum in the so-called diluvial beds. This 
stratum at its greatest thickness, reaches about twelve feet, or 
rather, ten, for in many places there are intermediate seams of 
letten. ''This, its greatest thickness,'' says Heer, ''may 
enable us to calculate the period of time requisite for the for- 
mation of this bed. From the mode and manner of the com- 
pression of the stems of the trees, from a comparison of the 
carbonaceous constituent of slate-coal with that of the peat, it 
follows that these coal beds, when in the condition of peat, 
ought to have been six times thicker, that, consequently, the 
above coal-bed of ten feet thickness must have originated from 
the compression of a peat-bed sixty feet high. Assuming, on 
the average, an increase of one foot of peat within a century, 
we obtain 6,000 years. 

"Another mode of calculation leads to the same result. 
An acre of slate-coal ten feet thick contains, according to 
Mine-Superintendent Stokar-Escher, 96,000 hundred-weights 
of carbon. On assuming that an acre of peat-land produces 
annually fifleen quintals of carbon, 6,400 years would be 
required for the formation of the above-mentioned coals. The 
assumption of an annual production of fifteen quintals of car- 
bon (based upon the assumption that a foot of peat is formed 
within a century), is rather too high than too low, for accord- 
ing to Liebig's interesting researches, an acre of wood plantation 
produces annually but ten quintals of carbon, in which case the 
formation of the above coal-bed required 9,600 years*.'' 

In these calculations it is certainly assumed that the climatio 
conditions resembled those at present existing. As the same 
species of plants, whidi now produce peat, formed the slate-coal. 



LSCTX7BX XI. 821 

iihere is no reason to suppose that the climate differed widely 
from the present ; at any rate, it may be safely assumed that 
thoQsands of years were required for the formation of the afore- 
said beds. 

But whether six or ten thousand years were requisite for their 
formation, these slate-coals occupied but a smaQ fraction of the 
diluvial period. They overlie thick glacial day, and are them- 
selves covered with flint and sand-banks, thirty feet high and 
with floated glacial blocks on the top. Despite of the immense 
period of time which separates these coal deposits from histori- 
cal time, during which not even the thin stratum of vegetable 
earth was completely formed, these coal formations still belong 
to our geological period, though to the beginning of it ; for we 
have seen that there grew in them the same marsh and peat 
plants, and the same trees, as are still extant in that region. 
We should, nevertheless, add, that there occur some species, as 
the hazel, whidi differ from living species; but the same 
diaracter whidi manifests itself in the animal world shews 
itself also in the vegetable kingdom. Some species have 
become perfectly extinct, others have retreated northward, 
or to the mountains, but most continue to live in the same 
region. 

The coal beds in eastern Switzerland are specially interest- 
ing on account of the animal world they contain. Small fresh- 
water snails of still living species are as abundant aa small 
marsh-beetles, whose glittering wing-sheaths, often dosely 
compressed, form the surface of the beds. There occur, also, 
coleoptera, which belong to extinct spedes, like the trunk- 
beetle, etc. There were also found teeth of the deer and bear, 
remains of the elephant and rhinoceros (not of the mammoth 
and the rhinoceros with a bony septum), but of an dephant 
resembling the Asiatic fElephas ardiquuBj, and the ihinooeros 
with a semi-osseous septum (WUnoceroa lepiorhinutj , both of 
whidi occur with the boxTes of man, but seem to have become 
extinct air an earlier period than their hairy cognates. From 
this fact follows the deduction, confirmed indeed by the strati- 
fication, that the slate coals of eastern Switzerland had been 
formed upon the glacial day immediately after the retreat of 

T 



822 LfCTUBl XI. 

the glaoiera, that the old thin alliiyiiim ooTered them j and that^ 
oonseqaently, the beds in whidi ooonr the mammoth and the 
rhinooeroB with the bony septum^ are of a somewhat later date 
than the slate-ooal beds. 

We now make a long stride to the norths where the gladal 
formations attained the greatest extent. 

Kjemlf very properly directs onr attention to the observationB 
of Bink^ who passed several years in Greenland, where he 
studied the ice of the interior, the so-called ''iceblink.'' There 
we find a continent not less in extent than the whole Scandina- 
vian peninsula, covered with an ice-crust 1,000 feet in thickness, 
moving from the interior towards the west coast. This mass 
of ice, laden with stone blocks, advances slowly but steadily 
towards the west coast, where it breaks up into large fragments, 
which, in the form of icebergs, often of colossal dimensions, 
are carried by the sea currents in definite directions, even to the 
Azores. They gradually melt, and deposit their freight at the 
bottom of the sea. 

The same phenomenon formerly occurred in Norway, Sweden, 
and Finland. The country lay shrouded beneath an enormous 
ice-mass, which carried its substratum of pebbles and gravel 
into the sea. The whole rocky mass of Norway was polished 
and grooved, but the frozen sea, whidi surrounded this pre- 
historic (Greenland, stood at a lower level than at present, for 
in many places the dragged surfaces stretch far out beneath the 
present sea-level. Though this circumstance alone may not be 
suflSdent to explain the refrigeration of the northern continent 
to the same degree as that of Greenland, the greater elevation 
of the land above the sea may have contributed to it. When- 
ever the tracts of the gladers show beneath the present sea- 
level, the waters must have been lower, for the ice is melted 
and undermined by them, as shown by the polar gladers at 
ebb tide. 

The sea rose, the land became wanner, the ice-shroud melted, 
the highest ridges showed their pinnades, the ice broke into 
separate gladers, which continued to fill up the valleys. Now 
we find moraines as in our present glaciers ; medial and terminal 
moraines; walls, the extremities of whidinow stretch towards 



LECTUBB n. 828 

iheseay oraie foand as termixial barriers in the Yalleys. The sea 
rose about fiye bundred feet ; for ap to this height we find 
deposits of molluscs^ which belong to the Arctic sea. These 
enormous ice-masses fnmished^ at the same time^ laige streams^ 
which here and there obstmcted by the terminal embankments 
of the gladers^formed laige inland lakesj and deposited the finely- 
gronnd material, carried by them, in the form of loam, marl, and 
sand-day. The sea on the one hand, and the inland lakes on the 
other, worked on the masses deposited by the ice; the gladers 
brought down erratic blocks, and these were either directly or 
indirectly, after floating on the icebergs, deposited upon the 
banks. Thus the present period was gradoally indnced, when 
glaciers stretch to the sea in bat few spots, but rise in other 
places considerably aboYO the sea-Ie^el, and where in the 
valleys a milder climate prevails. 

This pre-historic history is no rmnanoe ; it is derived fiom 
actual facts and the deductions therefrom. The fiu^are thus 
summarised by Kjerulf : 

"What is the prevalent order of the glacial deposits? Quite 
at the bottom, where they could not be washed away, are sand 
and pebbles. This lA^aheuer^Band* (scoring-sand), and ^sehewT" 
Biewuf (scoring-stones). This is die material which, pressed 
by the ice, was carried above the rocks. These blocks should 
be examined, if we wish to estimate the direction of the mo- 
tion. But as for the most part they are smaller, much broken, 
and frequently rounded, they are termed pebbles (rolled 
stones), though this is an incorrect name, they should there- 
fore be distinguished as ' scheuer-steine.' They are not 
roDed, but have been crushed against each other, and being 
inserted into the ice, like diamonds in the glacier's pencil^ 
they have drawn lines and furrows upon the stones. Above 
this * scheuer-sand' and the pebble banks lie the various kinda 
of day, first, calcareous, marly day, in districts accessible to 
the giadal waters which brought down the ground up lime and 
day from the Silurian beds ; next above, the shell-day, where 
the elevation was not too high; then comes bride-day, without 
shells, derived probably from the period when the flood from 

t2 



324 LICTURB ZI. 

the interior was at its highest ; then comes sand^ and^ quite at 
the top^ loam. 

** The large erratics lie above the banks of pebbles^ 
loam, and sand; they are in Scandinavia, in a less degree, 
deposited bj floating ice-raftsi but mostly directly by the 
glaciers.'' 

'' We have thus before us a period, a real ice-period, and an 
ice-sea, which washed the glacial coasts of Scandinavia and Fin- 
land, then constituting one continent. But the proofs of such 
an Arctic sea apply not only to this ice continent. The north 
Oerman plains, from HoDand to Bussia, are covered with 
blocks, pebbles, and drift, all of which are derived from Scan- 
dinavia and Finland, the southern boundary of which is along 
the elevation of the land, which is limited by the Weser moun- 
tains, the Hartz, the Bohemian, and Giant mountains. In the 
east, the tracts of these erratic blocks wind through the Russian 
lowlands towards the Ural so regularly around Finland that 
they describe almost a circle. This is the dispersion circle, so 
to speak, of this ice sea, within whidithe blocks carried by the 
icebergs were stranded, and the mere circumference of this 
block line shows, that at the time of the greatest extension of 
the ice sea, the Scandinavian-Finnish continent was an island, 
whilst a broad ice arm connected the present Polar sea, and 
the White sea with the Baltic.'' 

In the whole extent, from the North American continent 
down to New York, in Elngland and Scotland, in Scandinavia 
and Finland, in Russia, as far as the steppes of Petschora 
(Peczora), are found the same formations, the polished, striated, 
and furrowed surfaces, the gravel banks, and above them the 
clays, marls, with specific northern marine molluscs, or with 
species which attain their proper size only in the north, but 
which diminishes in the south. 

Sars has, by his minute investigations, succeeded in deter- 
mining the highest level of the ancient ice-sea, and the periods 
of retreat, whilst Loven proved that Denmark was connected 
with Norway, that the White sea must have been connected 
with the Bdtic by a broad arm, whidi wound round Finland, 
and that the Swedish Wener- and Wetter-lakes, now several 



LiCTUu XI. 325 

hundred feet abore the Baltic^ moBt hsTe been connected with 
this ice sea^ as seyeral species of Crustacea still inhabit these 
lakes, the relics of this ice population. Already, in 1846, my 
friend Desor had proved, in a treatise, that there prevails the 
greatest analogy between the phenomena in the north and those 
of the Alps, and that the peculiarities which distinguish the 
northern phenomena are due to the alterations in the level, by 
which the sea on the Scandinavian coasts rose, then again gra- 
dually subsided down to the present time, during which the 
elevation of the Scandinavian soil is stiU continuing. During 
the last period there were formed, as in Switzerland, here and 
there, glacial necks, which produced those confusedly stratified 
ridges upon the surface of whidi lie ang^ular blocks known by 
the name of " Oesars.'' In the interior of the high valleys, 
just as in the lake basins of Switzerland, were heaped up mo- 
raines, which at times attain a great size. All this has been 
confirmed by Martins, so that we can add nothing fiesh as re* 
garda the north. 

The process was the same in the North-American continent, 
with this difference, that but little of the land was there sub^ 
merged under the sea, but large firesh water-lakes were formed, 
the deposits of which prove that the present lakes on the Ca- 
nadian boundary are only the remnants of the inland firesh 
water lakes. 

On turning to England, we find an analogous series of phe- 
nomena. At the bottom, boulder-clay resting here and there 
upon fresh water formations, alluvium, and pebbles; above 
them, in the mountainous regions, as in Scotland and Wales, 
moraines testifying of glaciers which descended into the valleys. 
Everywhere the same phenomena in the same succession, only 
so &r modified, that in the north it is the sea, in the south it 
is the fresh water which predominates in its action. 

The following table shows on the one hand the synchronism 
of the glacial day in different countries, and on the other hand 
the synchronous appearance of the mammoth {Elephas primi' 
geniua), and the rhinoceros tichorhinus, which in some parts of 
the European continent were the contemporaries of man. 



826 



LBCTUKS ZI. 



BTKCHBOHAL TABLB OV DILUYIAL 



ScandinaTift. 


Great Britain. 


BeLnam, North 
v€annaiiy. 


Kitchen refhse 
(Kjdkken-modd- 

Older Pine Period 
Qf&etnrf-moors 


Loam. 


Modem allu- 
vium. 

Loam. 

Meddenbiirg 
graves? 


Upper Moraines 
in the vaUeys. 

Pebbles in the 
lower vaUeys. 
Oeears. 


Sand, with fresh water snails. 
Elephas primigetUuSf Bhmoccros 
Hehorhiwus. 

Stone hatchets, near Hozne, 
Icklingham, on the Onse. 

Caves, with Urnu epeiUBua^ 
Hycena speUea^ and hatchets. 


Oaves of Li^ge 
wiihElephatpri- 
migenitUf i^^tno- 
ceros tichorhinus^ 
Ursus 9pel.j etc 

Manof Engis, 
Engihonl, and 
NeanderthaL 


Gh^eatest height of 

the Ice-Sea. 
Bed with glacial 

mollnscB. 


Glaj, with wood (oaks, yew, 
pine), near Hozne. 

Old allnviom (drift), with 
pebbles. 

Clays, with glacial mollnscs, 
on the Clyde. 


Blocks of the 
North -German 
plain transport- 
ed from Scandi- 
navia. 


Glacial tracts be- 
neath thepresent 
sea - level, with 
scoring stones. 


Glacial day with blocks 
(boTdder-day). 




- 


Sonken forest and flnvio- 
marine formations, near Cro- 

nieridimdli8,Bhinocero8 etnucua, 





LBCTUBl XI. 
fOBXATrOHS DOWK TO THl PBXSINT TIXl. 



827 



VaDflTBoftheSeiii^ 
Somme, Yonii^, etc. 


Vogeioii, 

V08gM. 


BhineVaU^and 
South Oflnnany. 


Switnrkiid. 


CavoB of LomfariYe 
with man, Bn- 
roohs, rein-deer^ 
etc. 
DQuvium rouae» 
Loess and daj of 
ParisyAmienSyAb- 
beyille^eto. 






Loam and modem 
alhivia. 


DOwmium grts in^k 

£uph» fMTIIM^tffl.f 

Abbeville, Paris, 
eta 

Cayea with UnuB 
ipeUmSf Hymna 
tpeUMtf etc. 


Terminal 

moraines 

in the 

vallejB. 


Loess and loam 
of the Bhine- 
vaUej, of the 
Necur- valley, 
withj^lep.prim., 
JBA»fi.^ft6Aor.,eto. 
Terminal mo* 
raines in the 
Black Forest 


with Elephoiprimiae' 
miu^ Bhuiocerot HohO' 
rhumi^ etc. 

Older aJlnvia. 

Terminal moraines 
near ZGridh, Sempach, 


Dilnyinin of the 
plateaiiz* 


Vosge- 
grayeL 


Vosge-ABlack. 
Forest gravel. 


Slate-coal with Ele^ 
phoi ainiiqtnUf Ehmch 

DQmton, ntmach, 
MonhwyL 




Alpine 
gravel 


Giayelof the 
Bavarian pla- 
tean. 


Glacial dajand mail 

ing stones. 

BnwticUobksonihe 
Jura. 

Greatest glacial ez- 











328 LXCTuax zi. 

Our table embraces only the earliest appearance of hmnair 
remains in Belgimn^ the north of France^ and the south of 
England, phenomena which are well attested. The animal 
world, which is associated with man in the pile-buildings of 
Switzerland, for instance, leaves no doubt that man settled in 
these regions at a much later date, where, as proved by the 
caves of Besan^on and in Appenzell, the cave-bear existed, 
whidi i^ Belgium was the contemporary of man. We have 
thus, in the earliest geological period of man, some indications 
of the migrations and spread of mankind ; for this much at 
least results from the skulls found, that the oldest human re- 
mains found in Switzerland belong to a different race, which 
cannot have immigrated from Belgium. 

In whatever way we examine the facts, we are constantly 
led to the inference that the so-called diluvial period lasted an 
incalculably long time, during which considerable elevations 
and subsidences of land and sea, and many alterations of the 
surface of the globe and its inhabitants, plants and animals, 
took place both in restricted localities and large districts. 

That man appeared in our hemisphere only in the course of 
this long period, and that, hitherto, no traces have been found 
of man's earlier appearance is an admitted fact; but whether man 
appeared before, or after the last glacial extension on our conti- 
nent is still an open question. After a careful examination of the 
facts, we adhere to the latter alternative, as we have only found 
proofs of man's appearance after the great glacial period, after 
the formation of the glacial clay in Scandinavia, Elngland, and 
Switzerland. We are, however, quite ready to abandon this 
position, and to assume a greater antiquity of man, as soon as 
human remains are found under the glacial day or under 
undisturbed tertiary strata. 

This difference of opinion renders man chronologically nei- 
ther older nor younger. Whether, or not, an intermediate glacial 
period occurred, an immense period of time was requisite to 
heap up drift thirty feet high above the worked flints, specially 
as this accumulation proceeds but very slowly. 

We must confess that all the efforts hitherto made to deter- 
mine the period in time of man's first appearance have hitherto 
been unsuccessful. We must, however, mention them, though 



LlCTUBl XI. 829 

they refer to haman remains of a considerably more recent 
date than tlie stone hatchets and the jaw of Amiens^ or the 
sknlls of the Belgian caTes. 

One of these calculations is founded on the Delta of the 
Mississippi. The alluvial deposits mnst have been continued 
for an indefinite period ; for near New-Orleans, at a depth of 
six hundred feet, the bottom of the deposits had not been 
reached. The plain on whidi New Orleans stands rises only 
nine feet above the level of the sea, and the excavations made 
pass far below the sea leveL In these excavations are seen 
superimposed beds of cypress forests (ToKodium distiehumj. 
On laying the foundations for the gas-works, the Irish navvies 
had to give up the task, as they had to dig out wood instead 
of soil. They were replaced by woodcutters from Kentucky, 
who cut their way down through four superimposed layers. 
The lowest was so old, that the wood cut like cheese. The 
section of the banks also showedi sunken forests, whilst stately 
live oaks grew upon the banks, indicating that the suifiu^e had 
not dianged for years. 

In that part of Louisiana where the water-height presents 
greater differences than in New-Orleans, Dickeson and Brown 
have traced ten distinct cypress forests at different levels below 
the present surface. These groups of trees, the live-oaks on 
the banks, and the successive cypress forests, are superimposed 
upon each other, as may be seen in many places in the vicinity 
of New Orleans. 

Dr. Bennet Dowler has made an interesting computation as 
regards the emergence of New-Orleans, in which these cypress 
forests play an important part. He divides the history of this 
event into three epochs : 

*' 1. The era of colossal grasses and waving prairies, as seen 
m the lagoons, lakes^ and the sea coast. 

^' 2. The era of the (^press basins. 

^' 8. The era of the present live-oak bank.^' 

Many districts on the Mississippi show that the devdopment 
from the water proceeds in the order namedi First appear the 
grasses, then the (^press, and finally the live-oak. Assuming 
an elevation of five inches in a oentoiy (the rate of the Nile 



330 LECTUBK ZI. 

depoeits); we obtain 1^500 years for the era of aqnatio plants 
until the cypress era. Supposing ten feet to represent the 
size of one generation of trees^ we obtain a period of 5^700 
years as the age of the oldest trees now growing in the basin^ 
for they measured from ninety-five to one hundred and twenty 
rings of annual growth to an inch ; and according to the lowest 
ratio^ a tree of ten feet in diameter will yield 5^700 rings of 
annual growth. Though many g^erations of such trees may 
have grown up and perished in the delta of the Mississippi^ 
Dr. Dowler^ to avoid aD cavilling, has only assumed two suc- 
cessive growths, including that now standing : this gives for 
two cypress generations the age of 11,400 years. 

The maximum age of the oldest trees on the live-oak bank 
is estimated at 1,500 years; one generation only is counted. 
Thus we obtain the following data : — 

Era of aquatic plants .... 1,600 yean. 
Era of isjpxem basin - - - - 11,400 ,, 
Era of liYO-oak platform • ' - - - 1,600 »» 

Totalpetiod - - 14,400 

Eadi sunken forest must have had a period of rest and 
gradual depression, estimated as equal to the era of live-oaks, 
which of course occurred only once in the series. We then 
certainly keep within the limits of probability in assuming each 
period of elevation to have been equivalent to the one above 
arrived at, and as there were at least ten sndi changes we reach 
the following result : — 

Last emergenoe as abore - ... 14^400 yean. 
Ten elevationB and depresnona, eaoh 
equal to the laat emergence ... 144!,000 „ 

Total age of the Delta - 168,400 

In the excavation of the gas works, burnt wood was found 
at the depth of sixteen feet, and at the same depth the work- 
men found the skeleton of a man. The skull lay beneath the 
roots of a cypress tree belonging to the fourth forest below the 
snrface. It was in good preservation, but the other bones 
crumbled into pieces on being touched. The cranium no doubt 
belonged to the American type. 



LICTUBB ZI. 881 

ABsnmingj as aboyej the present era at 14^400 yearsj and 
adding three Bubterraneons gronpSj each equal to the living, 
(leaving oat the fourth, in which the skeleton was found), that 
is to say 48,200, we obtain a total for the age of the skeleton 
of 57,500 years," 

The data requisite for this computation are so simple that 
the result oan scarcely be cavilled at. 

Between 1851 and 1864, two sets of shafts and borings were 
sunk in Egypt, the one in the latitude of HeliopoKs, wljere the 
valley is sixteen miles broad, the other near Memphis, where 
the valley is but five miles broad. All the remains, such as 
land-shells and bones, belonged to living species, bones of the 
<^i I^og, dog, camel, and ass, were very common. 

There were also found pieces of burnt brick and potteiy, one 
piece at a depth of sixty feet. If now it be correct that the 
increase of Nile-mud is at the rate of five inches in a century 
(in the Delta the rate of deposit is less, namdy, 2^ inches), 
then the piece of burnt bride, found at a depth of sixty feet in 
the Nile-mud, would be 12,000 years old, which can scarcely 
suxprise us, as the Egyptian King Menes lived about 5,000 years 
before Christ, and before him Egypt had attained ahigh degree 
of dvilisation, and possessed at least two important dties, 
Thebes and This. If 7-8,000 years ago, that is to say, at the 
time of the biblical Adam, flourishing dties were standing, we 
need not wonder that some thousands of years before the 
existence of these dties, the art of brickmsking was known. 

The discoveries in the peat-bogs, specially of Denmark, 
where, as in the Delta of the Mississippi, superimposed gene- 
rations of forests are met with, consisting of trees, at present 
not existing^ in Denmark, also testify to a high antiquity, though 
I am not aware that any attempts have been made to compute 
the duration of the turf-moors firom the annual rings of the 
trees. 

The great antiquity of man reaching bade to the period of the 
cave-bear, being thus established, it is as easy to prove that man, 
the contemporary of the cave-bear, cannot have immigrated firom 
afiir. The structure of his cranium presents no resemblance to 
thatof any European race, still less to any Asiatic; for in Asia, 



332 LSCTUBX zr. 

and spedalfy in Central Asia, — the supposed cradle of hama- 
niiy, — ^the short form of head predominates, and if longheads 
are found they bear no resemblance to the longheads of the 
cares. At most, it might be assumed that Paradise was situ- 
ated somewhere in Australia, whence these ancestors, of a 
simious type, emigrated. It is not our business to pursue 
speculations of this kind. 

There is, however, one matter to which, before I conclude 
this lecture, I would draw your attention. There exists not a 
single fact which in any way indicates a general flood, a deluge, 
which reached the highest pinnacles, destroying all living beings 
excepting such of our ancestors as found refuge in the Ark 
of Noah. We find, indeed, everywhere phenomena indicative 
of a greater height of the waters, but they nowhere rose very 
high above the valleys, still less did they cover the summits of 
the highest mountains. NoY^here are there traces of sudden 
flood-catastrophes, everywhere we merely observe the slow 
workings of sjxctk forces as still act. We have thus everywhere 
an opportunity of making observations which induce us to con- 
sider the tradition of a general deluge as a myth. Many times 
has it been pointed out that the loose cones of volcanoes, built 
up of scorise and ashes, specially of the extinct volcanoes of 
Auvergne and the Bhine, could never have resisted the force of 
a general flood ; nevertheless, within the sight of these cones, 
which must have existed at a more remote period, the old tale 
is constantly repeated. The sun is now left in peace ; he no 
longer walks the heavens but remains fixed. ShcJl we have to 
protest, as in the former case, for two centuries, before they 
give up the opening of the flood-gates of heaven and the foun- 
tains of the deep, to drown '^ sinful beast and man '^f 



333 



LECTURE XII. 

stone Period in the Nort]&.--Beftise-hfiepe.--Feat-bogi.---OmTei in Den- 
mark And MeoUenbwg.— Orotto of ChMiTanx.— File-worln on the Swiee 
Uikee And moon.^<2iy]]iiftfcion of the Stone Period.— Agxionltare of the- 
Pfle-bnilden.— SknU of Meilen.— PQe-worki in Italy.— Chzonologioal 
Galoolationi of Harlot, GilHeron, and Troyon,— Piona Fanciai of the 
latter. 

GxNTUBMXH^ — ^In porsning our inyeBtigrationB oonceming the 
relics of man^ we first torn to the North, which famishes as with 
most of the facts belonging to the pre-historic period of hama- 
nity. It is bat the traditions of a oomparatiyely modem period 
which direct as to the East, and which induce as to search in 
High Asia or India for the cradle, not of hamaniiy, bat of such 
tribes, or rather langaages of the tribes, which now inhabit 
Earope. As regards the events of a period reaching farther 
back, we find no connection with Asia, bat traces of an inter- 
coarse between the north and north-west with central Earope 
and Switzerland. The discovery of northern antiqaities has 
thrown much light on the earliest period of mankind accessible 
to as, and has been the more prodactive, becaase the in- 
vestigations of the facts have not been carried on exdasively 
by antiqaaries, but by naturalists also, who with singpilar in- 
dastiy and ingenuity knew how to avail themselves of appa- 
rently insignificant facts, for the explanation of the most 
diflScolt problems. The name of Steenstrap, who was also 
well versed in other branches of nataral history, shines here in 
fall splendour. I shall give you the results obtained by him, 
Forchhammer, and Worsaae, as contained in the condensed 
and excellent account of Morlot, since the original is in Danish, 
and it cannot be expected of us naturalists that we should be 
acquainted with the languages of all minor nations. 

On several spots on the coast of northern Denmark, specially 



334 LXCTUBB xn. 

in the vicinity of tlie Fjords, where the Bnrf is moderate and 
immediately on the 6ea shore, a few feet above the present 
level, maybe seen shells-monnds, three, five, and even ten 
feet high, extending in length to above one thousand feet, with 
a breadth of one hundred and fifly to two hundred feet. Here 
and there these heaps lie around a free space, which seems to 
have been a place of habitation ; it is only by way of exception 
that these heaps are found on the land at a distance from the 
coast, or much above the level of the sea. These shell-banks 
are not formed by nature, which would indicate a greater 
height of the water. But few species are found, all in the 
adult state, species which do not inhabit the same depth. 
These shells are intermixed with broken bones of animals, flint 
implements, coarse pottery, coals, and cinders. There is no 
doubt that these heaps are JeUeheii*refiiue ; that a people dwelt 
there who lived on molluscs and animal food, and cast away 
the shells and bones. The northern scholars thus termed 
these mounds Ejokkenmoddinger (kitchen-refuse), by which 
name they are now generaUy known. In some spots there is 
seen upon these accumulations a thin layer of gravel and 
pebbles, deposited by the sea, but mostly they are covered 
with vegetable earth and green sward. 

The exploration of these refuse-heaps led to the following 
results : — Of vegetable matter, but few fragments of burnt 
wood are found. Here and there are seen peculiar-looking 
heaps of ashes, which from the large quantity of manganese 
they contain, seem to be derived form the Zostera marina, a 
sea plant which, some centuries ago, was still burnt in that 
countiy for the extraction of the salt. These mounds testify 
thus to a similar industiy in a remote period. Among the 
shells the most common is the oyster {Ostrea eduUs), the 
cockle, mussel, and periwinkle {Oardium edule, MytUus edulis, 
Litarina litorea) all which are eaten at the present day, and still 
inhabit the same sea, but are now not so large, and have in 
some parts, where these mounds occur, entirely disappeared. 

That the decrease and disappearance of these edible molluscs 
is to be attributed to the fisheries cannot well be assumed ; but 
even the diminution of the salt in the Baltic, to which the above 



LiCTUBi xn. 885 

effect is attribated^ does not seem to us a satisfiEUsioiy explana- 
tion. The Bomans sncoeeded in transplanting oysters into the 
freshwater lakes near Naples^ where iJiey still live and propa- 
gate^ and even mussels and periwinkles thrive well in brackish 
water as well as in lakes periodically filled with fresh water. 
The cause of the phenomenon must therefore be sought else- 
where : in that dow transformation and alteration of the sea- 
bottom^ which has been found in oyster beds^ and which is 
diiefly produced by tubicolce, which oyergrow the oyster beds 
and destrc^ them. 

Besides the shells mentioned above^ there are found others 
of species still living in the Danish waters, though in smaller 
quantities^ such as Buecinum reUculaium and undahtm ; Vemu 
pulUutra, which do not seem to have been much relished by 
these old mussel-eaters. 

But few remains of the crab are found, but many of the 
herring, cod, lemon sole (TleuronectM UmandaJ, the eel, the 
latter being chiefly found where it abounds at present. Of birds, 
besides several species of wild ducks and geese, are found the 
remains of the wild swan, woodcock, and the great auk (Alca 
impenniaj, which died out (Iceland its last reftige) in 1842. 
The capercailzie (Tetrao urogaUusJ is no longer seen in Den- 
mark, as the firs, on the sprouts of which it fed in the Spring, 
have now mostly disappeared, whilst formerly they were very 
abundant, as shown by the exploration of the peat bogs. The 
swan comes to Denmark in the Winter only, proceeding in 
Summer further north to Iceland ; but as even the auk, which 
took refuge there, was formerly in all the Northern Seas, in 
Denmark, the Faroe Islands, and the Hebrides, veiy abundant, 
there is nothing against the assumption that the swan formerly 
passed his summers in Denmark. Small land birds were not 
found, the common fowl was entirely absent. 

Of quadrupeds, the bones found belonged to the stag, the 
roe, the wild hog, the beaver, the seal, and the now extinct 
urochs ' (ISas primigemuij, which seems, among our present 
races, to have left as his progeny the heavy Friesland cow. Of 
the IdthuanianBison, or Auerochs fBo$ unu, or BisonEuropmuJ 
which is a distinct species, and formerly spread over all Europe, 



i 



836 LXCTUBX xn. 

there liave been traces found in the peat bogs, but not in the 
kitchen-heaps. It is remarkable, that the reindeer, the elk, and 
the hare, which no donbt then existed in Denmark, are also 
absent ; on the other hand, bones of the wolf, the fox, the lynx, 
martiQ, the otter, the wild cat, the hedgehog, and the water-rat 
are met with. The only domestic animal was the dog, a race 
resembling the setter, the existence of which is also proved by 
the drcomstance that only the long bones of birds are found, 
which these dogs usually reject. 

All tubular bones are broken, or split open lengthwise to get 
at the marrow, and if the cavity, as in ruminants, is divided by 
a septum, the blows are given on both sides. The marrowless 
bones are unbroken, but gnawed, specially where they are 
covered with cartilage. The teeth impressions are partly those 
of dogs as well as of man. All animals seem to have served 
for food ; for the bones of camivora, and even of the dog, are 
split like those of ruminants. The meat was either boiled or 
roasted ; for in the kitchen-heaps are found stones of the size 
of a closed fist, arranged so as to form a hearth about two 
feet in diameter, around which coals and ashes are seen. There 
are also pieces of coarse pottery, made by the hand; the clay 
is mixed with angular pebble fragments. There are also found 
in these kitchenmiddens rude flint tools, hatchets, wedges, and 
knives, the incisions of which can be easily traced upon the 
bones. It was at first believed that the people of these kitchen- 
middens were ignorant of the mode of sharpening and polishing 
their implements, but as some weU worked tools were found, 
and the indsions upon the bones are so deep that they could 
only have been made by sharp instruments, it is probable that 
the people of that period only used the rude flints for opening 
shells or breaking bones, considering their finer instruments 
too valuable to be used for such a purpose. 

The turf moors of Denmark supplement the evidence derived 
from the kitchenmiddens. Besides the meadow moors, in and 
near the water basins of the valleys, and the high moors 
scattered upon the plain formed of mosses, there are in 
Denmark peculiar little forest moors fBhoomose), which fill up 
deep hollows in the subjacent boulder formation. On the steep 



LxoTUBX xn. S87 

walls of tlieae fonnel-ahaped pits, fireqnently above iihiriy feet 
in depths gi^w, at the time of their formation^ trees whioh sank 
so gradually that the tops are turned towards the centre of the 
bog. In the centre of the bog there is generally at the bottom 
a day bed^ then a stratum .of turf/ frequently mixed with 
lime and microscopic plants, above which lies the proper 
moss-peat. Firs grew sometimeB upon these moors, but did not 
seem to thrive, and were, at a later period, replaced by the 
common moor-shrubs Va^ecinniv/rn oooycoccos and uUginoewm, the 
Erica tetralix and vulgaris, the birch, elder, and hazel. Around 
the borders of the bogs, where large trees g^w, the forest 
vegetation presents a remarkable change. There we find firs 
f Pin/us tylveatrisj of great height, often three feet in diameter, 
which are only distinguished from our common firs by a thicker 
bark. The rings indicate an age of several centuries. This fir 
no longer grows in Denmark, nor has it existed there within 
historical times, nor is there any tradition that it was ever known 
to the inhabitants of Denmark. These firs firequently stood so 
thick that by falling into the bogs they formed a kind of floor. 

The firs disappeared and were supplanted by oaks fQuercvs 
robur sesailifloraj ; stately trees, often four feet in diameter; these 
have also disappeared, or nearly so. In the upper layer of the 
peat is found the summer oak (Quercua pedu/nculataj , with the 
birch, the hazel, and the alder. At present the Danish forests 
are formed by the common beech, which is not found in the 
surface of the forest bogs. The presence of the woodcock in the 
kitchenmiddens prolres that the people who formed them lived 
during the fir-period, and that since then the oak vegetation 
also passed away, the remains of which are found in the forest 
hogs, and which has been superseded by the beech. Fir-trunks 
were found worked by the hand of man, and betwiden these trunks 
flint implements, which establish the parallel with the kitchen- 
middens, whilst in the turf-moors, which correspond with the 
oak period, fine bronze tools were found. 

Human bones were neither found in the kitchenmiddens nor 
in the peat-bogs of the fir-period ; but gpraves were discovered 
composed of larg^ stone blocks, in which only stone- and bone- 
implements were found. The skulls found in these gpraves are 

z 



388 



LSCTUBB Xn. 



remarkably small and veiy romid, tlie occiput shorty the orbits 
very small^ the sapraciliary ridges mnch projeotiiig, the nasal 
bones very prominent. 

Fig. 101. Bozxeby Skull of the Stone Period (Denmark), alter Bnak. 




Fig. 102. Boncel^ SknH* top view. 




LBCTiTBi zn. S39 

Between ihe snpraoiliary arches and the nasal bones there is 
a depression large enough to reoeiye the index finger of an adult. 
The forehead is usually flat and retreating, though not so much 
as in the Neander skull. The mean proportion of length to width 
in twenty skulls is, according to Busk's table, which he kindly 
sent me, as 100 : 78. The vestiges of the facial muscles are 
strongly marked, the alveolar margins prominent, the teeth used 
up obliquely. The skulls resemble theLapp skulls by their rotun- 
dity and smallness, but are distinguished by the depth of the 
nasal suture and the oblique position of the anterior dental 
margins. They resemble, at aU events, no other European race 
than that high Northern people^ or perhaps the Fins, whose 
customs are indicated by the builders of' the kitchenmiddens. 

A comparison of these skulls of the stone period with the Lapp 
skull on the one hand, and the Bomanic skull on the other^ 
yields the subjoined results : 

1^.108. Sknllof a Lapp, top Tiew, alter Biuk. 




On comparing the top of this Lapp skull with that of a stone- 
period skull of Borreby (fig. 101), and the Bomanic skull (fig. 
127) a series is presented in which the Lapp occupies the middle. 
In all these three skulls the zygomatic arohes are, in this posi- 
tion, scarcely visible ; the forcdiead behind the eyes is thus pro- 

z2 



840 LBOTiTBX xn. 

portionately wideband the temporal fossad are but little depiessed 
in the upper portion towards the yertez. The Bomanic Bknll 
is the widest ; were it not for the slight depression towards the 
zygomatic arches and the narrowness of the forehead, the con- 
tour of the head would be nearly circular. The Lapp occupies 
the intermediate place ; the contour of his head corresponds to 
that of a short thick egg, with a flattened and narrowed 
anterior end. The malar bones at their junction with the 
zygoma project more, and on this account render the aspect of 
the frontal region wider. Whilst in the Bomanic skull the 
posterior contour forms a flat arch somewhat depressed in the 
centre, it is in the Lapp more curved and somewhat projecting 
in the central line. The greatest width of the Bomanic skull 
is in a backward direction almost opposite the last quarter of 
the central longitudinal line of the skull, whilst in the Lapp it 
is in the last third of that line. 

The stone sknll (fig. 102) is still narrower than the Lapp 
skull, and by the projection of the supradliaiy arches which is 
wanting both in the Bomanic and the Lapp skull, the front part 
of the oval which forms its contour is nearly as wide as the pos- 
terior section. The zygomatic arches project somewhat more ; 
the temporal lines are more deepened; the frontal protuberance 
forms a continuous col before the contour of the receding nar- 
row forehead. All this indicates a greater muscular develop- 
ment, which, however, but little influences the cranial structure, 
which is decidedly longer and narrower ; the greatest width is 
almost in the middle, but not so pronounced as in the Lapp and 
the Bomanic skull. 

The proportions of the head measurement confirm this view: 
the mean in the stone skulls measured by Busk is =:78, 2 ; in 
the Lapps = 87, 8 ; in the Bomanic = 92, 1. 

I must, however, observe that the differences between the 
stone skulls of various localities and the difierent sexes are by 
no means insignificant. The skulls of Borreby are the widest 
the mean of the head-measure being = 81, 3 ; the skulls from 
other localities are narrower, the mean being =^ 75, 1 ; wliilst 
the supposed female skulls are = 79, 8. 

On viewing these heads in profile, there is also found no slight 



LSCTUBS zu. 341 

difference. The Lapp head approaches more decidedly the 
stone skull of Borreby (see fig. 101) than the Romanic skull 
(see fig. 126). 

Fig. 104. Profile of a Lapp Sknll, alter Bnak. 




It is tme that in the Lapp skoll the frontal protaberance is 
scarcely indicated; the forehead is much higher and more 
arched^ the vertex more situated in fronts the occiput more pro- 
jecting^ and there is something like a break in the lambdoid 
suture ; the nasal root is less drawn in^ and the front teeth are 
perpendicular^ whilst in the Borreby skull^ the alveolar mar- 
gins of the upper jaw shew a decided tendencr^ to prognathism^ 
which, if the teeth were not wanting, would be plainly seen ; 
but it must not be forgotten that the skull of Borreby which I 
give is that which presents these characters in the greatest 
degree, and that in the rich collection of drawingpg from the 
stone period, kindly sent me by Professor Busk, I find some 
which almost exactly correspond to the Lapp skull. Thus, 
apart fr^m size, which is somewhat greater in the stone skull, 
a female skuU of Borreby, marked No. 1, all but covers in 
profile the Lapp skull. 



342 LBCTDBB xn. 

The Bomanio skull (fig. 126) maintaiiis also here a sepa* 
rate position. The high arohing of the forehead^ the rmifoTin 
cunrature of the vertex^ the steep descent of the occiputj 
the compactness of the base, the acdiyons direction of the 
upper jaw and the mastoid prooessesj distmgoish it at the 
first glance ; and, viewed in profile, it appears almost as the 
polar opposite of the stone skull. The position also of the 
foroumen magnum, which is not seen in our drawings, is more 
backward in the Bomanio skull than in the stone- and Lapp- 
skulls. 

The Lapps present thus in their cranial structure a greater 
afi^ty with the stone-period people than with the Bomanic- 
iype; and the latter must hare undergone a much greater 
alteration than the former, if both types are to be deriyed 
from the primitiye people of the northern stone-period. 

There can be no doubt that during the stone-period, as it is 
called by ardiseologists, when metals were unknown, the north 
had attained to a certain deg^e of civilisation. This is partly 
proved by the finished tools made of stone, bones, and wood, 
found in the peat bogs, and by the old graves, all of which 
bear a common character, being a chamber formed of large 
stone blocks, in which the corpse was deposited or placed in a 
crouching position. XTpoh this chamber large masses of stone 
were heaped, and thus arose those large mounds which attract 
the attention of the traveller in the northern plains, mounds 
frequently overg^wn with high trees— oaks or beeches. Li 
many places, besides Switzerland, the custom prevails for 
wayfarers to place upon the grave of one accidentally killed a 
stone or a handful of earth. Possibly, a similar custom may 
have obtained among the ancient stone-peoples, and may have 
contributed to these accumulations above the graves. 

Whether bronze was introduced by a distinct race, or whether 
the art of making it was discovered by the stone-people, must 
for the present remain undecided. No skulls of the bronze 
age have as yet been discovered, probably from the custom 
then prevalent of burning the bodies and preserving the ashes 
along with the arms and other tools of the deceased. It was 
at the iron period that the burial of bodies recommenced. 



UBCTUBi xn. 348 

whence are derived those long heayy skulls, which differ 
entirely from those of the stone-age. 

The Lapp people of the stone-period, if we may so call 
it, inhabited not merely Denmark and Scandinaria, bnt no 
doabt also the north of Germany. Discoyeries made in Meck- 
lenbnrgh fomish the clearest evidence for such an assumption. 
I shall give you a description of them nearly in the words of 
Dr. Schaaffhansen, who also gives a minute description of the 
skulls found. 

** There was found near Plan in Mecklenburg, in the gravel, 
six feet under the surface of the soil, a human skeleton, in a 
crouching, almost kneeling, posture, with implements made of 
bone, a hatchet made of staghom, two wild boar tusks which 
had been cut off, and three incisors of a stag, perforated at 
the root. This grave was considered to belong to a very re- 
mote period, as it was neither protected by stones, nor were 
there any implements of stone, iron, or pottery present. Dr. 
Lisch, struck by the abnormal projection of the supradliaiy 
region, observed, that the cranial formation indicated a very 
remote age, in which man occupied a veiy low position in the 
stage of development, and that the grave probably belonged 
to an autochthonous people. The skull and the skeleton 
having been broken to pieces by the workmen, I had some 
difficulty in cementing the twenty-two fragments sent to me. 
Notwithstanding the gpreat similarity between the form of the 
forehead of this skull and that of the Neander-skull, the pro- 
minence of the supradliaiy arches is greater in the latter, and 
is confluent with the superior orbital margin, which is not the 
case in the former. The skulls, however, are essentially dis- 
tingrniahed by their general form, which, in the latter, is long- 
elliptical, and in the former, rounded. In the Plau-skull, a 
portion of the upper jaw, with the teeth, and the whole lower 
jaw, have been preserved; it is orthognathous. The bones 
are thick but very light, and adhere strongly to the tongue. 
The muscular attachments on the occiput, above the mastoid 
process, are strongly developed ; the sutures of the cranium 
are wholly unossified ; the last upper molar on the right side 
has not yet broken through; the teeth are worn away; in 



844 LXCTTJBX ZII. 

Bome of the molars^ the entire crown has almost disappeared ; 
the lower canine teeth are much larger than the incisors, and 
rise aboye the row of teeth ; the foramen i/ndsiv^um in the 
upper jaw is very large, exceeding in width four millimeters. 
The ascending ramus of the lower jaw rises at a right angle, 
and is broad and short. The muscular attachments are also 
well marked on the lower jaw. On the right parietal bone is 
an elongated depression as from a blow. The proportional 
dimensions are as follows : — 



Cranial drcnmferenoe over the BupraeQiary ridgos and the ■emidrcolAr 

lines of the oooipat ..... 445 

Erom the root of the noee, over the vertex, to the laperior Bamioircnlmr 

line - - - - - - - 820 

From the root of the noee, OTer the Tertez, to the oodpital foramen - 880 

Length of skull from the glabella to the occipat ... 168 

Breadth of the frontal bone - • - - - 107 
Height, from a line connecting the temporal borders of the paxietals, 

to the middle of the sagittal sntore - - - ^80 

From occipital foramen to the same point ... 122 

Width of the oodpat from one parietal protaberanoe to the other • 188 

Width of base from one mastoid process to the other - - 156 
Thickness of the frontal and parietal bones in the middle - -9 

The cranial capacity, measured by millet-seed, amounts to 86 ounces, 8i 
drachms, Pmssian apothecaries' weight." 

A similar discovery was made near Schwaan^ in Mecklen- 
bnrg, bnt the cranium is far irom being so well preserved as 
that of Plan. I might here mention some discoveries in the 
Baltic provinces of Russia^ described by Dr. Eutorga^ had not 
his authenticity been found to be rather suspicious. The skulls 
in question were found in the Government of Minsk, in the 
sand of an old river-bed. 

I must, however, dwell at greater length on a discovery 
made by Dr. Spring, a distinguished professor of the Univer- 
sity of Li^ge, more than ten years ago, which has not at- 
tracted the attention it deserves, and to which I have already 
alluded in my work Kolilerglaube und Wiseenschafi. On the 
banks of the Mouse, near Chauvaux, about one hundred feet 
above the present level of the river, there was a small grotto, 
or fissure, with two ossiferous beds, separated from each other 
by stalagmite. There was first a stratum of decomposed and 



LXOTUBK XII. 345 

almost dissolTed small bones^ abont a decimeter thick. This 
was covered with a stratnm of stalagmite one to two centi- 
meters in thickness ; then came a mass of broken bones^ near 
a conglomerate of large pebbles, cemented by stalagmite. The 
bones showed no trace of having been rolled, bnt were so 
mnch decomposed that they crombled into pieces. Above 
these broken bones, the fractured surfaces of which were dean, 
there was another stalagmite cnist, about forty-five centi- 
meters thick, covered by a stratum of loam of variable thick- 
ness. Many of the bones, though very friable, had retained 
nearly all their organic substance ; but they were strongly im- 
pregnated with carbonate of lime. 

Amongst the bones of the upper stratum there were a large 
number of human intermingled with animal bones. The 
majority of human bones was found at the entrance to the 
grotto; shin-bones, thighs, ann-bones, bones of the carpus 
and tarsus, of fingers, toes, ribs, jaws, and cranial bones, 
all broken, and a large number of teeth faUen out from their 
sockets. 

'' All the long bones," says Spring, '' were broken either 
in the middle or at the ends ; the lower jaws were more 
abundant ,than any other skull- bones ; and I possess a piece, 
as large as a paving-stone, which contains five human jaws, 
amongst which there is the jaw of a child from seven to eight 
years of age, the period of tiie second dentition. 

''I possess many fragments of parietal, temporal, and occi- 
pital bones. I saw on the spot the parietal half of an entire 
skull, but it was impossible to extract it without breaking it 
up. On account of the extremely fingile nature of these 
bones, I examined this skull before I ventured to give the first 
blows. This examination, as well as that of other characteristic 
bones, convinced me that I had before me a race differing 
from the present inhabitants of western and central Europe. 
The race equally differs fit>m the old Germanic as well as from 
the Celtic races, which I had opportunities of examining in 
various collections of skulls. 

''This skull was very small, both absolutely and in proportion 
to the development of the jaw ; the forehead was flattened. 



346 UBCTUBX xn. 

the noflirOfl wide, the alyeolar arbhes projeotingj the incison 
oblique, the facial angle scarcely exceeding 70 deg. I Tentnre 
to assert that these characters resemble those of the Negro 
and Indian more than those of any race now inhabiting En- 
rope. To jndge from the length of the thigh and the tibia, 
this must hare been a stunted race, perhaps only five feet 
high, about the height of the Ghreenlanders and Lapps. 

''Amongst this great number of bones, there was not one 
which could be assigned to an aged or even to a strong mus- 
cular individual ; all the bones belong^ to females, youths, 
and children.'' 

Spring obtained, also, a parietal bone fractured by some 
blunt instrument. The instrument which caused the injuiy 
was in the same piece of stalagrmite ; it was a rudely manu- 
fiictured stone hatchet, without any perforation for a handle ; 
another stone hatchet was also discovered. 

The animal bones, which lay about intermixed with the 
human bones, were in exactly the same condition. All the 
long bones were broken; but those which contain no marrow 
were entire. There were many teeth of beasts of prey, some 
boars'-teeth, but none of deer, or any other ruminant ; which 
is the more remarkable as human teeth, and the long bones of 
the large ruminants, were very abundant. 

Another surprising circumstance is that, with the exception 
of a fragment of the lower jaw of a sheep or roe, neither cra- 
nium, nor horns or antlers of a stag, boar, ox, or aurochs were 
found. The bones are those of the deer, ox, sheep, roe, boar, 
dog, fox, marten, and hare ; some bones of the ox and stag 
are so large that they might be assigned to the aurochs and 
elk. In addition to these bones were found cinders, pieces of 
charcoal, and small fragments of burnt clay. 

Spring concludes, and, as it appears, with much reason, that 
the bones of Chauvaux are the remains of a cannibal feast, — 
an opinion which he founds on the similar condition both of 
the human and the animal bones, all of which are broken for ilie 
sake of the marrow, and upon the circumstance that all human 
bones belong to young individuals, whose flesh was, no doubt, 
preferred on such festive occasions. Dr. Spring also quotes 



LiCTUBi xn. 347 

Bome old aatihorB to show that, in Bdginm and Qwal, haman 
Bacri6oe8 and cannibaliBm continaed down to the time of the 
Bomaaa. The short and imperfect description of the sknll, 
thoagh insufficient to indicate the race, gives at least evidence 
that it diflfered entirely from the contemporaneoos race which 
inhabited Denmark and North Gtermany. 

Whilst the discovery of Bondher de Perthes, which directed 
attention to the antiquity of man, slowly made its way, 
that of Dr. Keller, made at Meilen, near Zorich, in 1863 and 
1864, burst upon the world like a thunder-dap. The water 
being very low, this circumstance was taken advantage of to 
erect some walls for the recovery of a piece of land from the 
dried up bottom of the lake, lliere was seen on the sur&ce 
a yellowish, grey mud, about one to two feet thick; below 
this, a bed of sandy day, two to two and a half feet thick, in 
which were imbedded the heads of piles and a number of 
stone hatchets, dubs, hammers, and flint implements. In- 
struments of bone, horn, and wood, rude vessels of unbumt 
day, a bead of amber, a bronze dasp, broken haaelnuts, fir 
branches, and finally the roof of a human skull and several 
skeletons, were found in this bed, denominated by Keller ''the 
culture-bed.'' The piles stuck in the old lake bottom, which, 
like the uppermost stratum, consisted of light coloured letten, 
but contained no other artides. Keller soon perceived the 
great importance of his discovery. He saw at once that he 
had before his eyes a pre-historical building of a people igno- 
rant of the use of metal, and, as regards dvilisation, standing 
in the same scale as the northern stone-people. No sooner 
did this discovery become known, than similar discoveries 
were made in Qennssaj, Italy, and France, and we can say 
that there exists in the plains of Switzerland, between the 
Jura and the Alps, no lake or peat-bog which does not present 
traces of sudi pile-buildings. The seal with which these in- 
vestigations were carried on, has brought many a singular 
phenomenon to light, and whilst ihe reports of F. Kdler, of 
which the fifth has now appeared, are models of clearness, we 
may diaracterise the huge volume of Troyon {Lu HabiiatianB 
Laeuiiiref) as a pious novel, resting, like the now favourite 



348 



LXCTUBS ZU. 



Historical novels^ upon foundations borrowed from Moses' 
family chronicle of the Jewish tribes. 

Fig. 105. Section of a File-work in the Lake. 




1, Booky bottom. 2. Lake. 8. Mnd-bed. 
bed. 5. btone-hm of the Stone Period. 
Period. 



4. WhitiBh-grey-, or old Mnd- 
6. Calture-hed of the Bronze 



Let as return to the facts. There are pile-works situated 
on the shores of the lakes, at some distance from the water, 
covered by sand, loam, or calcareous sinter, which have been long 
known to fishermen, who attached their nets to them. In some 
few spots the water stands thirty feet above the piles furthest in 
the lake, but the height of the water is generedly much lower. 
In the lakes of western Switzerland it has been observed that 
those pile-buildings, in which no metal is found, are nearer the 
shore and less under water, whilst others, where metal, and 
specially bronzes are found, are -situated at a greater distance 
as well as greater depth. 

Fig. 106. Section of a Pile-Building in a Peat-moss. 




1. Vegetable earth. 2. Light peat. 8. Thick peat, with old trees at the 
bottom. 4. Coltore-bed with the piles imbedded in the white bottom. 6. 
6. Sand-bed. 7. Coarse grarel, flints. 8. Present lake-lereL 

The pile-works in the turf-moors are always found in spots, 
where formerly a lake existed, which even now shows in the 
middle of the moor traces of its former extension. So it is 
in Moosseedorf, Wanwyl, Bobenhausen on the Pfdffikon lake. 



LBCTUBl XII. 349 

and many otiher places. There is usually found upon the bot- 
tom of the tnrf-moorj above the gravel and sand of the old 
allavium, which in some parts of Switzerland contains bones 
of the elephant, the so-caUed white bottom {blcunc fond), a 
calcareous bed, consisting of snail-shells reduced to powder, 
belonging to still existing species. Into this white bottom, 
which corresponds to the lower letten of Meilen, the piles are 
driven, and at Waawyl one pile was found driven ten feet into 
the old bed of the lake. Upon this white bottom lies the peat 
generally five to six feet thick, bat in some spots it reaches 
twenty feet. The stone and bone implements of the " coltore- 
bed'' usually lie upon the white bottom under the peat, in 
which no trace of antiquities has been found. The broken 
bones, the implements, in short, the whole material constitut- 
ing the culture-bed, form the lowest stratum of the peat bed. 
If relics of the historical period, such as Boman coins, are 
found, as at Moosseedorf, they are situated higher up, whilst 
those of the middle ages lie immediately under the vegetable 
earth. The pile-works at Wauwyl consisted of five floors 
formed of superimposed rounded beams connected with the 
upright piles. The lowest of these floors rests upon the bed 
of the lake. The thickness of all the layers amounts to about 
three feet. Two separate platfonns are frequently connected 
by round beams passing from the upper to the lower floor, 
leaving channels between them. Neither notches, mortises, 
ligatures, or other contrivances were traced, which would have 
required more perfect instruments. In some places we are 
induced to believe that the platform could easily rise and sink 
with the water. The space between the layers of the trees 
is filled up with day and branches. Here and there vertical 
piles are found, the top of which is burnt in the shape of a 
cone. Upon this terrain, as far as it has been explored, we 
are able to trace a rectangular plain 92' in length and 50' in 
width, which seems to have been covered with platforms of 
diffisrent heights. Bound this square, which may perhaps be 
considered as the habitation of a &mily, are seen frequently 
irregfular vertical piles without any intervening horizontal 
beams. 



850 LxcTUBi xn. 

These facts enable us to form some definite deduction regard- 
ing the age of the pile-works. The allavial formation in which, 
in certain Swiss districts, are found the remains of the ele- 
phant and the rhinoceros, lies beneath the white bottom into 
which the piles are driven. It follows, therefore, that the 
white bottom must have attained a thickness of several feet 
before the pile-works were erected, inasmuch as the piles are 
only driven into this layer and not into the gravel. But for 
the formation of such a lake-bed, consisting of an enormous 
mass of shells, many centuries were requisite, for we know that 
though mussels and snails frequently abound in freshwater, still 
many years are required for the formation even of a thin bed. 
Thus the settlements in Switzerland are much more recent 
than the beds of Amiens and the cave beds in which human 
remains have been found. Nevertheless, they reach back to a 
remote period, which has no history, the age of which may 
perhaps be approximatively estimated by the growth of the peat 
which has overgrown these pile-works. Hitherto we possessed 
no correct standard for the growth of peat. The calculations 
hitherto made rest upon no certain foundations, as the up- 
heaving of the peat soil has been erroneously taken for its 
growth* 

The great number of pile-works successively discovered in 
Switzerland, though they possess many features in common, 
differ specifically with respect to the metals and other imple- 
ments found in some of these pile-works. It is undeniable 
that in East-Switzerland there are numerous pile-woiks in 
which none, or but few, metals are found, whilst on the con- 
trary, in West-Switzerland there are many such works which 
contain objects of the bronze or both periods, whilst in some 
have been foimd iron tools, and even Roman coins. To draw, 
as Troyon has done, a geographical line, is inadmissible, and 
some settlements afford clear indications that they have been 
inhabited during the whole period and successively enlarged. 
Notwithstanding this, we are able to distinguish the stone- from 
bronze-period buildings, first by their depth, and secondly by 
the modes in which the piles are worked, independently of the 
objects found in them. The piles of the stone-period are much 



LBCTUBB ZU. 851 

tliicker ihaa tihoae of the bionse-period ; they are mostly 
tnmkB, one foot in diameter^ paitlj indsed at the ends, and 
forcibly broken off j split trunks are rarely found. 

The piles of the bronze-peiiod are madi thinner^ only about 
fonr inohes thick; the trunks are frequently split into four 
parts^ the tops rise seyeral feet above the ground, whilst those 
of the stone-period are hidden by the aocnmulation of stones. 
As &r as I know, there has not been discovered any pile-work 
oyergrown by peat which belongs to the bronze period. Thus, 
we may distinguish as belonging to the stone-period the pile- 
works at Moosseedorf, Wauwyl, Meilen, Bobenhausen, Wan- 
gen, and the numerous settlements on the Lake of Constance. 
PQe-buildings which continued in unbroken succession from 
the stone — ^through the bronse-period, are those at Concise, 
Stiiffis (Estayayer), Hageneck, and some other settlements on 
the lakes of Bienne and Neufchatel. There are further pile- 
works which contain iron-tools, like the celebrated Steinberg 
on the Lake of Bienne. There are also numbers of settle- 
ments on the lakes cS Geneva and Neufchatel, and also near 
Sempadh, which have only yielded bronzes ; and, finally, there 
is one pile-work which has only ftonished iron artides, namely, 
that of La TAne, near Marin, on the Lake of Neufchatel. 

Many of these habitations have undoubtedly been destroyed 
by fire, as in some places the burnt piles are still found. 
Messikomer concluded from the direction of the scattered 
cinders and coals, that at Moosseedorf the fire took place 
during a violent storm, like the fire of GHarus. In other set- 
tlements there was no trace of fire, and when it is considered 
how easily huts and stores built of wood may bum down, we 
think archnologists have gone too far when i^ey combine die 
introduction of metal with the irruption of a new people, and 
thus explain the burning down of the old habitations. Ac- 
cording to Troyon, die pile-works of the stone-period have 
been partly burnt down by a people coming from die East, who 
introduced bronze, but have been repaired and inhabited by 
them until another people, also coming ttom, the East, the 
Helvetians, arrived with iron swords, who, in their turn, burnt 
the bronze villages, and also partly re-inhabited them. 



352 LiCTUBi zn. 

M. Troyon seems to have discovered the primitive Orsini 
shellsj day-balls filled with pitch, which were thrown upon the 
pile-works. Keller remarks on this point, " It is a pity that 
when Troyon published his Habitations Lacustres, the many 
lake stations in which Roman implements^ are found were 
unknown ; he would, doubtless, have proved a third conquest 
of the country, and a third burning of the pile-buildings, and 
the decimation of the population as the concluding act of 
the drama/' 

On examining such stations as belong to the stone and 
bronze period, it is found that the stone-period pile-work 
forms, as it were, the nucleus around which the piles of the 
bronze period extend and are progressive in depth. There 
are, according to Desor, piles of the bronze period four to six 
inches in diameter, thirty feet deep below the mean height of 
the water level, which are driven in ten feet into the bed of 
the lake. These piles supported platforms, as at Wauwyl, 
above the water, and if we assume the height of these plat- 
forms at four feet and the imbedding only at six feet, it yields 
a total length of forty feet for a pile four inches in diameter, 
which must have been driven in through a depth of thirty feet 
water. This appears to me no slight task even for an engi- 
neer of our own time, but for an architect of the bronze period 
a manifest impossibility. We conclude hence, that at the 
period of the erection of the stone piles the waters stood as 
high as, or even a few feet higher, than at present, but that 
they gradually retreated, which forced the pile builders to 
follow the water. It is by this subsidence of the waters that 
in the smaller lakes many pile-works were exposed, and then 
abandoned, after which they were overgrown with peat, which 
must have been rather dry as it contained in its lower strata 
much wood. The waters rose again at a later period, the pile- 
works were submerged in the water or buried under the gradu- 
ally accumulating peat. The surface of the wat^r must have 
undergone various changes, so that the pile builders were 
either obliged to follow the water or to settle on the land. 

Possibly the first stone-period buildings or stone hills, as they 
might be called, were only artificial islands, like the so-called 



LlCTUBl ZII. 353 

era/nnagM in Ireland, of which we posseBS a sample in the 
small lake of Inkwyl, near Solothom, which were osed for 
fishing and festivals, bat rarely for habitations. Some of the 
pile-works were no doubt inhabited, at least during a certain 
period; snbseqaently they were perhaps, as Desor surmises^ 
used as provision stores. Desor remarks : " It is only neces- 
sary to look at the objects fonnd in any station to be convinced 
that they have not been wilftdly thrown into the water. Pots 
filled with provisions are fonnd in some spots, which have 
neither fitUen in accidentally, nor come there in consequence 
of an attack on the proprietors, for in the latter case we should 
find some human remains. The bronze articles are nearly 
new, the pots entire, the provisions well arranged, and accord- 
ing to the opinion of erperienced explorers, a rich booty is 
only obtained where the piles are burnt. These places were 
thus probably magazines which were burnt accidentally ; and 
the habitations constructed of brushwood and day, one of which 
was found on the Ebersberg near Zurich, were in the vicinity 
of the land.'' 

I must confess, gentlemen, that since I have visited the 
North, this view seems to me much more probable than the 
habitation theory. In the North, the water is the high way. 
The populations dwelling on die Fjords hold intercourse by 
way of water, the stores stand upon piles, and the merbhandise 
is transferred to the boats and ships from these stores. The 
fishermen and the Lapps, who frequently come from a consi- 
derable distance, cook, eat, and sleep upon the wooden piers 
which surround these stores. It is not improbable that, at 
the earliest period, the conditions were similar in Switzer- 
land. Most of the roads along the lakes have only been made 
very recently, so that even down to our own oentoxy the inha- 
bitants of the shores could only hold communication by means 
of boats. 

It is very possible to trace in the industry and the whole 
condition of these pile populations a progressive civilisation. 
Thus the implements on die lake of Constance are very rude 
and dumay in shape, whilst some of the objects of Condse 
will bear comparison with some of the best finished artides 

AA 



354 LSCTURS ZII. 

found in the north. Condse abo shows a greater riohness in 
domestic animals, specially a peculiar stock of cow, which has 
not been found in the east. An antiquary once told me, that 
the inhabitants of one district were probably peasants, whilst 
the others belonged to an industrial aristocracy. This dif- 
ference may depend either on the locality or on the periods, 
which are, however, not distinctly separate, but merely indi- 
cate slow and progpressiye civilisation. Notwithstanding the 
scantiness of the materials, it must be admitted that culture had 
attained a certain development, bearing testimony to the acute- 
ness, energy, and endurance of this primitive people. They 
knew how to work the stone without metal tools, and to use it 
according to its nature for different purposes. Thus the harder 
molasse served for whetstones and handmillfl ; the serpentine, 
for hammers and hatchets. The hard pebbles served for cutting 
tools. Several kinds of stones were imported from a distance, 
flints from the chalk beds of France, perhaps also nephrite from 
the East. With regard to this substance, which is but rarely 
met with in Switzerland, there prevail g^eat doubts. Though 
nephrite is now imported from the East, it is not known in 
what part it is most abundant. It is, moreover, by no means 
certain whether the hatchets made, according to antiquaries, 
of nephrite, are really constructed of this mineral, and not 
rather of an exceptionally hard serpentine, or a tough felspar, 
which Saussure formerly called jade. It is also possible tibat, 
in the conglomerates which contain so many stones foreign 
to the north side of the Alps (as, for instance, porphyry), this 
material of Swiss so-called nephrite-hatchets may yet be 
found. It is very desirable that all minerals used by the 
pile builders should be more carefully studied than they 
hitherto have been. An analysis of this kind has taught us 
the mode by which the erratic blocks have been carried by the 
glaciers down into the valleys, and in this way we may obtain 
some due as to the mode in which the pile builders communi- 
cated with other peoples. 

It belongs to a special branch of archadology to trace the mode 
of working the mineral ; how it was fastened to a handle of 
wood or staghom, how the wood was split and carved, how the 



LKCTUBS ZII. 855 

bones were fashioned into arrow-headsi needles^ hooks ; how 
the teeth were perforated to serre as ornaments. It is of par- 
ticular interest for us to know that the pile-builders were not 
only cattle-breeders, and had domesticated several races, but 
became also in process of time agricnltnrists. The chase was, 
no doubt, at first, the principal means of obtaining food, bat 
gradually vegetable food supplanted a purely animal diet. I 
shall quote the remarks of Professor Heer, in every respect a 
competent judge, on the agriculture of our pile-builders, as 
published in Keller's report, and also Riitimeyer's investiga* 
tions concerning the domestic animals. 

''Wheat is most common, having been found at Meilen, 
Moosseedorf, and Wangen ; in the latter place many whole ears 
were found, as well as heaps of grain. The grains are free 
from husk, and of the same form and size as our present 
wheat. Ears of the six-rowed barley (Hordeum hexasHehanJ, 
diifering from common barley (Hordeum tmlgare, WJ by the 
number of rows and smaller size of the grains, were numerous* 
According to Alph. de CandoUe, the six-rowed barley was the 
species most cultivated in antiquity (by the Egyptians, Ghneeks, 
and Bomans). In the ears of Wang^en, the longest and best 
preserved ear has ten to eleven grains in a row. The grains are 
smaller, shorter, and nearer to each other than that now grown. 
They are (without the husk) two-and-a-half lines long, and 
scarcely one-and-a-half line broad, whilst that now grown has 
grains of a length of three lines, and has almost the same 
breadth. 

" The cereals were probably kept in large clay vessels, of^ 
which many fragments are found. These buildings were pro- 
bably destroyed by fire, so that the cereals became carbonised, 
whidi conduced to their preservation in the wet mud. All the 
cereals of that remote period are in a carbonised state, and, 
when cleaned from the mud, present a shining black colour. 
We thus perceive that the above cereala have been cultivated 
in our country much earlier than has been generally supposed. 
It is, moreover, known how the cereals were prepared for 
alimentation. As these peoples had no miDs, they used round 
smoothed stones, between which the com was crushed, hence 

aa2 



356 LECTURE XII. 

these stones are called corn-crashers. They are foond in 
large quantities in almost all lake villages. The gpivins were 
probably first roasted^ then cm^ed^ and pat into pots^ after 
which the mass was moistened^ and then eaten. This mode of 
preparing cereals was foand in ase among the natives of the 
Canary Islands at the time of the Spanish conqaest. The 
Spaniards adopted and have preserved it to this day. The 
grain is first roasted in ovens, then crashedj and kept in goat- 
skins. This gofio, as the prepared meal is calledj still consti- 
tates the bread of the common people of the Canaries, and 
may be considered as the oldest mode of preparing cereals. 
Hence, amongst ancient peoples roasted barley is a sacred cereal, 
which plays an important part in all sacrifices. 

" The rearing of plants pre-snpposes the coltivation of the 
soil ; how this was effected is unknown to as, as no agrical- 
toral implements have been foond in the oldest settlements. 
Crooked tree-branches were probably osed as ploughs j how 
the cattle were fed we know not. 

^' Horticaltnre reaches as far back as agricaltare. Carbon- 
ised apples and pears were found; they are cat into two, rarely 
into four slices, manifestly to serve as a provision in winter. 
The pears found in Wangen are a kind of forest pears, called 
' achras,' and of small size. Apples are much more common 
not only in Wangen, but in Bobenhausen, on the Pfafliken 
Lake, and at Concise, on the Neufchatel Lake. They all agree 
in size and form, are perfectly round, with large cores and 
long stalks, which were not found attached to the apples, but 
^ear them. Several kinds of apples grow in our forests which 
agrree with the smallest sorts found in the pile-works. Whether 
these trees were at that period cultivated, or whether the frait 
was gathered from the forest trees, cannot easily be determined.'' 

Professor Heer is inclined to adopt the former view, because 
among the trunks intended to be cut for blocks there were 
some of apple trees. We should consider this as a proof to 
the contraiy, inasmuch as a tree cultivated for the fruit it bears 
is not used for other purposes. Professor Heer is further of 
opinion that the cereals and the fruit trees have been obtained 
from an Asiatic people, and that the fruits had degenerated 



LSCTUBB XII. 357 

in onr forests. .It appears to me that the experiments made 
by Faber to transform a species of grass (JEgUops) into wheat 
sufficiently indicate that cereals may easily have originated in 
our coantry^ instead of having been imported from Asia. All 
deductions as to the importation of cereals and fruit from Asia 
are made from what happened at later periods, when, no doubt, 
the better species, but not the originals of these cnltiyated 
plants were introduced. If indeed cereals, and apples and 
pears, had been imported from Asia, we cannot understand why 
hemp and the vine, which certainly are natives of Asia Minor, 
were not introduced at the same time. A stimulating and intoxi- 
cating fruit like the grape would certainly have been preferred 
to crab-apples. '' Stones of the wild plum and Prunug 
padus" continues Heer, "seeds of raspberries and blackberries, 
shells of hazel and beech nuts, are met with in abundance in 
the mud, showing that these forest fruits served as food. The 
aliment of these peoples thus consisted of cereals, fruit, fish, 
game, and domestic animals ; and, np doubt, the milk of the 
latter was also made use of. The cheese obtained ttom, die 
milk was probably put into pots, and placed in a chimney-flue. 
Pots are found perforated at the bottom : these could not have 
been used for containing fluids, but were adapted for the pre- 
servation of cheese, allowing the whey to escape. In ihe Swiss 
cottages the cheese is frequently wrapped up in linen rags, and 
hung up in the flue to diy ; there the pots were used instead 
of linen. However great the resemblance of the bread of the 
pile-works to carbonised bread, there would still be some 
doubts were th^ not removed by remnants of the bran and 
the well-preserved wheat grains in the pieces. The bran was 
not removed, and the grains but imperfectly crushed. The 
whole mass was probably kneaded, and baked between heated 
stones. Judging from the crust, the bread had probably a 
disc-shape; it had small pores much smaller than in our 
wheaten bread, reminding us of rye bread; but no rye has as 
yet been found in the pile-works, nor did the people understand 
how to make the dough rise.'' 

Finally, the pile-builders cultivated to a great extent the 
short flax still grown in North-western Switzerland, and 



858 LECTUBS zri. 

mannfactiired of it not only thread, lineSj and ropes, bat by 
means, probably, of a very simple loom, various textures, as 
wen as mattings. Hemp was unknown to them, another proof 
against the introduction of cultivated plants from the East. 
They may have used skins, but the preparation of leather 
seems to have been unknown, as but few badly-preserved 
pieces are found in the pile-buildings. Boats made from 
single large trunks prove tiiat they navigated the rivers and 
lakes, whilst the position of the pile-buildings on the lakes 
shows that they were acquainted with the prevailing winds. 

That the introduction of metals, though it took place very 
gradually, must have been productive of an essential progress 
in civilisation is clear enough. But what has been stated con- 
cerning the stone-period shows that we have to do with a race 
capable of every mental eflTort— a race which effected with 
small means aU that acuteness, patience, and industry could 
effect. The analysis of the remains of a skull of Meilen, the 
only one found in a pile-work belonging to the stone-period, 
confirms this view. The piece consists of the roof of the cra- 
nium, the frontal bone, the parietal bone, the occipital squama, 
and a fragment of the temporal bone ; the lower part of the skull 
and face and all the facial bones are wanting. The dimensions 
of the parts agree exactly with those of the present Swiss 
skull of a youth ; it belongs evidently to the same stock and 
the same race. It is also remarkable that this cranial type 
persists through all subsequent periods, though other cranial 
fypes from the pre-Roman period down to the middle ages and 
the present time coalesce with it. 

No trace of a copper age, which, according to some archae- 
ologists, always precedes that of bronze, has hitherto been 
found in Switzerland. The copper for Swiss bronzes has 
undoubtedly been obtained from Alpine copper-ore, that is to 
say, on the spot, as, according to Fellenberg's researches, it 
contains nickel, which always occurs in these ores, but is 
absent in northern bronzes. Since in eastern Europe, espe- 
cially in the Lower Danube districts, copper implements 
abound, the bronze cannot have been imported from the East, 
otherwise copper would also have been imported ,- nor would 



LBCTUBi HI. 859 

€hey Iiaye fetched tin from foreigpi parts for the purpose of 
alloying it with copper. The alloy with tin, and the discovery 
of pieces of chemically pure tin, indicate rather Belgiom and 
Cornwall as the coontries where bronze was invented. 

Fig. 107. Skull of Meflen, top view, altar a drawing by Profeuor Hii. 




Fig. 106. ThA Mme Sknll in Ftofile. 




Since the discovery of pile-works in Switserland many simi- 
lar discoveries have been made in other parts. 
I consider those fonnd in Italy to possess pecoliar interest. 



860 LECTURE XII. 

Those disoovered by Gtastaldi and Strobel testify that also in 
the ancient district of civilisation there existed in pre-historical 
times a stone and a bronze period^ of which the oldest Italian 
authors and the Romans had not the least idea. M7 friend 
Desor justly observes^ that garmloos PUny^ who had a villa on 
the Lake of Como in the immediate vicinity of such pile- 
works^ would certainly have noticed them had any tradition 
respecting them existed among the people. But every trace of 
such a tradition had already disappeared when the Etruscan 
pre-Boman civilisation unfolded its blossoms in Italy. I regret 
that I cannot enter into further particulars with regard to 
Italian researches, which have furnished us with relics and 
skulls from the stone and bronze periods, and well deserve an 
attentive study. 

Attempts have been made to determine the period in which 
the pile-works of the stone period have been erected ; but, as 
we have already observed, it is impossible to find in tradition 
and legend any starting points leading to historical dates. It 
is, therefore, only feasible to proceed as in geology, namely, 
by taking into account the relative position of the strata. 
Whilst in historical chronology years, months, and days are to 
be determined, geological chronology lays no claim to such 
exactness, as it embraces periods of time in which such dates 
are mere vanishing points. Still, attempts of this kind deserve 
acknowledgment, though they repose upon a fluctuating basis, 
and yield results which cannot be determined exactly within 
thousands of years. * 

Morlot was the first who made such an attempt. In the 
vicinity of Villeneuve, on the lake of Geneva, the mound 
formed by a torrent, la Tiniere, was opened in a railway cut- 
ting one thousand feet in length and thirty-two and a hidf feet 
deep. The internal structure was thus laid bare, and appeared 
perfectly regular. In the centre lie large rolled blocks, some 
as much as three feet in diameter ; on both sides the alluvial 
material becomes thinner and finer. Three layers of vegetable 
soil were cut through at different depths, which must at one 
time have formed the sur&ce of the cone ; they were inter- 
posed at reg^ular intervals, between the alluvium, parallel to 
each other and the present surface of the cone. 



LECTURi xn. 861 

The upper kyer was 4 — 6 inches thick, and about fonr feet 
below the present surface ; in it were found angular pieces 
of Roman tiles, and an obliterated Roman bronze coin. 

The second layer was six inches thick, and lay at a depth 
of ten feet ; it contained some fragments of unvarnished clay 
mixed with sand and a tweezer made of bronze. 

The lowest layer was about 6—7 inches thick, at a depth 
of nineteen feet. In it were rude pottery, pieces of charcoal, 
broken animal bones, a collection which indicates the stone 
period, though certainly the end of it, as Rutimeyer, after an 
examination of the bones, believes that they belong to a later 
period than the stone epoch. " Besides numerous remains of 
man,'' says Riitimeyer, '' there were some of the domesticated 
dog, pig, sheep, and cow, perfectly resembling the present 
species, but differing widely from those of the stone period. 
It was not merely the recent aspect of these bones, but the 
great difference between these races of dogs and swine and 
those of the pile-works, which testifies that these bones are 
later additions to the relics of primitive human industry.'' No 
stone or horn implements were found^ which might have 
thrown some light on this point. 

Morlot's calculation is founded on the regularity of the 
structure of the above cone, and the imiformity of its growth. 
The Romans, he observes, came into the country fifty-eight 
years before Christ, after the battle of Bibracte. In the year 
563, after Christ, Tauredunum was destroyed by the fall of a 
mountain,- and already, a century before, the Burgundians, 
who did not bum their bricks, had put an end to Roman do- 
minion. The Roman layer is, therefore, at the utmost eighteen 
centuries, and at least thirteen centuries old. Assuming now 
that the torrent had since that time deposited about four feet 
(1,14 meter), and that this accumulation proceeded from the 
remotest time at a uniform rate, we obtain for the bronze- 
bed an antiquity of at least twenty-nine, and at most of forty- 
two centuries ; for the stone period, a period of at least forty- 
seven, and at most seventy centuries ; and for the whole cone, 
about one hundred centuries. 

I must here observe, that in the layer of the stone period 



LICTURS XII. 

a hnman skeleton was founds with a very small, thick, and round 
skull, which, from the measurements of a M. Montague, is 
said to have presented the type of a brachycephalic Mongol 
skull. I have, unfortunately, been unable to learn anything of 
the fate of this skull, and as far as I know, my colleagues His 
and Biitimeyer are equally in the dark on this subject. 

Pruner-Bey lately published in the bulletins of the Paris 
Anthropological Society some details concerning this skull, 
apparently in his possession, which I must notice here. 

" The skull," says Pruner-Bey, '^ measures 129 millimeters in 
length, the thickest part of the roof measuring 12 millimeters 
in. diameter ; the forehead is absent, it flies off behind the 
orbital arches, which are much developed, as in the ape. As 
the superior orbital ridge is quite straight, we may conclude 
that the external angle of the eyelids was drawn up as in the 
Chinese. Orbits very wide ; frontal bones very narrow ; nasal 
bones projecting ; superior jaw drawn forward ; surface of the 
molars flattened by wear ; large and wide foramen, magnum 
placed much forward ; flattened articular head ; auditory 
meatus of fair diameter ; nasal fossaB very thick ; occipital 
squama rounded with very projecting ridges for the attachment 
of muscles ; cerebellar cavities very broad and deep. 

" Remark. Sight and smell seem to have been power- 
fully developed in this individual j and if the cerebellum be 
connected with muscular activity, he must have been very 
nimble. . . . 

'' This shortheaded type is even at present found among the 
populations inhabiting the banks of the Lake of Geneva and 
the Bhone, and Yon Baer found it very prevalent among the 
population of the Grisons. There we come to ancient Bh»tia, 
which leads by the gorges and southern declivities of the Alps 
down to Etruria." 

I have cited this note in order to show how little science is 
served by such descriptions. There is, in fact, here not a 
single character applicable in any way to those Helvetian 
skulls known to us as decided types of brachycephaly. Unless 
there be a misprint in the longitudinal measure, the skuD 
measured by Pruner-Bey must be that of an idiot or a child. 



LECTUBK XXI. 868 

for all skulls measured by Yon Baer and myself have a longita- 
dinal diameter of at least 1 70 millimeters. In all the Romanic 
(Helvetian) skolls I have seen, amonnting to several hundreds, 
the forehead rises almost perpendicularly, whilst the supraci- 
liaiy arches are scarcely developed, and the frontal bone is at 
least in the posterior region very wide, and presents only, as 
Yon Baer remarks, a local constriction behind the eyes. The 
occipital squama descends also almost perpendicularly, its 
muscle ridges are but little developed, and the forainen mctg- 
num is, on the contraiy, placed fiEurther back, whilst the arti- 
cular surfaces are much projecting. This backward position of 
the foramen magnum is so great that Yon Baer considers it as 
a decided approach to the animal form. 

The notice of Pruner-Bey does not even afford a certain 
indication whether the said skull, from the alluvial cone of the 
Tiniire, near Yilleneuve, is really a short head, as the trans- 
verse diameter is not mentioned at all. But all the other 
characters are so opposed to those of the well-known Romanic 
(Helvetian) skulls, that I must decidedly reject Pruner-Bey's 
unfounded inferences as to their supposed similarity. 

I must here add, that in other passages Pruner-Bey compares 
a Helvetian skull to that of Meilen, which, as we have seen, 
has nothing in common with the Bomanic cranial type. I very 
much doubt whether by this Helvetian cranium he meant that 
of Tiniire, for there the following measurements are given for 
this Helvetian skull : — ^Length, 195 millimetres ; width, 145 ; 
which Would give for the head-measure 74't5, corresponding 
to that of what we have termed '' apostle-heads.'' It is indeed 
difficult for an imprejudiced person to find the gpiiding thread 
in this Pruner-Beyish labyrinth. 

Such calculations are open to various objections. Despite 
of all apparent reg^ularity, the deposits of a mountain torrent 
are never quite regular. One single flood, in consequence of a 
storm, may bring more material than will be deposited regu- 
larly in long periods, and this material will be deposited accord- 
ing to its gravity on the sides as regularly as that gradually 
accumulating. The computation as regards the Roman bed, 
which forms the basis of the whole calculation, is as ques- 



864 LECTUBl XII. 

tionable as that of the stone-period^ the bones of which are 
certainly of a more recent date. 

GilWron, who discovered in the vicinity of the Zihl-bridge, 
near Neufch&tel, a pile-work of the stone-period, arrived at 
similar results. The *^ culture bed'' has a thickness of at least 
five feet, and lies below a layer of black mud, above which is a 
bed of loam about five and a half feet thick, in which many 
freshwater snails are found. The pile-work, which is visible 
in the Zihl when the water is very low, was in the vicinity of 
the spot where the former connection between the Neufch&tel 
and Biel Lake is narrowest, and amounts to at most 400 
metres. The lakes, according to Gilli^ron, retreated slowly, 
and the intervening space through which now the Zihl flows 
was gradually filled up by moss and peat. 

This retreat, no doubt, took place very slowly, as the fine 
alluvial mud is evexywhere regularly levelled and stratified. If 
now we were enabled to find an historical standard of this re- 
treat, it might be applied to the whole distance from the pile 
work to the Biel Lake, a distance of 12,800 Swiss feet, which 
Gilli^ron only estimates at three kilometres. But in the vicinity 
of the Biel Lake (Lake of Bienne) was built the old Abbey of 
St. John between 1090 and 1106, so we may assume the date 
1100. A document, prepared a century later, grants to the 
convent the right of fishery firom the poplars growing on the 
shore of the lake, but which poplars no longer exist. At 
present the convent is 375 metres distant from the shore. 
Gillidron now assumes that the Abbey was built near the water, 
and that this distance afibrds a measure for the alluvia accu- 
mulated within 750 years. For greater certainty, he does not 
measure the distance from the convent to the pile-work, but 
to the point from which the lake regularly retreated, and, 
assuming the distance to be 8,000 metres, he calculates 
that 6,000 years at least were required for the retreat of 
the lake. 

I say ai least 6,000 years, for the assumption that the con- 
vent was built on the margin of the lake is incorrect, but that 
the convent people built at some distance from the lake, and 
that the poplars, though nearer the water, were also planted 



LICTUBI XII. 365 

at some distance as a protection against the north-east wind^ 
which throws the waves far np the shore. But if the basis 
upon which the computation rests becomes narrower, by the 
assumption that convent and poplars stood at S9me distance 
from the water, the time which the Iske required to retreat is 
increased in an inverse ratio. Assuming that the poplars 
stood at the edge of the water, about 100 meters from the 
convent, the lake was within seven centuries only filled up 
275 meters, and required 8,000 years for its retreat; and, 
assuming 200 metres distance between the poplars and the 
convent, which might be Buppoi*ted by the mention made of 
the poplars in the document on fishing, which poplars stood at 
some distance, we obtain 13,000 years for the retreat of the 
lake. At all events, the assumption of the least of the above 
periods again shows that the Biblical Adam and his chronology 
falls, between the piles, into the water. 

An attempt to save the chronology must be made, and pious 
M. Troyon does not shrink from attempting it. In the vidniiy 
of Yverdun is seen, in the middle of the peat, a rocky island 
about 400 feet high, called the Ghamblon, at the foot of which, 
about eight to ten feet below the peat, was discovered a pile- 
work with stone hatchets. The distance between the pile-work 
and the lake is, according to Troyon, 5,500 feet. Yverdun, the 
Roman Eburodunum, is baQt upon a dune extending over the 
turf. According to Troyon, the lake is said in the Soman 
period to have washed l^e town ; at present it is 2,500 feet 
distant from it. A simple comparison shows that if the lake 
has in 1,500 years retired 2,400 feet, it must have required 
8,800 years to retire from the pile work, and so Biblical 
chronology is saved. 

Unfortunately there are also sceptics in the faithful Canton 
of Yaud, and a M. Jayet, who for many years has inhabited 
and explored the above district, finds but little difficulty in 
upsetting the whole of this orthodox computation. 

''The peat in the vicinity of Ghamblon,'' says Jayet, ''pre- 
sents a rare peculiarity; it is divided into two layers, which are 
separated by a thick stratum of mud, evidently deposited by 
the lake. The piles found in the upper peat layer are em- 



866 LSCTUBB ZII. 

bedded in tliis mad. The pile- works thus belong to an older 
period than the upper peat, and to a later period than the 
lower peat with its mud covering. It is just this lower 
peat bed which is connected with the lake formations of the 
plains. 

''If, then, the calculation of M. Troyon be correct, both the 
formations which he compares should be of the same kind, 
which is not the case. Nothing is more simple than the 
formation of the sandy alluvia between Yverdun and the lake, 
which are formed by the sand brought by the streamlets to the 
lake, and which the billows cast upon the low banks ; nothing, 
on the other hand, is more complicated than the plain between 
Ghamblon and the lake. To the alluvia which first raised and 
filled the bed of the lake, three successively formed dunes, and 
two peat beds, have been added, which are separated from 
each other by a layer of mud. This complicated stratification 
required a much longer time, and the thirty-three centuries of 
M. Troyon are quite inadequate for the chronology of the 
pile works.'* 

I must here add, that the calculations of Troyon and Gil- 
lieron are founded upon an erroneous basis. It is impossible 
to calculate the time of the retreat from the horizontal distance ; 
it is the vertical distance which is to be attended to. Let us 
imagine a flat lake-basin a few kilometers in length, gradually 
drying up. Around this lake are certain structures. The 
surface of the water having sunk two feet, a space one kilo- 
meter in diameter is dried up at one end. A structure is now 
raised near the present water level. The lake sinks again two 
feet, and in one thousand years the last structure is a kilo- 
meter from the shore. But the lake-basin is narrow ; and of 
the older structures, situated two feet higher, it would only be 
the most distant which would furnish a correct result in cal- 
culating its age — all others would yield a false date, as they 
lie 800, 600, or perhaps only 100 meters in a horizontal dis- 
tance from the recent structures. Gilli^ron would thus obtain 
a different result were he to found his calculation upon the 
nearer Neufch&tel lake, and Troyon would, for a pile-work on 
the southern bank of Ghamblon, instead of the northern, have 



LSCTUBI ZII. 367 

obtained a result which wonld haye thrown the age of this 
second pile-work &r beyond the time of the Biblical Adam. 

The only tnistworthj basis for compntAtion, is the vertical 
mereMB of the peai in iJie districts where pile- works are buried 
in the peat. For this we have at present unfortunately no 
starting points ; my inquiries on this point of many naturalists 
have not yielded any important fact in this respect. 

I cannotj however^ leave this subject without presenting yon 
with a short summary of the absurdities in which man becomes 
entangled when he attempts to force the facts furnished by 
nature into the narrow frame of the Jewish family chronicle. 
I take the book of Troyon {Les HdbUaiione Lcteuetrea), and 
summarise thus. After the deluge^ the peoples of Asia com- 
mence their march to populate the whole earth. No doubt, 
the art of building upon the water was first inyented in the 
dry highlands of Asia. The first settlers, the post-diluvial 
squatters, sprung from the blood of Japhet, naturally march 
along river-valleys and the coasts. They bring with them large 
herds of domesticated animals. The travellers on the coast 
are frequently stopped by the mouths of the rivers ; the tra- 
vellers in the valleys are delayed by marshes or rocks. The 
land must be explored, and the domesticated animals must be 
protected from the wild beasts.'*' They therefore made them- 
selves rafts for protection.t Such a raft having been built, 
it is not readily abandoned, as it forms a refuge for the old and 
young. They have, therefore, rafts which are fixed when they 
have a stoppage. '' From rafts,'' says Saint Troyon, " to ship- 
building is certainly a wide leap ; but the old tradition of the 
deluge, and the ark of Noah which floated upon the waters, had 
been preserved, and this tradition gave hints as to the fasten- 
ing of the trunks requisite for constructing a raft. If a fSunily 
abandoned a migratory life, the raft acquired the character of 
a permanent habitation. But where the waves proved too 
strong, the people naturally hit upon the idea of changing the 

* That theM wild beasts, which also csme from the srk cf Koeh, should 
have spread more xKpidly than priTileffed msn, ii&d should hare thfestened 
him in his lestinff ptsoes» I osimot weu imderstaad.— C. V. 

t How could these imfts protect them from the ice-beers sad phocB, which 
oze'ezceUent swimmers, sad were also in the tak of Koah.— C. v. 



868 LXCTUBB XII. 

raft into a platform raised on piles above the water, so that 
the billows oonld not reach it, and this is the origin of the 
pile-works," 

Thos the squatters travel leisurely from east to west, from 
Asia to Europe, along the coasts and up the rivers. It is, 
however, thinks Troyon, diflScult to say whether the first inha- 
bitants of Switzerland ascended the Bhone or passed over the 
Rhine. We much fear that this question will remain unsolved, 
but we should like to know how these clumsy rafts could have 
ascended a river, which feat, between Seyssel and Geneva, 
cannot be effected by steamers. But as faith removes moun- 
tains, rafts can no doubt ascend the Rhone. 

There is another hard nut for Bible believers to crack, 
namely the knowledge of metals. The stone people of Europe 
knew of no metal. But Tubalcain, the Biblical Yulcan, was 
an artificer in brass and iron before the Mosaic deluge, and 
as, according to the sage remark of Troyon, man must acquire 
by labour all that is requisite for his comfort, he cannot have 
commenced with being a blacksmith. ''But," continues M. 
Troyon, ''we need only imagine these first migrations towards 
the West, to comprehend how a people can lose the knowledge 
of metals. There is no doubt that these families, at their 
departure from Asia, possessed metallic instruments, but their 
nomadic life did not permit them to work mines, to establish 
forges, or to acquire the social organisation requisite for dif- 
ferent handicrafts. The further these families penetrated into 
unknown regions, the ways behind them were cut off, and 
they were no longer able to communicate with the centres of 
Oriental civilisation." Thus the poor people necessarily forgot 
the working of metal and had recourse to stones. 

At a later period came the Bronze people, also fit>m Asia, 
and killed their unfortunate predecessors, burnt their huts, 
and established themselves, worshipping the moon. There 
were discovered some pieces of day or stone in the form of a 
crescent belonging to the Bronze period ; these, it was said, 
indicated moon worship. * These things were perhaps only 
head-pillows, for many people even now use a crescent-shaped 
block of wood or stone for a pillow. 



LBGTX7B1 zn. 369 

But the Bronse people* were also punished for iheir forget- 
ftdness. Tabal-Cain was an artifioer in brass and iron, and 
the Hebrew word ''Baraal'' in Genesis means iron, and no 
other metal. Thus Noah's brother, and the whole family of 
Noah, were acquainted with brass (bronze) and iron. The 
Stone people forgot daring their mig^tions both metals, and 
nsed horn and stone. They kept their nephrite hatchets, but 
threw away their bronze knives and iron hatchets, and forgot 
their use. The Bronze people kept their bronze knives, but 
cast away the iron tools and forgot their nse. That was a 
g^reat misfortune ; for, after having long dwelt in the habita- 
tions of their forgetful Stone brothers, the vengeance of God 
came over them, for the bigheaded Helvetians, also from Asia, 
came over them, slew them, and burnt them out. 

Bcmda nmpUcUas I 



* It is Msroelj naoenuy to mniiid the reader that 
peoDle» etone eknlle, are mere abbrerietiooe te peoplee and ekvllsl 
to the IttoiiM or stone period-^Eniroa. 



BB 



870 



LECTURE XIII. 

DiatinctiTe Characters of the CaTem- and Stone-Period. SkoDa of Den- 
mark.— Arohing of the Forehead.— ApoeUe-SlrollB of Switserland, and 
their Age.— The Jaw of Moulin-Qoignon.— Sknlliof Lombrive compared 
with those of the present Basqnes.- Daniah Stone-Sknlls compared with 
the present Lapps. — Skull of Meilen. — ^Relation to the present Swiss 
Sknlls.- Bomanic Short-Heads.— Belation to the Etruscans.- The Oldest 
Domestic Animals.— The Dog.— Swine.— Wild Hog, and Marsh-Hog.— 
Homed Cattle : Urns, Wisent, long-fronted, and corred-homed Cattle.— 
The Sheep.— The Goat.— The Horse.— Coltiyated Plants. 

OsNTLBMEN, — ^We Considered in a preceding Lecture the 
conditions under wliich the prunitire man existed in Europe. 
In arriving at the conclusion that he co-existed with the 
extinct animals of the so-called diluvial period^ reaching far 
beyond any historical data, we, at the same time, obtained 
the result, at least as regards the oldest skulls, that such 
cranial formations as those of Engis and the Neanderthal, are 
at present no longer met with in European races. A cursory 
comparison of later skulls of the South of France, and of the 
sepcdchres of the stone period of Denmark, equally showed 
that those parts must have been inhabited by other races, 
whose cranial formation differs so much from those first men- 
tioned, that a descent in the direct line is hardly conceivable. 
We intend to-day to pursue this inquiry, and endeavour to 
trace the connection of these various phenomena, aided by an 
examination of domestic animals and tiieir development. 

I hilve already observed that the distinguishing character of 
the two cave-skulls lies in the extraordinary length of the 
whole skull, in the comparatively small width which falls 
behind the region of the parietal prominences, and in the 
peculiarly attached occiput, which in one of these skulls, 
viewed from above, presents almost a straight line of the 
lambdoidal suture, whilst, in the other, this h'ne presents the 



uBCTUBi xni. 



871 



usual triangular form. A minute examination of the two 

skulls led me to conclude that they belong to the same race^ 

Fig. 109. Neander-Sknllf top yiew. 




Fig. 110. EngiB Sknll, top yiew. 




bb2 



872 LiCTUBi xm. 

thotigli the development of the snpradliaiy ridges^ and the 
arching of l^e cranial roof^ seemed to present at the first 
glance great differences. 

With regard to the formation of the snpraciliary ridges, the 
prominence of which, thoagh not always, yet in this case de- 
pends on the dimensions of the fix>ntal sinuses ; there is no 
doabt that they are also nsually connected with l^e greater 
deyelopment of the crests, ridges, and mnscolar force in general, 
and are thus an attribute of the male sex. Professor Schaaff- 
hausen cites numerous examples which prove that this connec- 
tion exists both in aniTnals and man. It will be found in 
living persons that the imperceptible transition of the forehead 
into the supraorbital margins is chiefly seen in women, whilst 
the projecting eyebrows, frequently separated from the fore- 
head by a deep groove, is peculiar to muscular males. The 
same observations may be made on old skulls in which the 

Fig. 111. Skull of Boxreby^ Denmark (Stone-Period), side yiew, after Bnak. 




development of the supraorbital prominences greatly differs, 
though all other characters are perfectly identical. Thus, 
Professor His, of Basle, communicates to me the interesting 



LBCTUBi xin. 878 

case of two old skulls found in a Waadtland (Yand) graye, wUch^ 
as may be inferred from the surronnding bones, belonged the one 
to a male, the other to a female ; the male skull had remarkably 
prominent supraciliaiy arches, whilst in the female skull the 
forehead was quite smooth without prominent ridges. 

Mr. Busk has kindly sent me a list of the measurements of 
twenty Danish skuUs of the stone-period, with many other 
perfectly exact drawings. Proceeding on the principle that 
the female skull is smaller than the male skulls, I discarded 
from the list as female skulls all such as exhibited the smallest 
longitudinal diameter. I now compared the figures, and 
found that l^ose which I had put aside as female skulls had 
smooth foreheads, whilst the male skulls possessed prominent 
supraorbital ridges, some of them to such an extent, that 
l^ey might be placed side by side with the Neander skull, 
whilst the skull marked by Busk as a female skull presented 
no trace of any protuberance, and in the flattening of the 
supraciliary arches exceeds even the Engis skull. It is, more- 
ever, known that in monkeys, which are distinguished by the 
size of the supraciliary ardie^, l^e latter are only developed 
with advancing age, which is also the case in man. As 
now the female skull always preserves a certain amount of 
the characters of the child, so that the male skull, about 
puberty, scarcely differs from the adult female skull, this cir- 
cumstance is equally in favour of my view, according to which 
the development of the supraciliary arches ought not to be 
considered as a race, — ^but as an individual and sexual cha- 
racter. I must, however, qualify this assertion so far, that I do 
not mean to insist that such an enormous projection of the 
supraciliary arches as those in the Neander skull can occur in 
all races. But wherever there exists in any race a tendency to 
such a projection, it will only be met with in males, and per- 
haps exceptionally in some masculine women, with a strongly 
developed muscular system, but not in typical women. 

The second essential difference between the Engis and the 
Neander skull consists in the arching of the forehead and the 
roof of the cranium. The Neander skull is so flat, that it 
might belong to an idiot; the Engis skuU, on the contrary. 



874 



LSGTT7BB XIII. 



thougli it presents a low, narrow, and but little capacions fore- 
head, might still, according to Hnxlej^s opinion, have belonged 
to a naturalist. Bat on carefully examining the general out- 
line which both skulls show as regards the curvature, we find 
that it agrees to a considerable extent. 

Fig. 112. Neander-SknlL 




Fig. 118. Engis Skull. 




This line ascends gently and uniformly from the frontal pro- 
minence to the vertex, which lies further back, nearly above 
the mastoid process. From this vertical spot the curve de- 
scends backwards in the same oblique line. The mode of 
formation is exactly Ihe same in both, though the height of 
the arch is much greater in the Engis skull. But these pecu- 
liarities find their analogues when we compare larger series of 
skulls of both sexes belonging to the same race. 



LSCTUBX xm. 375 

Professor Hnxley has very justly drawn attention to the 
fact^ that the arching of the forehead and the skull greatly 
varies in Australians, and it does not appear to me by any 
means improbable that in the lower races, where the long and 
flat skull of the adult must be developed out of the roundish and 
arched skull of the child, the female has a skull higher arched 
though narrower than that of the male. The drawings of 
Busk lead to the same result ; all the male skulls without ex- 
ception stand, as regards the arching of the forehead and the 
skull, far behind the female skulls which come from the same 
locality and belong to the race of the stone period. 

Fig. 114. Skull of an Austral-Negro, after Lucae, side view. 




It has been generally asserted that among the present Eu- 
ropean, cranial forms, l^ere was not one which any way ap- 
proached that of the above cave skulls ; and, in point of fact, 
the Dutch only show a distant approximation, inasmuch as they 
possess the longest skulls in Europe. I was, therefore, not a 
little surprised to find, in the Anatomical Museum of Berne, the 
roof of a cranium, ticketed as having been found near Biel, 
which Professor Valentin placed at my disposal, and which, on 
examination, might be pronounced the twin brother of the 
Neander skull 1 The projecting supraciliary ridge, the de- 
pression in the forehead, the flat ascending arch of the 



376 LXCTUBX zm. 

cranitun^ the backward vertex^ with its steep dedivity towards 
the neck, were all present ; the length was nearly the same^ 
the width less, so that this craninm is the smallest known to 

Fig. 116. Skull in the MoBemn of Bern* top yiew. 




me. Viewed from aboye^ the form is the same, though the 
bones of the Bernese sknll are all smailler and thinner. The 
anterior frontal prominence is transversely cat off, and the 
occiput projects in sacb a manner that we have the figure of a 
drawn-out pentagon with a posterior rounded apex. It was 
evident that I had before me the roof of a cranium which 
belonged to the same race-type, and as regards form and size, 
was intermediate between the Engis and Neander skull. 

You may easily imagine that this circumstance puzzled me 
not a little, and that I spared no trouble to discover some 
particulars as to the finding of this skull, which has been for 
more than thirty years in the collection of the museum. My 
endeavours were fruitless. The Bernese skull remained a 
riddle as regards the place of its discovery. The old ticket put 
upon it, probably by Albrecht Meckel, pointed out its resem- 
blance to the skull of a Dutchman bom at Leyden, and deli- 
neated by Blumenbach. 



LBCTUBB xni. 877 

On comparing the drawings of many sktills from old graves 
and pile-works of Switzerland made by Prof. His, we both 
were stmck with the resemblance of some of these long skulls 
to my Bernese skull. 

Fig. 116. Long-SkuU of Holiberg, near Solotlram, after a drawing by Hib. 




One of these skulls was in Basle ; another had been dug out 
by Hugi, twenty years ago, in Hohberg, about three miles 
£rom Solothtun ; a third belonged to the collection of Colonel 
Sdiwab in Biel, and was found in a pile-work on the lake. 

We had now some starting points for further inquiries. A 
joumey to Biel and Solothum furnished us with further par- 
ticulars, and gave us at the same time an opportunity of 
examining about two dozen old skulls, which Dr. Schild had 
dug out at Grenchen, and presented by him to the museum 
of Solothum, the director of which, ProF. Lang, had the kind- 
ness to place them at my disposal. Even among these Swiss 
skulls of Qrenchen, there were, by the side of broad Swiss 
skulls of the present type, two narrow skulls which I studied. 

The archaeological question was soon solved by M. Amiet, 
the learned town derk of Solothum. The g^ves opened by 
Hugi, in the Hohberg, contained large ear-rings and bracdets 
of bronze, strings of amber beads, and light blue opaque glass 
pearls, iron swords, one with a silver ring and an old inscrip- 
tion signifying, according to Professor Mommsen of Ziirich, 



378 LBCTURS xin. 

Benattis. These g^vea belongs according toAmiet^ from 
tlieir contents^ undoubtedly to the end of the Boman period^ 
that is to say, to the end of the fourth or beginning of the 
fifbh century, about which time Christianity was introduced in 
Switzerland. 

A similar ring was found in the graves of Grenchen, which 
thus belong to the same period. 

The skull of Schwab's collection came from a pile-work in 
the vicinily of the effluence of the Scheuss, from the lake 
of Bienne, which hitherto has only furnished Roman antiquities. 

All the narrow skulls of this kind known to me, where 
the spots where they were found had been well examined, 
thus belong to the same period, — ^the period of the decline of 
the Roman empire and the introduction of Christianity in 
Switzerland. They are in small proportions mixed with other 
skulls which, as comparative examination teaches, have pre- 
served their type from a comparatively recent period down to 
the present day. We are thus permitted to suppose tiiat these 
narrow skulls which approach the simian type must have 
belonged to immigrants, who arrived only in small numbers, 
and whose iype was not propagated but soon disappeared. 
But we can trace no other immigration at that period than 
that of Christian missionaries who, according to tradition, came 
principally from Ireland. It is not so very improbable that 
the new religion, before which the flourishing Roman civilisa- 
tion relapsed into a state of barbarism, should have been intro- 
duced by people in whose skulls the anatomist finds simious 
characters so well developed, and in which the phrenologist 
finds the organ of veneration so much enlarged. I shall, in 
the meanwhile, call these simious narrow skulls of Switzerland 
" Apostle skulls,'' as I imagine that in life they must have 
resembled the type of Peter the Apostie, as represented in 
Byzantine-Nazarene art. 

The jaw of Abbeville, the characters of which we have already 
described, can in nowise serve for the determination of race 
characters. The wide open angle formed by its rami, may 
perhaps indicate prognathism, just as the Engis and Neander 
skulls probably belonged to a prognathous race, but no certain 



LSCTURS xm. 379 

inference can be drawn. I Irave ihree of the abovementioned 
" Apostle sknlls/' fonnd in three different places, before me, 
whose facial bones are so far preserved that the profile is per- 
fectly recognisable. The arcldng of the forehead is in the sknlls 
of Biel, Hohberg, and Grenchen considerably greater, and the 
forehead fuller and more prominent than in the old cave skulls. 
The insertion of the nose presents a peculiar character,. as even 
in such skulls as have no frontal prominences there is a deep 
depression in which the nose is almost horizontally inserted. 
The front teeth are certainly rather oblique, but not so much 
as to be considered Iei special deviation fit)m the type of 
European skulls. 

. On-comparing these skulls with those of the cave of Lqm- 
brive, we find l^e greatest possible difference. 

Fig. 117. Skull from the Caye of LombriTe, side view. 




The two skulls sent me by Dr. Gturrigou are well preserved, 
partly covered with tufa. The bones of the skulls are re- 
markably light, dry to the touch, porous, and adhere to the 
tongue. The smdler skull belongs to a child of about nine 
years, just on the point of changing the canine and the first 
molar tooth. The large skull has such graceful outlines, that 
it probably belonged to a woman. The teeth show that this 
ancient people suffered as much from toothache as the present 
generation. Two of the molars were carious, a third had 



LSOTURi xm. 

fallen oat^ and the socket filled up. The teeth were worn down 
in the same manner as observed in mummies and other ancient 
peoples^ very much so for an indicated age of abont thirty years. 
In my opinion^ this prematare decay is probably connected with 
the nse of that coarse bread, which contains a large quantity 
of stony particles, and which was partaken of by most ancient 
peoples. The black bread of the Westphalians (pumpernickel) 
and the flat cakes of the Norwegians seem both the offspring 
of the bakings of antiquity, the remains of which are found in 
the Swiss pile-works. 

The shape of the crania of Lombrive is on the whole a noble 
one. The forehead is high, arched, and slides into the nose 
with a scarcely perceptible projection of the supradliary arches. 
The crown of the head is nearly above the auditory aperture. 

Fig. 118. SkoU of Caye of Lombiiye, top view. 




The occiput is somewhat protruding. The temporal foasas 
are deep in the anterior part, but rather flattened in the poste- 
rior region, whilst the temporsJ Une extends further upwards. 
The facial portion of the skull is very smaill, the front teeth 
scarcely diverge outwards, so little, indeed, that most Gbrman 
female skulls would show a more oblique direction. Viewed 
from above (fig. 118),. the skull appears short, oviform, with 
broad zygomatic arches, and a considerable transverse diameter. 



LBCTUBX xin. 881 

whioli passes in front of the parietal protaberanoesj and about 
the centre of the longitudinal diameter. In point of fact^ the 
proportion of the greatest length to the greatest width in the 
adult skull is 100 : 77 ; but in the young skull as 100 : 82-6— a 
proportion which need not surprise us^ as the young skuU is 
much rounder than the adult skull. The adult skull thus pre- 
sents proportions as in Jewish and Gipsy skulls^ which^ accord- 
ing to Welcker^ are equal in this respect. 

On viewing the skuU in fronts the orbits seem very deep^ and 
the roof so arched that the superior orbital margin presents a 
sharp edge. The orbits are at the same time wide and almost 
square^ the nasal cavity is narrow and high^ the forehead pro- 
minent in the centre^ but sloping rather abruptly on the sides^ 
so that the vertex has almost the form of a rounded house- 
roof. Viewed from behind^ the skull appears pentagonal, the 
mastoid processes forming the inferior, the parietal promi* 
nences the superior angles, and the sagittal suture a sharp 
edge. 

In the absence of a large collection, it was impossible for me 
to determine which type these crania most approach. They 
are, at all events, of such a character that they need not be 
ashamed to appear amongst those of other Caucasian peoples. 
In Dr. Broca's opinion, which is, however, founded more on 
first impression than on minute examination, these skulls 
resemble most the present Basques, who still inhabit the 
country in which the cave is situated. But these Basques are 
just the most remarkable people — ^islands, if we may use that 
term — which exist on the earth, differing in every respect from 
all the surrounding peoples. They possess a language, the 
analogue of which has only been met with in America. The 
Basques are as yet an unsolved problem ; they cannot possibly 
have come from Asia.* 

* Sinoe the time Brooa fivFonxed me with this oommimioatioii« he hM 
ayafled himeelf of the rare cpportonitj of examining dxfy undoubted Baeotie 
■knUs, whidh were, under hu own dirootion, dug oat from the ohvrohjua of 
a SpwDiah viUage. This examination, we may say, is a model of an ex- 
haustiTe treatise. 

Not content with the nsoal diTislon into shorty middle^ and long heads, 
BrooaintenKwes two other oategories, whioh we shaU term semi-long and 
semi-short needs. Aooording to this diTislon* the pare long-heads measure 



382 LXCTUBX xni. 

This resemblance^ if it should be confirmed^ would at any 
rate farnish ns with some cine relative to the age of this 
Basque stocky which^ with its physical constitution, its lan- 

at most 76 ; the head measure of the aemiAoDg is oompxised betvreen 75 and 
77*77, i. 6. between six-eiffhths and seFen-ninths; the middle-heads from 
77'77, i. e. from seren-nintns to eight-tenths; t^e semi-short heads, between 
80 and 88 ; and finally, the genoine short-heads oomprise all measoiements 
ezceedinff 83. Aooorainff to this diyision there wonld be, among the sixty 
Basque sxoUs, nine pmre long-heads, twenty semi-longheads, nineteen middle 
heads, twelye semi-ehortheMS, but not one gennine shorthead^ so that the 
mean lies in the semi-longheads ; and the Basqaes possess a proportionally 
longer skuU than the present Parisiaiis, whilst the oraaial oapaoity is also 
greater, — a &at whioh cannot altogether be oonneoted with the derelopment 
of intelligence, but is probably the result of racial difference. 

Eyeryone is, of course, at liberty to fix the limits of the various propor- 
tions in head measurements according to his pleaaure ; still it is to be re- 
gretted that no agreement exists as to the signification of the rarious tenns. 
In &ct it has come to this, that any person who uses the terms short, middle, 
and longheads, must be asked in what sense, and according to what author, 
he wishes these terms to be understood. 

Broca, however, advances a step further, and from his measurements, the 
terminal points of which can be determined with great exactness, he, with 
Gratiolet, arrives at the condusion that two types ot dolichocephaly must be 
distinguished: the frontal dolichocephalic, to which belong the Gtennan 
races, and the oodpital dolichocephalio, comprising the Afincan and Oceanic 
Negroes. In other words, in the former, it is the firontal region, and espe- 
daUy the frontal bone ; in the latter, it is the occipital region* which is espe- 
cially lengthened; and in this way conditions the predominance of the lon- 
gitudinal diameter. 

In order to give these proportions a definite term of measurement, Broca 
connects the auditoij apertures by a line which passes over the posterior 
point of the frontal bone ; or, in other words, he araws upon the skull the 
diagonal circumference of Virchow (see page 62), which has the same di- 
rection. This diagonal circumference represents a section which divides 
the fore from the back skull, which can thus be compared. Broca now finds 
that althouffh tiie Basque skulls are lander, wider, and higher, than the 
Parisians, sull the so-parted off forednill is less developed in the Basques 
than in the Parisians, so much that even in circumference it is absolute]^ 
smaller by six millimetres. From other measurements Broca comes to the 
conclusion that the dolichocephaJy of the Basques rests mainly upon the 
disproportionate development of the posterior cerebral lobe. 

"In proving,'' continues Broca, "that the Basques present the chaxactem 
of occipital doHohocephaly, I have, in my opinion, also proved that between 
them and the Indo-Oermanic longheads there obtains a great difference. 
As among the European races I found no points for comparison, and being 
reminded that this kind of dolichocephaly Delonxps essentially to the Ameri- 
can race, I studied, by comparison, the cranial forms of the Basques, the 
Parisians, and the Negroes." 

From these compansons, into the particulars of which we cannot enter, 
Broca finally concludes : — "The Basques much approach the African long- 
heads; they much resemble the Negroes by the mm of the cerebral skuS, 
which in this respect deviates but little from the orthognathous African races. 

" I must, however, add that the Basques differ from all African races, even 
the whitest and most orthoffnathous, oy the Hmallness of their upper jaw, 
the sUght development of the cerebeUiEur protuberance, and the relative 
ehrinking of the occipital protuberance. These characters equaUy distin- 
guish the Basques from the European races. 



LBCTIJSB XUI. 383 

gaage foreign to the Indo-Gennanic stock, its cnstoxns and 
manners, has been preserved in that comer of the globe whidi 
it still inhabits. We are ahnost tempted to ask whether, 
instead of that supposed emigration from Asia and Europe to 
America, we might not ratiber assume an emigration from 
America to the Bay of Biscay, perhaps by way of the connect- 
ing land between Florida and our own continent, which is now 
submerged in the sea, but which, according to all probability. 

Fig. 119. SknU of Borreby, side view. 




was at least in the middle tertiary (miocene) period still above 
water. 

For my own part, I have arrived at the conclusion that the 

" I oondlude, henoe, that in tearohinff for the origin of the Basques oat of 
the Baeque oonntiy, their anoestora win be found neither among the Celts, 
nor the rest of the Indo-European nations, but that our inyestigations mnst 
be directed towards Northern AMoa. Europe was at a remote period, no 
doabt, oonneoted with AMoa ; we need, therafore, not feel surprised to find 
affinitifts between the primitire inhabitants of both parts of i£» world, even 
if it were not known that manr migrations had, m ancient times, taken 
place across the Straits of Gibraltar.'^ 

I would add' to this last hypothesis, that the former connexion of the 
POlars of Hercules is renderea probable by many fiMts, amonff which I may 
mention the existence of wild monkeys of the same species as wose which in- 
habit, side by side with the Biff pirates, the opposite coast. 



884 LiCTUBB zni. 

skuILs of Lombrive belong to a race differing entirely firom 
Belgo-EheniBh cave-BknllB. All the characters are so opposed^ 
that a descent of the Lombrive skulls from those of Engis, 
or any affinity between them^ is inadmissible. We do not 
deny that a long period had elapsed between the time in 
which the man of Engis and the Neanderthal fought with the 
cave-bear^ to that epoch when the man of Lombrive hunted 
the reindeer, But^ on the other hand^ it can scarcely be 
assumed^ that considering these generations of men to have 
lived in the same conditions, such a period of time should have 
sufficed to produce such a radically different race. 

Passing from these skulls to those of the Stone period of 
Denmark, which appear to me to belong to a later age^ I find 
again a thorough difference in the genersd characters. 

As already stated, Mr. Busk, a distinguished naturalist of 
London, kindly famished me with an elaborate table of mea- 
surements of twenty skulls, half of this number having been 
found at Borreby, and the rest in six different places. Seven 
skulls of Borreby were represented by masterly drawings in 
the most various aspects, so that I am, as regards the mate- 
rials, as well provided as is possible in the absence of the 
originals. The heads are, on the whole, not too small, 
for their greatest longitudinal diameters vary between 6*58 
and 7, 8 English inches, consequentiy about 171 to 195 
millimeters, and at all events the length and breadth of these 
heads exceed those of the Lapps with which they have been 
compared. Setting aside those whose longitudinal diameter 
seems to indicate youth or the female sex (there are six such 
skulls), we have a series of fourteen adult skulls, the length of 
which osdllates between 7*2 : 7*8, that is about six-tenths 
English inches, or fifteen millimeters^ namely from 180 to 195.^ 
This certainly is an important agreement, which, like the 
forms of the heads in general, leads to the conclusion that there 
was a great uniformity in this old stock. 

On examining the proportion of length to the width, we 
find that the oscillation is greater, taking the length at 100, it 
is 71 '8 to 85*7 ; that is nearly 14 per cent. But, again, setting 
aside the skulls of the young and the females, of which tiie 



LBCTUBX ZUI. 385 

latter occupy the intermediate place and the children possess- 
ing the roundest heads the extreme of the series, we obtain 
the striking result that seven Borreby skulls have a remark- 
Fig. 120. Borreby Skull, top view. 




able agreement, and represent the widest heads, their measure- 
ment being from 80*2 to 82*6, whilst all other skulls found 
elsewhere measure less, and some even are decided narrow 
heads. Whether the archsBological designation is here in 
fault, or whether there existed a geographically different stock, 
cannot be decided from the facts at hand. It is very possible 
that even at that period there existed in some districts of 
Denmark a mixture of narrow heads and short heads, as at 
Meudon, where in an old sepulchre under a dolmen both types 
were found well represented. 

Be this as it may, the skulls of Borreby, which we take as the 
special types of tiie Danish skulls of the Stone Period, appear 
decidedly brachycephalic. Their mean measurement amounts to 
81*8, and occupies in Welcker's table an intermediate place be- 
tween the Germans, Russians, and Turks. The skull is generally 
well rounded, the forehead rather flat, but not badly developed ; 

00 



886 LBCTURB xin. 

BtiU there are just in this respect considerable differences. The 
snpraciliary ridges are very prominent in the males^ and the 
depression between them and the nose is very deep, as is the 
groove above the ridges, whilst in the females the forehead 
seems to slide without any perceptible depression into the 
rather projecting pug-nose. The greatest elevation of the skull 
is almost perpendicularly above the external meixtua <mdUoriu$, 
and viewed in profile the skuU is in its posterior part uniformly 
arched. In but few skulls can there be detected a tendency 
to prognathism ; in most of them the front teeth are perpen- 
dicular. Viewed from above, the skulls appear broadly elliptic, 
the anterior portion being nearly as rounded as the posterior. 
The gpreatest width is in the posterior third, about the region 
of the parietal prominences. The zygomatic arches are short, 
but curved outwardly. Viewed in front, the forehead appears 
low but uniformly arched ; viewed at the back, the angles of 
the pentagon seem rounded so as to fonn a circular line. In 
fact, no further particulars are requisite to establish that these 
skulls also present a particular type, that they nowise agree 
either with the skulls of Lombrive or with those of Engis and 
the Neanderthal, but that they belong to a separate race, which 
inhabited Denmark at the remotest period. 

The cranial fragment oif Meilen, in the Canton of Zurich, is 
the only humailn relic from the Swiss stone period possessing 
any important relation to the determination of race. It is un- 
fortunately so imperfect that it affords no certain index as 
regards the shape of the skull; still it affords some due to 
certain proportions. His, of Basle, describes this fragment as 
follows : The forehead appears moderately high, finely arched ; 
the snpraciliary arch is greatly developed; the semicircular 
line around the temporsd fossa is but faintly marked. The 
occiput is roundish, but unsynmietrical ; of the spine and the 
ridge of the occipital bone there are only the vestiges ; the 
superior semicircular line is hardly recognisable ; downwards 
it appears as a faint osseous ridge. These conditions do not 
seem to indicate that the skull belonged to a muscular 
individual. 

The Meilen skull belonged, in fact, to a child apparently 



LxcTUBi xni. 887 

fourteen to sixteen years old. " On aoconnt of tlie apparent 
obliteration^'^ writes His^ '' of a portion of the sagittal sntare^ I 
was still doubtfnl^ but now I baye found that by moistening 
the skull this obliteration is^ indeed^ only so in appearanoe. I 

Fig. 181. SkaU of Meilen, in Ftofile, after HIb. 




lig. 128. Sknn of MeOen, top Tiew. 




haye at thesametimereceiyedfiromAltdorf the entire skull of a 
child of our Helyetian (or as we oall it) the lion-type^ which in 
the drawing and measu^ments exactly ooyers the Meilen 

cc2 



888 luctubb xnx. 

skull^ on the drawing of which also the ohild sknU^ from the 
bronze-station of Auyemier, now in possession of Desor, can 
be so placed that they perfectly correspond. 

'' On a close comparison witii the sknlls in the Basle collec- 
tion^ it becomes evident that the fragment before ns is allied 
to the cranial forms now prevalent in German Switzerland. 
Our collection possesses only the small number of eight normal 
Swiss skulls^ which have been obtained from the cantons Basle^ 
Beme^ Schaffhansen^ and Zurich, besides a skull from Biinden 
of a different shape. The eight Swiss skulls are all distin- 
guished by their comparatively great width and moderate 
length ; they appear, in general, considerably higher than our 
pile-work skulls ; still there are two skulls, of Schaffhausen 
and Zurich females, which in height do not exceed the height 
of the pile-works' skulls." 

Prof. His further justly observes, that neither the skuU of 
Meilen nor the Swiss skulls present the decided characters of 
dolichocephaly or brachycephaly, but are more allied to the 
brachycephalic shape by the great width of the occiput. In 
the Meilen skull the proportion of length to width is 100 : 83*2, 
by which this cranium, as the Swiss crania in general, ap- 
proaches the crania of the Lapps, in whom, according to 
Welcker's table, the proportion is 100 : 84, and who are now 
generally considered brachycephali. The same type of pro- 
portionally large and wide heads with prominent supraciliary 
arches, square forehead, broad and projecting parietal promi- 
nences, and projecting occiput, has been at all times the domi- 
nant form of all Swiss skulls. Undoubted crania tram pile- 
works which contained only bronze objects, specially a young 
cranium found in Corcelettes, now in possession of my friend 
Desor, in Neufch&tel, possess the same characters as the skulls 
found in more recent graves. 

The skull taken from a Roman grave near GFeneva, belongs, 
as I have since convinced myself by comparison, undoubtedly to 
that type ; it is consequently a Swiss skull of the Roman period. 
Among thirteen skulls of Ghrenchen, from which I excluded 
four children — and female skulls, besides two decidedly narrow 
skulls, the remainder gave the mean proportion of 88*8, and* 



LISCTUBK XIII. 889 

thus belonged to tlie same type. Professor His is of the same 
opinion. " We thus possess^'' he observes, " in the pile-works 

Fig. 128. Ftofile of a Helyetian SkoIL from a Boman grare near Geneva. 




.Fig. 124. The same Helyetian SknU viewed from above. 




of the stone, bronze, and iron periods bat one type, the Hel- 
vetian, which has been transmitted to the present period,* so 



890 UBCTT7BB XIII. 

that Troyon's theory of the sacoessioii of different pile-peoples 
becomes very doubtful. There remaixi only the children's skulls 
of Plan d'Essert and a fragment of an old skull of Wallis^ both 
in possession of Troyon^ which certainly do not belong to the 
Helvetian type^ but to our square so-called Dissentis type^ and 
which according to Troyon belongs to the bronze period. 

Further researches will show whether the Swiss skull really 
has a tendency to an open frontal suture persisting in advanced 
age. Several skulls of Grenchen present this peculiarily^ 
which is also shown in a skull sent me by Colonel Schwab^ 

Fig. 125. Badk view of the Helvetiaa Skull of Geneva. 
WeU developed 0$ Incm. 




which was^ according to the assertion of Ihe workmen, found 
in Ihe vicinity of Biel in a railway cutting, at a depth of 
eighteen feet in the sand, but which perhaps had rolled down. 
I may here state that this persistence of the frontal suture is, 
according to Ghbstaldi, found in many old skulls dug out near 
Modena. 

There seems also in these Swiss skulls to exist a tendency to 
the separation of the lambdoid suture. The skull from the 
vicinity of Geneva has that isolated piece of bone at the point 
of this suture, which was formerly considered as peculiar to 
Peruvian skulls, and hence called the bone of the Inca {Oa 
Infice). I saw the same thing in some other skulls of Biel 



LicTusB zin. 391 

and Grenchenj ako large Wormian bones in the lateral wings 
of this suture. 

When Professor His looks upon it as an important and 
interesting fact, that since the pile-work period, the cranial 
form has not in our oountiy essentially deviated from the 
origfinal type, it merely confirms my own obsenrations on 
ancient skulls. 

The Bheno*Belgian skulls find their cognates in the long 
and narrow heads of the Dutchmen who stiU inhabit the fiat 
lands. The skulls of Lombriye are allied to those of the mo- 
dem Basques, the stone skulls of Denmark are allied to those 
of the Lapps and Fins, who have been driven to the north. 
The stone skulls of Switzerland present the type dominant in 
that country at all periods. Even the existence of a short- 
headed race, of which the relics are found in some gpraves in 
Wallis and Waadtland, need not surprise us when we assume 
that this present Romanic type has, from the stone-period, been 
as prevalent in Eastern Switzerland as the Helvetian type in 
Central and Western Switzerland, and that across the St. 
Gothard and on the banks of the Lake of Geneva it gave the 
hand to the Helvetian type. Pruner-Bey, as stated in another 
note, thinks he has recognised this brachycephalic type on the 
Waadtland banks of the Lake of Geneva, which, according to 
him is also the type of the skull from the Tini^ cone ; and, if 
this view of Pruner-Bey is correct, which by the way cannot be 
quite inferred from his description, we obtain thereby an addi- 
tional proof in favoujr of the remarkableconstancy of cranial forms 
even in very limited localities. We thus find in the oldest pre- 
historic times evexy where vexy diversified races as distinct in 
form as Negros and Europeans are at present ; but nowhere do 
we find any proofs of migrations or radiations from a common 
centre over the habitable globe. Though the short-heads 
might be derived fix>m Asia, it would not apply to the narrow 
heads, which claim the highest antiquity, as no such heads 
are met with in Asia. Thus, the facts we adduce from the 
earliest periods, merely represent man as an original product 
of the soil he then inhabited and still inhabits. In every such 
old race there is presented a remarkable constanqr of form, the 



892 LXCTURB xni. 

fundamental type of which is not obliterated, though various 
intermixtures have taken place with later immigrants. 

The constancy of form extends even to apparently trifling 
circumstances. When Yon Baer, in his treatise on Bomanic 
skulls, says that the Alemannic stock had, generally, a wider 
and shorter skull than the Franconian or Hessian, it is perfectly 
correct ; but it should be added, that there obtain great dif- 
ferences even within- the Alemannic stock ; thus the Suabian 
skulls are much shorter and rounder than those of the neigh- 
bouring Swiss, which are so much distinguished by their 
angular form and greater length, that the skulls of the battle- 
chapel of Domach can be easily distinguished and separated 
accordingly. 

It would be a great mistake to believe that there occur in 
Switzerland no other types than those mentioned, and which 
are perhaps as old as the cranium of Meilen, or perhaps the 
remains of later, though still pre-historical immigrations. 
Baer has drawn attention to that remarkable brachycephalio 
form which occurs in the Ghrisons, and of which I here give 
some outlines of the skull of a very aged man, taken from a 

Fig. 126. Bomaiiio Head of the Qrisons in Profile. 




Geneva churchyard, now in possession of my colleague. Profes- 
sor Clarapardde. 



LiCTUBi zni. 393 

The greatest width of this skull lies immediately above the 
auditory apertores^ and is so coDsiderable that it almost eqnals 
the lengthy the difference being only a few millimeters. 

Ilg. 127. Bomaiiio Head of the GhriBOos, top Tiew. 




From the vertex^ situated in the centre of the sagittal suture, 
the occiput descends almost perpendicularly to the occipital 
spine. The line of the cranial yertebrao is comparatively very 
short ; the occipital foramen is, by the disproportionately short 
neck, placed very far back, so that the skull is not balanced 
upon the articulating surfaces. On viewing the skull from 
above, it presents a very broad oval, the apex of which is 
towards the forehead. Yon Baer has raised the question 
whether these remarkable short-heads, which are found in their 
purity in the higher mountains of the Grisons, may not owe 
their origin to the old Etruscans. Why, they differ as night 
from day ; the few old Etruscan skulls authenticated as such, 
and preserved in Italy, are decided narrow-heads. We have 
but few &ctB enabling us to give an opinion on the commixture 
of different types amongst the Etruscans. As in the Ghrisons, 
along with the skulls, the marsh sheep and the marsh hog 
{8u8 paluitris), both of which were domestic animals in the 



394 LSGTUBS ZIII. 

stone-periodj liave been preserved, it may reasonably be in- 
ferred, that ihe Romanic sknll-type bad originally existed in 
that district of the Alps, at the same time, and by the side of 
that entirely distinct people, which erected the pile-works on 
the lakes and marshy plains. 

Whilst these human races, we hare hitherto considered, have 
furnished ns with proofs that they had inhabited the same soil 
from pre-historic down to historical times, and when we find 
no traces of their having left their earlier habitations for adven- 
tarons migrations to Europe, we should expect something si- 
milar as regards domestic animals. As the domesticated animal 
is mora dependent on man than man on the animal, we are justi- 
fied in supposing that domestic animals are equally the pro- 
ducts of the soil which they inhabited together with man, 
and that the original domestic animals which man subjected 
should be the descendants of wild species then existing in that 
region. It will be necessary to consider such domestic 
animals so far as they throw light on this question. I 
cannot do better than give you the interestiiig results of 
the researches of Biitimeyer, and I shall frequently quote 
his own words. 

The oldest domestic animal now known was undoubtedly 
the dog, which is found both in the Danish kitchen-middens, 
and the Swiss pile-works. This oldest dog belongs, according to 
Biitimeyer, to a middle-sized race, of light elegant structure, 
with rounded cranium, large orbits, short-pointed snout, and 
moderately developed regular rows of teeth. This dog, which 
might be called the marsh-dog [Oania palustris) resembles in 
its size and slender limbs both the setter and the hound. The 
former as regards the transverse diameter of the skull, and the 
latter as regards the general outlines and the longitudinal dia- 
meter. This house-, or turf-dog, of the stone-age, must be 
considered as perfectly distinct a race from the wolf and 
the jackal, the pretended progenitors of the present domestic 
dog. As it is found both in Denmark and Switzerland, there 
can be no doubt it was a canine race peculiar to Europe, which 
man first subjected, and used it for the chace, and subsequently 
to guard his flocks. In support of this view, Biitimeyer men- 



T.ECTC7BK XTII. 895 

tiozia the drcomstaince tihat dog-bones are rarely fonnd broken 
for the sake of the marrow^ as is the case with all other bones of 
animals which served as food, and that most dog-sknlls belonged 
to old animalsj whence he infers that only in case of necessity 
were dogs eaten, and that they were iJlowed to live to an 
advanced age. In the metal period, there appear, both in 
Denmark and Switzerland, larger and stronger races of dog^, 
approaching the wolf-dog or the bnU-dog in their dentition, 
ratherthan the marsh-dog; and which certainly may have been 
imported. The constancy of the characters of the marsh-dog, 
the perfect conformation of its remains foond in various places, 
its specific difference from the wolf, fox, 'and jackal, support 
the assertion that the great variety of canine races is not the 
resnlt of the transformation of a single species, bnt of the 
intermiztore of many different, bnt nearly allied, species. 

BtLtimeyer distingoishes two well characterised races of the 
swine family of the stone-period. The proper wild hog {8us 
serofa), the propagation of which has been checked by civilisa- 
tion, but whidi then extended over all Europe, and the much 
smaller animal, the marsh- or turf-hog {Silb paluriria), which is 
distinguished by various other characters, so that it must be 
looked upon as a weU marked distinct species. The wild marsh- 
hog had probably a more limited sphere than the wild hog proper, 
for whilst the former has hitherto only been met with in Switzer- 
land, remains of the latter are frequently found in the Danish 
kitchen-middens. On the other hand, the Danish kitchen-mid- 
dens contain no traces of the domestication of the swine, or 
indeed, any other animal, excepting the turf-dog; nor have there 
in some of the oldest stations of Switzerland, as at Wangen 
and Mosseedorf, been found any bones of hogs bearing the 
character of domestication. In stations of a later period, the 
domesticated marsh-hog is met with, and though at first the 
bones of the domesticated hog are less numerous than those of 
the wfld boar, the proportion is soon changed, showing that in 
consequence of its great fecundity, which it shares with all 
Bwine species, the breeding of the marsh-hog soon became of 
essential importance to the pile-builders. Biitimeyer fiirther con- 
siders that as a wild animal, the marsh-hog had become extinct 



396 LSCTUBS XIII. 

before the historical period^ bat that it agrees m its characters 
BO much with the middle tertiary hog^ that this race may have 
descended from it. As the hogs from the cares and the alia- 
vial formations agree so greatly with the wild hog, the latter 
and better armed type, which appeared later, woold hare sap- 
planted the older and weaker race, had not man taken it onder 
his protection, and so preserved it to this day. There is even 
now bred in Graabimden, XJri, and WaUis a small, round- 
backed, short-legg^ race, with short erect ears, short thick 
snout, long bristles, and of aniformly black or reddish brown 
colour, the osseous and dental structure of which agrees with 
that of the marsh-hog. It is therefore highly probable that 
this race is descended from the extinct wild marsh-hog, and 
that by domestication it acquired a more sloping forehead, a 
shorter occiput, and less curved zygomatic arches. The Indian 
or the Siam hog, which in Asia is not found in a wild state^ 
but is a widely-spread domestic animal is said to approximate 
most nearly the tamed marsh-hog. Still the material for com- 
parison (a drawing of a skull by Daubenton) placed at the 
disposal of Biitimeyer, is so scanty that nothing certain can 
be inferred. The wild hog was undoubtedly the ancestor of 
most central-European large-eared domestic swine. During 
the stone-period it was in a wild state ; it is only in Concise, 
the Neufchfttel lake, where, as already stated, the civilisa- 
tion of the stone-age was at its acme, that relics of the domes- 
tication of the wild hog were found. '^ I must confess,^' says 
Rutimeyer, " that the scanty traces of the tamed wild hog, by 
the side of the abundant relics of the tamed marsh-hog, seem 
rather in favour of the introduction of a new race into Concise, 
than in favour of the domestication of the wild hog by the 
lake dwellers, the more so as at Concise traces of the cow 
belonging to the trochoceros race appear, which are absent in 
the earlier pile-works.^' 

Be this as it may, the domestication of the common wild 
hog, which inhabits Europe and the shores of the Mediterra- 
nean, is not derived from Asia, where other wild hog races 
exist, but originated in Europe — ^possibly, as we shall pre- 
sently see, in the regions of the Mediterranean. We have 
here a repetition of the phenomena in the canine race, namely. 



LiCTuu zm. 897 

ihat the present races are descended firom oripnslly distinct 
spedeSj which intermixed with each other and witii varioas 
foreign types. 

As regards horned-cattle, there occur in the pile-works of 
the stone period two wild species of gigantic size, the Urns (3o8 
primigeniusj and Wisent (Bison EuropamsJ, whilst the Urns 
only has hitherto been found in the Danish kitchenmiddens, 
and the different beds of France (Amiens, Anrignac) associated 
with the remains of man. The Urns was unquestionably a 
contemporaxy of the mammoth and of the rhinoceros with the 
bony septum, the teeth of it having been found with those of 
other species of elephants and rhinoceros (WUnoceros leptorhu 
nusj, in the slate coals of Dumten. In earlier pile-works, 
the bones of wild animals, such as those of deer, are much 
more abundant than those of cattle, but subsequently the 
latter preponderate, a proof that the settlers gradually turned 
from tiie chase to agriculture. According to Biitimeyer's re- 
searches, the Frisian race of oxen, which in size are not much 
behind their gigantic progenitors, are descendants fix>m the 
urns. It ahnost seems as if the domestication of the urus, 
which was hunted, according to the Nibelungen song, in the 
forests of Worms, was merely attempted in the stone period, 
but soon abandoned in fieiyour of other races. In the north, 
however, the breeding was continued down to recent times, 
and produced in marshy regions that race which even now 
exceed in size all other bovine races. 

The Bison, Aurochs or Wisent, has evidently a more limited 
sphere than the urns ; its relics have, as yet, not been found 
associated with those of the mammoth and the rhinoceros — ^it 
is only in the peat that they occur with those of the Irish elk. 
The Wisent has never been tamed, though it was in histo- 
rical times spread over central Europe, and is mentioned by 
the side of the XJrus in Siegfried's Chase (Nibelungen song). 
The Bison always was a chase animal ; it still exists in the forest 
of Bialowice in a single herd of about eight hundred animals, 
which, no doubt, has been much diminished during the present 
insurrection. 

"Under the name Bos Icngifrons" says Batimeyer, "Owen has 



398 LSCTUBi xin. 

described the relios of a small spedes of oxen which are fre- 
quently fonnd in postpliocene strata in England associated 
with the bones of the elephant and rhinoceros^ and in the peat 
bogs of Ireland with those of Irish elk (Megaceros HvbemicuBj, 
and in more recent formations with those of the common stag 
and Boman antiquities. Owen supposes it to be the original 
stock of the small short-homed and hornless cattle which are 
bred in the highlands of Scotland and Wales under the name 
of kyloes and runts, which in Owen's opinion^ constituted 
the tamed cattle of the Britons before the Boman invasion/' 
Owen had previously given to this species the better name of 
Bos hrachyceroBf whilst Biitimejer named it the marsh-cow. 
The small slender-footed specieSj which appeared earlier in 
England and Scandinavia, and was distinguished by its com- 
paratively short and thick horns, was by the oldest inhabitants 
of Wangen and Mosseedorf, during the stone period alone, 
domesticated along with the urus and some other races. The 
small uniformly coloured race of Switzerland, the so-called brown 
cattle, the breeding of which on account of the richness of the 
milk has reached the highest perfection in Schweitz, is no doubt 
descended from the above, and perhaps also that race now 
very common in Algiers and the north of Africa. 

In Concise and Ghevraux on the Neufchfttel lake were found 
remains of an ox, with flat, almost square forehead and nearly 
semicircular horns, the size of which is about one-third less 
than that of its wild progenitor, but in other respects it resem- 
bles that larg^ species from the diluvium of Arezzo and Siena 
known by the name of Bob trochoceros (curved-homed cattle). 

It thus appears that this species of oxen had been imported 
into the above-mentioned civilised settlements from Italy, but 
they were not bred there, and left in Switzerland no permanent 
progeny. Whether the cow-race now spread in Central Italy 
be descended from the old stock is worth investigation ; but 
their importation affords a significant proof of the intercourse 
of the later pile-builders with Italy. 

Besides these three races, or rather spedes (when their 
remains were found in the diluvium, they were called well 
marked spedes — ^but since they were recognised in a tamed 



LBCTUSB xiri. 899 

coDdition they are again called races) there is a fourth species 
in Switzerland^ the wild prog^enitors of which are fonnd in the 
peat moors of Southern Sweden and England^ along with the 
Urns and Bison, and which is called Boa Jrontomie. It is 
disting^uished by the convexity of the forehead between the 
eyesj by long and outwardly curved horns, it is smaller than the 
Urns, but larger than the marsh-cow. It is absent in the pile- 
buildings and in the peat bogs, but is now represented in 
Switzerland by the so-called spotted cattle (the Simmen or 
Saanenthal race), and has thus been introduced within histori- 
cal times, very probably, from the North. 

"In the stone-period,'' says BUtimeyer, "we find a sheep, 
which, by its small size, slender extremities, and, still more, 
by its upright, short, goat-like horns, differs from the com- 
mon existing ovine races. Wanwyl alone furnished remains of 
large and curved-homed animals. The rarity of horns ren- 
ders it impossible to explain the supplanting of those short- 
homed animals by the present race. On examining, however, 
the bones of Chavannes, Echalens, &c., we find that in the 
middle ages large curved-homed animals were widely spread/^ 
This peculiar small sheep, with coarse wool, may be called the 
tuffshsqp, 

A wild stock, from which the goat-homed turf-sheep might 
have been derived, no longer exists, whilst the curved-homed 
sheep, to which belong all domesticated races, might have had 
as its progenitor the Mediterranean Mouflon and the Asiatic 
Argali. On the other hand, there were found in the caves of 
the South of France, specially at Lunel-Viel the remains of a 
sheep resembling the turf-sheep of the stone-period, so that 
the species reaches back to the oldest period of the human race, 
as human bones were also found in this cave. Again, in the 
most northem islands of England, — the Shetland and Orkney 
Islands, as well as in the mountainous regions of Wales, and 
finally, also in the Gbiaons, there is a race of sheep bred, the 
skulls of whidi correspond in size, form, and shape of horns to 
those of the turf-sheep of the stone-period. There seems, 
therefore, no doubt that the wild turf-sheep was a native of 
Central Europe, that it was soon subjected by man, but that it 



400 L1CTT7BX xm. 

was snbseqiiently supplanted by Uie importation of the ctmred- 
liomed sheep, which excelled it alike hj a finer wool and the 
flavour of its flesh. 

In the pile-works of the stone^period the goat is much more 
frequently met with than the sheep ; but in the later settle- 
ments the proportion is reversed. It is the same race which 
at present exists in Switzerland, which may have been wild at 
one period. 

" Horse bones/' says Biitimeyer, " are in the pile-works of 
the stone-period much more rare than the remains of man, and 
as we cannot imagine the horse to have been buried with man 
outside the pile-works, we can only conclude that the horse 
was wanting to the early pile-builders, and even occurs but 
sparingly in the later settlements of the same periods ; so much 
so that I am led to suppose that the few horse relics found in 
Robenhausen, Wauwyl, &c., have been introduced into the 
pile-works as booty ; the mode of life of the pile-builders 
seems scarcely compatible with horse-breeding. 

'^ It is almost superfluous to add, that all the horse-remains 
found are those of the domestic species, and entirely distinct 
from the fossil horse.** 

The teachings of the cultivated plants are analogous to those 
derived from human and animal relics. Apples and pears, 
prunes and hazel-nuts, raspberries, bilberries, &c., were mani- 
festly eaten and partly cultivated by the pile-builders. What 
they specially planted was wheat, barley, and flax, the seeds of 
which may also have served for food, whilst the fibres served 
for various textures. The grains of the wheat are much 
smaller than those of the wheat now cultivated. Barley in 
the old settlements was six-rowed, in the later settlements 
it was also found two-rowed. Bye, oats, and hemp, which, 
according to botanists, are natives of the East, whence, as 
many believe, the pile-builders had emigrated, are entirely 
absent. ''We may assume,** says Dr. Christ, ''that the 
pile-inhabitants, true autochthons of our country, have never 
visited the rye and oats districts, that is to say. Eastern Europe, 
whilst wheat and barley, perhaps, came from the south. Wheat 
was at all events the first cereal cultivated by man in our 
northern regions.** 



Licrdu xni. 401 

The introduotion of both these cereals from the south appears 
to us any thing but proved. Barley^ of all cereals^ grows 
fnrther northward ; it may^ therefore, even in sach an inhos- 
pitable conntiy as Switzerland mast have been at the pile- 
work period, have grown wild ; and it is jast as probable that 
wheat, which is only a cultivated wild-growing cereal, may have 
been improved by cultivation, as appears proved by the small- 
ness of the grains in the old ears. • 

The result of all researches touched upon in this Lecture evi- 
dently shows that man, with his whole domestic economy, 
including the useful plants and domestic animals, was deve- 
loped on the soil, where he left his earliest traces ; that he 
there procured his means of subsistence, and that it was only 
at a subsequent period that he came in contact and intermixed 
with other races of mankind developed in another region. 
The facts, as far as they are known, establish merely the origi- 
nal difference of mankind, and that man, the domestic animals, 
and the useful plants were natives of the soil where they were 
developed. Beyond this all is tradition and hypothesis. 



DD 



402 



LECTURE XIV. 

Trmwiniiwioii of Chanofcen.— Natural Baoes.— Theory of Nathagias.— Ob- 
jeoUona to it.— Diatinction between Baoea and Spedea.-— Traaiaformatioii 
of Vazietiea into Baoea and real Speciee.— Influence of Time.— Baoeleai 
Animala.— Mongrda and Hybrida.— Their Propagation.— Wdlf-Doga. — 
Buok-Sheep.- Babbit-Harea. —Their Breeding.- Condoaiona and Infer- 
enoea from the preceding &cta. 

GxNTLKKBN — ^In discuBsizig the qaestions concerning the 
origin of the groups, races, and species composing the animal 
creation, including man, the consideration of natural generation 
always occupies the foreground. The existence of the whole 
animal creation in its various forms and species, depends solely 
on normal propagation, as the existence of every living being 
is limited by death. It is the more requisite to enter into 
particulars regarding these questions, as the views on the 
origin of mankind and animals, their affinity, descent, and 
their transformation in the course of time, depend on the so* 
lution of the above questions. 

There can be no doubt that both sexes, male and female, 
co-operate in the generation of the higher animals, and that 
the characters of the parents are transmitted to their o&pring. 
We have seen that the family forms the basis of the various 
groups in the animal world, and just as every individual pos- 
sesses some, though frequently insignificant peculiarities, which 
impress upon him the stamp of individuality, so does the family 
present special characters which enable the observer to trace 
their origin. It has been said that the distinction of indivi- 
duals extends only to domestic animals, that in other ani- 
mals there exist no peculiarities by which we can distinguish 
the individuals, and I have even lately seen some religious tracts 
in which this assertion is used as a proof of the exceptional 
position of man in creation. Every taxidermist at any museum 



MCTUBK znr. 40d 

can easily refute snch an assertion, and prove that in a herd of 
wolres, for instanoej the individnal difference is as great as in 
a flock of sheep propagated hj inbreeding. If the assertion 
of perfect resemblance were well fonnded, no collector woold 
take the trouble to make a selection. There obtains^ there- 
fore, an individuality in the whole animal kingdom just as in 
mankind and the domestic animals, and if, in common life, we 
pay no attention to it, it is because we see no use in so doing. 

The transmission of individual characters, which disting^uish 
not merely the species, but also the family and the individual, 
is thus one of those facts which must have a general influence 
on the forms of the animal kingdom, and it is the transmission 
of peculiarities distinguishing the individual whidi has become 
such a powerful lever in improving the breeds of our domestic 
animals. 

Yirchow has recently, in an excellent treatise, raised the 
question whether the sum of characters transmitted is always 
the same ? As was expected, he arrived at the conclusion 
that this neither is nor can be the case, for the simple reason, 
that a change of the established family-type would thereby be 
rendered impossible. The possibility of any alteration rests 
upon this : that the hereditariness embraces an undeterminable 
sphere of characters, the extent of which can only be learned 
by experience. It is frequently impossible to predict whether 
this or that animal, possessing otherwise some excellent qua- 
lities, may not transmit to its progeny some germ of disease, 
which only breaks out at a later period, while apparently 
inferior Mt^'wiola produce a stock suitable for the purpose of the 
breeder. 

I have in a preceding lecture explained that the word ''race" 
in the sense in which it is used, caxmot be separated from the 
notion " species,'' since the constancy in the transmission of 
diaracters, the resistance against external influences, and the 
adaptation to surrounding media, are frequently as great in races 
as in the so-called species, and may be traced back to remote 
antiquity, as is done in species. The term "race" expresses, 
perhaps, only a theological idea. Applied to domestic animals 
it is often used as equivalent to species, as it was known that 

dd2 



404 LSCTUBB XIT. 

these races had partly arisen by the interference of man, whilst 
for the origin of species the direct interference of a creator was 
assumed. 

'' On comparing," says Nathnsius, " the existing forms of 
domestic animals proper, we are met by a decided contrast : 
we acknowledge races so far firmly established, when we find 
a large number of individuals, representing by resemblance 
and common characters definite groups, originally more or less 
confined to certain localities, which have in historical times 
remained unaltered. Such animals constitute natural, geogra* 
phically established races. In contrast to them we have arti- 
ficial or cultivated races. 

" By these we understand those domestic animals which are 
cultivated and developed by the interference of the science of 
rural economy. They owe their origin either to natural races 
— to so-called inbreeding — ^by the coupling of such individuab 
as are distinguished by some excellent qualities ; or by the cross- 
ing of different natural races, in which the individual character 
plays a more important part than the race-character. The 
descent of the artificial races is thus of secondary importance ; 
they haVe no natural home, but are dependent on the state of 
rural economy. The term ' full blooded' is commonly considered 
as equivalent to cultivated race; but the definition of this 
word, now so much in use, based upon the notion of unity of 
race, is erroneous. 

'^ Natural races must be characterised by zoological charac- 
ters, though we must not forget that we have before us not 
species, but varieties, aud that sharply defined limits are not 
applicable to transitional forms ; yet, such transitional forms are 
always present ; for variableness conditions the notion of race.'' 
(Within equally wide limits is the notion of species ; for varia- 
tions, t.6. extraordinary forms, which are not constantly propa- 
gated, occur also in species, — e. g. in fox, Cebus, lion, panther, 
etc. — as well as in races.) 

''The assumption that all domestic animals proper, and 
specially the natural races, are derived from this or that wild 
original stock, neither is nor ever will be proved. Still the 
assumption is considered so well founded, that we rarely hear 



LBCTUBX XIV. 405 

aaj doubt expressed upon this point. There isj however^ 
another theoiy equally founded upon experience. 

" Neither of these opposite assumptions can, however, be 
decided bj experiment ; the correctness of either lies beyond 
the province of systematic natural histoiy ; the solution pertains 
to another province, which cannot be opened by the sensual 
keys of science. 

'^ The opposite assumption then is, that there are created 
domeetie ammaU. The condition of domestic animals may 
possibly be a specific not an acquired quality, just as the life 
of animals in the forest, or in the steppe, is a specific not an 
acquired quality. Those who believe that man is not a gp:«du- 
ally developed animal, but a creature animated by the breath 
of Gt>d, cannot find it strange that there are animals which, at 
their creation, were not merely endowed with the capacity for 
domestication, but were, for the use of man, at once created 
domestic animals. 

. " There is a theoxy which scouts the word ' creation,' which 
kuQws of no creation, but only of a so-called development from 
the primitive mud ; from this quarter we expect the reproach of 
simplicity. Our view, by acknowledging that experimental 
science has its limits, includes the assumption of a peculiar 
quality for the racial differences of mankind, according to 
.which neither the notion of species nor of variety is applicable 
to man as applied to the organic creation in general. When, 
therefore, we speak of human races and domestic races, these 
notions of raciB may be founded upon a peculiar principle of dif- 
ferentiation exclusively belonging to these created forms. The 
relation of the domestic animals to man renders it intelligible 
that such a distingpiishing principle is applicable to both. If 
in the notion of race, applicable to man and domestic animals, 
we only attend to qualities furnished by observation, and to the 
exclusion of all other qualities observed in spedea and varieties, 
many difficulties will be solved in the contest oonoeming the 
unity of mankind and the descent of domestic animals. There 
is thus in what we term races no longer any question about the 
production of hybrids between species, about the incapacity of 
real hybrids to propagate themselves regularly ; there is no 



406 LICTUBS XIV. 

longer any qnestion about pliancy of species^ nor aboat 
stability of varieties. 

" Without attempting to fathom tbe question Here raised^ I 
would only mention once more^ that those animals which have 
been domesticated within historical times are not included in 
our considerations. It is conceivabloj though not demonstra- 
ble^ that some domestic animals originated from a wild parent 
stocky and that consequently the hog does not belong to primi- 
tive domestic animals. Even the question of the relapse of 
domesticated ftiiin^Aln into the wild state^ of whicb the swine 
afford so many instances^ must not divert us from our theme. 

'' Such a theory leads us to primitive or origrinal races ; but 
the question concerning their origin^ their unity, or plurality, in 
every animal species, lies beyond the limits of observation.'' 

This long extract from Nathusius, plainly shows that a 
single deviation from tbe right path of inquiry leads to a 
number of wrong conclusions. In order that man should 
correspond to the reUgious idea of being a special being, pro- 
duced by a direct divine interference, he is thrust into an 
exceptions! position. But as it is observed that the domestic 
animals and their natural races stand in evident relation to 
human races and stocks, and as specially as regards generation 
and propagation the conditions are nearly identical, it becomes 
requisite to assume for the domestic animals also an exceptional 
position. The intelligence of man, they say, has done nothing 
for the domestication of animals ; they have been created as 
such for the use of man. But then comes that somewhat fatal 
objection, that within historic times man has domesticated 
many wild species. I shall here only mention the turkey, 
which even now occurs wild in North America, the domestica- 
tion of which dates only two centuries back. The exception, 
therefore, does not apply to this nor other domestic animals, 
nor to the efforts of the Acclimatisation Society ; it only applies 
to animals tamed in pre-historic times, of which we know 
nothing. But here again we are met by the fact, that the de- 
scent of the large-eared swine from the wild boar can hardly 
be denied ; consequently the hog too forms no exception. But 
how about the Frisian cow, the curved-homed cattle, the large- 



. LB'CTURl XIV. 407 

homed sheep, whose descent from the XJraSj the oorved-homecl 
oz of the diluyinm of Italy, the Monflon, is, as we have seen, 
undeniable f Which are then the domestic animals entitled to' 
claim a place by the side of man ? None, certainly, bnt those 
whose fossil relics have not yet been fonnd in the dilnvial 
formations, or the older tertiary strata I Whilst thns every 
day brings forth new discoveries, and makes known to as 
another domestic animal, the origin of which we may trace to 
species fonnd in the wild or a fossil state, we are told to claim, 
for the few domestic animals of whose origin we have no data, 
an ezceptional position, merely for the purpose of supporting a 
by no means well founded tradition concerning the origin of 
mankind. 

Nathnsius, no doubt, tell^ us: ''The solution of the question^ 
whether or not a domestic animal descends from a wild species 
can be determined neither by observation nor by experiments, 
as the discoveiy of the truth lies beyond the means of science" I 
We doubt whether this principle will be adopted by natural- 
ists. If, as regards the domestic animals and their cognate 
wild species, constituting by far the most important subjects 
of natural histoiy, we are referred to fidth instead of ob- 
servation, all experimental science is at an end. 

But let us return to our starting point. The observations 
on the transmission of characters,- made by breeders, have not 
yet reached such a stage that we can infer from them gene- 
rally valid laws ; they have, nevertheless, yielded some definite 
results. According to Nathusins, the transmission of characters 
in an artificially bred animal is independent of its origin '' gene- 
rically by the quality of its characters — ^individually by the 
proportion of these characters, in reciprocal action with the 
condition of the vital organs and the energy of their functions ; 
nay, some physiologically abnormal, or diseased organs and 
their functions, may be the condition for the desired trans- 
mission of characters (for the formation of fat, deformity of 
leg^ in badger-dogs, {Bcuaet, Buffon) etc.)." 

These principles being admitted, there can bo no doubt, 
that from this transmission of individual characters forms 
may arise which are as distant from the primitive form, as other 



408 LBCrUBB XIV. 

original forms which we distingaish as well-established species. 
And this is reallj the case. If at this day the badger-dog 
were only fonnd in a fossil state^ that is to say, in a condition 
which would give ns no clue as to the origin of its deformed legs, 
every naturalist would at once declare it a distinct species of 
dog. The IJrus, the marsh-cow, the curved-horued cattle, were 
all by naturalists, like Cuvier, Owen, Nilsson, and others, distin- 
guished as different species so long as they were only found in 
the diluvial formations of various countries, and until the present 
races of cattle were proved to be their descendants. Concern- 
ing these races, all physiologists, ignorant of their connection 
with the extinct races, maintained that they all belonged to 
the same species — ^the Bos taurus, and tried, with much inge- 
nuity, to prove that they must all have originated from the 
same parent stock. This proof was founded upon the circum- 
stance that the artificial breeds, the production of which 
occurred in historical times, differ not less in their characters 
than the older races, the origin of which is lost in obscurity. 
They were perfectly right as regards the latter point; they 
only failed to draw a correct inference, namely, that the same 
sum of distinctive characters which seems to us sufficient for 
the establishment of a species, could also, within historical 
times, have been produced by individual transmission ; that it 
is, therefore, in the power of man, and of present nature, to 
produce from existing species new varieties, races, and real 
new species. 

Just as the artificial breeds depend on their profitableness, 
being only preserved by the selection of such individuals as 
are in the fullest possession of useful qualities, so will 
the natural race, produced by the individual transmission 
of some prominent characters, be only preserved and further 
developed when these qualities are in accordance with the 
requirements of the animal in its struggle for existence. 
Artificial and natural races run, in this respect, perfectly 
parallel, and the only discoverable difference seems to be that 
man, though he cannot use unnatural means, has the power of 
selecting, in preference, some natural influences. Let us just 



LSCTURE ZIT. 409 

oonsider the mode in which man proceeds in the production of 
any race. He finds some animal which appears to him to 
possess some useful qualities; he couples this with another 
animal of the opposite sez possessing nearly identical qua- 
lities. The breed thus obtained is fed and nurtured in such 
a manner as to improve^ if possible, the desired charac- 
ters. In the second generation he again selects animals 
possessing the desired qualities in the highest degree; he 
pairs them with each other, or with the parent stock, or, in 
later generations, with the preceding generations, until he has 
attained his object. Is the process different in nature f It 
is certainly, in so far as the same starting point is giren 
hundreds, perhaps thousands, of times without farther develop- 
ment, because the selection in breeding can be easily effected 
by the interference of man. But as qualities which prove 
advantageous to the individual in the struggle for existence 
also endow it with superior generative powers, this superiority 
will produce the same result in nature, though at a slower 
rate than when effected by man by exclusive selection. Thus, 
with regard only to the higher mammals, it is well known that 
there is scarcely any species in which there does not exist a 
kind of courting, leading frequently to fierce combats between 
a number of males for a certain female, after which the con- 
queror carries home his bride. Upon this fact rests probably 
the continuance of the species in the highest development of 
which it is capable. But since every individual better endowed 
for the struggle for existence, will transmit his superior qual- 
ities, it follows that his offspring will g^radually attain an 
ascendancy, and displace the less privileged individuals, until 
finally it becomes the sole representative of the race. Thus 
the same effects which man, by his intelligence, produces in the 
shortest time, namely, by the application of the most favourable, 
and the exclusion of noxious influences, are equally produced by 
nature, the length of time supplying, to a certain extent, the 
place of human intelligence. Just as in the chemical trans- 
formations which take place in the bowels of the earth, lengfth of 
time 18 the mysterious factor, so is it the agent in the production 
of organic forms, which, by apparently insignificant changes, is 



410 UBCTURE XIV. 

finally condacive to a permanently altered tj^pe. Bnt this 
circumstance^ that for the formation and permanency of 
natural racea and species, a long period of time is requisite^ 
leads us back to the consideration of a question which occupies 
a prominent position in artificial breeding. The breeders still 
debate whether age, constancyj and purity of blood are the essen- 
tial elements in transmission, or whether the quality of the in- 
dividual be not the predominating agent. Since even accidental 
defects, supernumerary fingers, arrest of development, are 
transmitted and persistent through several generations, it 
appears that individuality stands in the first rank. Never- 
theless the length of time during which a race has maintained 
itself is of the greatest importance, as the probability of trans- 
mission is greater in proportion to the purity of blood and 
the duration of the race. This is proved by the influence of 
grandparents, which is so strikingly manifested. When it is 
said that the influence of the grandparents upon the grand- 
children is essentially an indirect one, the assertion is too 
restricted in presence of the fact that frequently the grand- 
diildren exhibit qualities possessed by the grandparents only 
and not by the parents. One of my friends has a bitch of the 
St. Grothard breed, which, excepting a narrow white spot 
upon the chest, is perfectly black. Two brothers of this bitch 
were spotted light brown. The mother was black, the father 
yellowish-brown. The bitch, having been covered by a perfectly 
black dog of the same race, produced a litter of five puppies, 
three of which were black with white spots upon the chest, 
and two with yellowish-brown spots like the grandfather. The 
peculiarity of the grandfather was here not transmitted to the 
child but to some of the grandchildren. If cases of this kind 
are authenticated, and I can vouch for this one, as I possess one 
of the puppies, and have seen the mother and the brothers, then 
it is clear that even in the purest blood there are sometimes re- 
lapses, to the ancestral stock, the qualities of which are deemed 
extinct, and that, on the other hand, natural races and 
species maintain their characters even in crossings with great 
pertinacity, so that they may re-appear in succeeding genera- 
tions. Thus all dog-breeders know that the blood of a New- 



LBCrUBS XIY. 411 

fbnndlaad dog^ a descendant probably of a native wild species, 
which was not tamed at the beginning of the serenteenth 
century, is truly indestructible, so that, after ten generations 
its characters may still be detected in the cross breeds with 
other races. Darwin very justly observes, that the coloured 
rings on the feet, and transverse stripes frequently seen in 
bred-horses, which are not observed in preceding generations, 
may perhaps be traces reminding us of their origin. My 
friend Desor directed my attention to the fact, that in the 
young of perfectly black cats, the pedigree of which, during 
several generations, was known, the primary fur was always 
of a lighter shade, and presented a striped appearance, as 
in the wild cat, and it was only after the lapse of a year that 
the fur became perfectly black without presenting any stripes. 

Thus all facts combine to show, that by the side of individual 
influences, there is in transmission another fisu^r, namely 
lengfth of time, which gradually establishes a certain type 
best adapted for a constant struggle for existence, and which is 
the more permanent the longer the conditions for existence 
remain unaltered. But the greater the fixity of this tjrpe, the 
greater the demarcation from allied, and its hostility to other 
types ; the gulf which separates it from the latter was incon- 
siderable at first, but it gradually enlarged until it became im- 
passable. 

Whilst thus the significance both of the natural and artificial 
races of pure blood is certainly very great, we consider it at 
the same time a step in a forward direction made by Nathusius 
in distinguishing "raceless animaU;'* which, according to 
this author, have arisen: ''Either by the transportation of 
natural races from their native country to foreign parts, not 
offering them the same conditions for development, and where 
their racial type was altered, without the assumption of a fixed 
typical form; or by the crossing of different natural races, 
which in their progress are not led to a typical form ; or, also, 
when artificial races are not attended to with the requisite 
care, so that by hunger and other deprivations they relapse 
into their original state.'' 

That from this chaos of raoeless animals, partly by natural 



412 LICTUBE JIV. 

influences^ and partly by artificial breedings new well charac- 
terised races and species may arise admits of no doubt. In the 
raceless animals of the first category which are produced by 
transplantation into other regions^ that formative process takes 
place which we have just characterised and by which a fixed 
type is gradually produced corresponding to the altered con- 
ditions. In so-called degenerate animals^ which by want of 
care approach the original form, this racelessness must cease 
when the relapsing process attains its limits; so that of 
the three cases estabUshed by Nathusius two have only a 
temporary limited value, whilst the third — the racelessness 
prodiiced by the crossing of different races, is more generally 
applicable. 

Let us now examine more closely this point concerning 
mongrels and hybrids, for which purpose we must return to 
the terms ''variety and species.'' 

Every naturalist who has critically examined the question of 
species has arrived at the conviction, that the conception of 
species does not always consist in a definite sum of distinctive 
characters ; but that, on the contrary, in each g^up both the 
sum of the characters as well as the chief characters differ es- 
sentially. We possess genera in which every species has as 
sharply incised characters as an antique gem ; there are others 
(especially genera with many species) in which the species as it 
were coalesce, and can only with diflSculty be distinguished, 
frequently grouping themselves around a centre, so that within 
one genus several principal species arise, around which other 
species place themselves. These groups of allied species arise 
by their possessing some chief character in common, whilst some 
other characters may differ in allied species. The sum of the 
distinctive characters, as well as their quality, has in every 
type we examine its particular laws, which cannot be generally 
formalised. But we have seen that both quality and sum of 
distinctive characters may in different races be as great and 
even greater than in different species. The characters can 
thus only serve for determining the races, when we admit that 
race and species are identical, and inseparable conceptions. 

But we are told : Species have persisted since times imme- 



LBCTURK XIT. 418 

morial^ not so races ; species have always propagated in the 
same numnerj races hare been formed under our own eyes ; 
species are imperishable types, races disappear as they have 
come. We were enabled to show that all these distinctions 
lost their significance through modem researches; that the 
chief races of our domestic animals trace their origin as far 
back as the wild species which surround us ; that they have pro- 
pagated exactly in the same constant manner as these wild 
species ; — ^that finally wild species have disappeared from the 
creation like tamed races; that consequently all distinctions 
vanish, and that race and species are in this respect perfectly 
identical. 

Thus there remain only the conditions resulting from gene- 
ration. Baces, it is said, can interbreed and produce a progeny 
indefinitely prolific. Species, it is said, sometimes interbreed, 
but their progeny is sterile, if not in the first, certainly in sub* 
sequent generations. 

This principle, if firmly established, leads, it is believed, 
to the ii^erence, that all races spring from a single stock, but 
all species from different primary stocks. Let us first examine 
how it is with the species, and let us confine ourselves to the 
mammals which stand nearest to man. 

There can be no doubt that animals even in a wild state 
pair or endeavour to copulate with races not allied to their 
own, such is especiaUy the case with males driven away by 
stronger rivals, who, in the impossibility of gratifying the 
sexual desire with females of their own species, pair with those 
of other species with whom they frequently come in contact. 
This phenomenon resembles that of the adoption of the young 
of other species by a mother deprived of her own progeny. 
Connexions of this kind have been observed between dog and 
swine, stag and cow ; but it was always found that in species 
so remote from each other there was no issue, which is fre- 
quently impossible from incompatible organic structure. We 
may, therefore, from actual observation, consider it as a law, 
that copulation between remote species differing in structure 
is either impossible, or, at all events, sterile. 

Allied species may copulate and produce bastai^. This is 



414 LKCTUBX XIY. 

fi^uently effected by the interference of man^ when generally 
some tridcs are required to deceive the male and so to conquer 
its aversion to a female of a different species. The stallion 
who is to cover a she-ass is freqaently first excited by the pre- 
sence of a mare, for which at the proper moment the she-ass 
is sabstituted. The same manceuvre is often resorted to^ to 
induce thorongh-bred stallions to cover plough horses. They 
frequently refuse^ until one of their favourite mares is pro- 
ducedy after which they are deceived in the above manner. 
But though in common cases, the interference of man is requi- 
site for the production of hybrids on a larger scale, there are 
a sufficient number of cases known of the occurrence of hybrid- 
ity in a wild or semi-wild state. Dog and she-wolf, foz and 
bitch, dog and jackal, ibez and goat are authenticated instances 
of this kind. 

The hybrids present in the average a mixture of the physical 
and mental characters of the parents. There persists, how- 
ever, a certain individuality, as the intermixture does not affect 
the separate organs in equal proportions. The description of 
wolf-dogs as given by Buffon, shows very clearly how far this 
difference may extend to the young of a single litter. 

Whilst thus the production of bastards with characters 
equally remote from those of both parents may take place with 
or without the interference of man, the question whether inter- 
mediate species may arise is not thereby solved. It is not 
merely requisite that the hybrids should be able to inter- 
breed, but that their progeny should be prolific so that the 
species may be continued ; for, unless this were the case, the 
new species would become extinct. Supposing that the hybrids 
are not prolific between themselves, but are so with the parent 
stock, the hybrid character would, after a few generations, 
become again obliterated. Let us suppose a wolf-dog, half- 
wolf, half-dog, covering a bitch. The offspring is now only 
one-fourth wolf and three-fourth dog, and if this three-quarter 
dog and his progeny are crossed with bitches, the quantity of 
wolf-blood must finally be so much reduced as to be no longer 
perceptible. Traces of such an intermixture will now and 
then appear in some of the descendants, which, perhaps, may 



LBCT0SE nv. 415 

present some wolf-character, jnst as a race-horse may show 
zebra stripes about the feet; but, generally speaking, the 
hybrid race disappears, and is absorbed in the original stock. 

Experience now teaches that fertility among hybrids differs 
in a remarkable degree ; that each species has its own law ; 
that there obtains even a difference with regard to the sexes of 
the same species. The he-goat pairs readily with the sheep, 
and produces hybrids which, according to Buffon, are per- 
fectly prolific. The ram, on the other hand, copulates unwill- 
ingly with the goat; and, according to the same naturalist, 
there never is any issue. The probable production of prolific 
young, as Broca justly observes, by no means depends on the 
external resemblance of characters. 

The greyhound and poodle dog are, both externally as well 
as in the structure of the bones, much more dissimilar than 
horse and ass (though greyhound and poodle are considered 
races of the same species, but horse and ass as different spe- 
cies), and yet the former produce fertile, and the latter a sterile 
progeny. Observation alone can furnish us with data; and obser- 
vation, we must confess, extends at present to but few species. 

There are cases in which the sexual function of hybrids is 
extremely limited, in which the bastards may copulate, but are 
sterile. Mules may sometimes produce young, but they must 
be covered by a horse stallion, and the progeny are usually 
sterile, and possess little viability. This example, which is 
the oldest and best known, is the only one, and may be consi- 
dered as exceptional. Mule breeding has been carried on in 
the East from the remotest antiquity, and it was reserved to 
the enlightened government of King Otho of Greece to ignore 
a thousand years' experience, and to import from Portugal, at 
a great expense, mule stallions for the improvement of mule 
breeding in Greece. This example of sterile hybrids is con- 
stantly quoted by those who maintain '' all hybrids are gene- 
rally sterile in the first or the next following generations." 

Broca cites an instance of a limited hybrid production be- 
tween the American bison and the European oow. The bison 
readily covers the cow, whilst the domestic bull manifests an 
aversion to the bison-cow. The progeny from sudi a oonnec- 



416 LVCTUBE ZIV. 

tion, which the Americans term ''half-blood buffaloes" (they 
call the bison buffalo) ^ have the body of a cow^ but the canred 
back (without the hunch)^ the colour, the head, and the mane 
of the bison. The hybrids seem inter se but little fertile, but 
if the half-blood is crossed with the parent stock a quarter 
hybrid is obtained, which is very prolific, and produces a per- 
manent hybrid species which, with all its characters, is indefi- 
nitely fertile. This too is, at present, the only known instance 
of a semi-fertile hybrid progeny, in which the bastards produce 
inter se a sterile generation, but after being crossed with the 
parent stock produce a species fertile between themselves and 
the parent stock. 

The cases in which hybrids are fertile and produce a 
constant mongrel race are abundant. As cases of this kind 
are contested with the greatest obstinacy, I shall quote a few 
from the description given by Broca. 

Experiments by Buffon : — '' A young she-wolf, scarcely three 
days' old, was found in a forest by a peasant, who sold it to the 
Marquis Spontin-Beaufort, by whom she was brought up. She 
became so tame that she was taken out hunting. When a 
year old she beca;me so savage as to kill fowls and cats, attack- 
ing dogs and sheep, so that she had to be chained. One day 
she bit the coachman so dangerously that he was laid up for 
six weeks. 

''First litter.— On the 28th of March, 1773, this she-wolf 
was first covered by a pointer, of whom she was very fond. 
The act of coition took place repeatedly during a fortnight. 
Seventy days after the first coition, June 6, 1773, she cast four 
whelps, three males and one female. 

" Second litter. — A single male remained, which was brought 
up with his sister. On December 30, 1 776, at the age of two 
and a half years coition took place between them, and sixty- 
three days after, on the 3rd of March, 1776, the bitch cast 
four whelps, two males and two females. 

" Third litter. — ^A couple of this second litter was sent 
by Marquis de Spontin to Buffon, who kept them first at 
Paris, and subsequently at his countiy seat. Both animals 
were brought up together, and carefully watched to prevent 



MCTUBi nr. 417 

their intermiztare with other dogs. Coition took place De- 
cember 81, 1778, when they were two years and ten months' 
old, and after sixty-three days the bitch cast seven whelps. 
The keeper took up the whelps to examine them, immediately 
after whidi the enraged mother killed and devoured all those 
the keeper had touched. There remained but one, a female. . 

Fourth Litter. This female was brought up with its parents 
in a large vault, into which no other animal was admitted. At 
the beginning of 1781, when about two years old, the young 
bitch was covered by her father, and cast in the course of the 
spring four whelps, two of which she devoured. There thus 
remained one pair, of whose fate we learn nothing. The 
French revolution probably interrupted these experiments. 

The hybrids of he-goat and sheep, which we term '' buck- 
sheep,'' {ehahins by the French), are bred in large numbers in 
Chile, as their long-haired, half-woolly fleece, known by the 
name of ''pellons," is much sought after for bedding, carpets, 
and saddle-cloths. The buck-sheep of the first generation 
have the form of the mother and the hairy coat of the father. 
The hair is, however, almost as stiff as those of the he-goat, so 
that the fleeces are but little valued. These bastards are conse- 
quently not bred from, though they are perfectly prolific between 
themselves; a small number only is retained for further breeding. 
The buck-sheep which furnish the most valuable skins, are those 
of the second generation, and are obtained by the crossing of 
the male buck sheep with ewes. These half-blood buck-sheep 
are, as far as we know, indefinitely prolific ; but afi^r three or 
four generations their direct descendants undergo a modifica- 
tion which diminishes their commercial value: their hair be- 
comes thicker and harder, thus approaching that of the goat, 
which is the more remarkable as these half-blood buck-sheep 
are one-fourth goat and three-fourth sheep, and are thus much 
nearer the sheep than the goat. Still more remarkable is it, 
that in order to re-endow the succeeding generations with fine 
and soft hair, the females must be crossed with the males of 
the first blood. We thus obtain a mongrel, with three-eighth 
goat blood and five-eighth sheep blood, which does not stand 
so near to the sheep as its mother, and yet possesses a softer 

BB 



418 LBCTUBl XIY. 

fleece, the ezoellenoe of which is preserved through several 
generations. The back-sheep exactly resemble oar domestic 
cross breeds, which after some generations lose some of their 
nsefal qaalities, which can be recovered by a fresh crossing 
within the race. The fertility of the back-sheep is not 
limited, as the crossing is not effected with the parent stock, 
bat on the contrary with hybrids. 

Fox and bitch, jackal and bitch, ibex and she-goat, camel 
and dromedary, llama and alpaca, vicafia and alpaca, all produce 
mongrels prodactive between themselves and infinitely prolific, 
some of which, as the bastards of the dromedary and the camel, 
are more valued than the parent stocks. We cannot enter into 
particulars, excepting in one instance which has recently ac- 
quired some importance in its industrial aspect, we allude to 
the breeding of hybrids of the hare and the rabbit as carried 
on in France. 

M. Boux, of Angoul£me, took young hares from three to 
four weeks old and brought them up with tame rabbits of the 
same age. The rabbits, who had never seen a male hare, 
looked upon them as their natural mates, and so did the yoimg 
hares as regards their female companions, although they did not 
seem so familiar. In order to prevent fierce combats, the 
males must at puberty be separated and a few females given 
to each. The crossing is thus easily effected, specially at night, 
as the hare never approaches the female when under observa- 
tion. The wild doe-hare casts usually only four young ; the 
rabbit from eight to twelve ; the rabbit covered by a hare from 
five to eight. The prolificacy is thus intermediate. 

The half-blood hares, the progeny of the first crossing, re- 
semble more the rabbit than the hare. Their fur has scarcely any 
reddish tint, the grey being the predominating colour. The ears 
are somewhat longer than in the rabbit, as also are the hind legs ; 
the facial expression is less wild and timid. They are nearly 
as large as their parents, so that without close observation 
they might be taken for rabbits. M. Boux found no advantage 
in breeding this race, though they are perfectly prolific be- 
tween each other. If these half-blood males are crossed with 
tamed doe hares, animals are produced resembling almost 



LICTUBB ZIY. 419 

entirely the tamed liare. This breed also presented no 
practical advantage. It is different with the recrossing with 
the male hare. The quarter hares of the second bloody the 
progeny of a hare and a half-blood female, are stronger, 
finer, and larger than the original stock. These bastards 
of the second blood, three-qnarter hare to one quarter 
rabbit, resemble their grandmother rabbit as much as their 
father hare, so that they might be taken as half-blood bastards 
if their pedigree were not known. The characters of the rab- 
bit thus predominate over those of the hare, probably because 
the mother was a rabbit. In an accidental cross breed in Italy 
between male rabbit and doe hare, the particulars of which 
hare not reached us, the yoimg rather resembled the hare. 

The quarter hares are prolific between themselres, but only 
in a limited degree, casting, like wild hares, only from two to 
five young. To render them more prolific, M. Boux recrossed 
them with half-blood does. 

We shall term this new product three-eighth hares. They are 
as fine as three-quarter hares, and much more prolific ; they 
cast five to eight young, which are more easily brought up than 
rabbitSj grow fast, and are productive after four months. The 
female, like the doe-hare and the rabbit, brings forth after 
thirty days, suckles the young for about three weeks, and 
receives again the male seventeen days after delivery, so that 
five litters may easily be obtained within a year. This three- 
eighth race is that which M. Boux breeds in preference, as it 
requires no more provender than the rabbit, and yields more 
meat. A yearling '^ house-hare'' commonly weighs six pounds, a 
wild hare eight pounds, a three-eighth hare eight to ten pounds; 
some attain twelve and fourteen pounds, and one weighed six- 
teen pounds. The three-eighth hares acquire with advancing 
age a fine fur, which frequently fetches a franc, being of a 
reddish grey colour, and of the same consistency as that of the 
wild hare. The market price of a three-eighth hare is about 
two francs, whilst that of a rabbit is only one franc. The flesh 
is white, like that of the wild rabbit, but of excellent flavour, 
resembling that of the turkey. 

These three-eighth hares have a thicker bead than the rab- 

be2 



420 LICTDBS XIV. 

bits^ a shy ezpression, larger eyes, apparently placed nearer 
the nose, the hind leg^ are longer, almost as long as in the 
hare ; the fore legs are both absolutely and relatively longer 
than in the rabbit. The ears are almost as long as in the hare, 
but singularly enough, in all the young and in most of the old, 
sometimes the left sometimes the right ear is pendulous, whilst 
the other ear is erect. 

The breeding of these three-eighth hares has been carried 
on since 1850, and assuming but fire litters per annum, we 
have now arrived at the sixtieth generation, without the hybrids 
having shown any marked change in their eztenial condition 
or diminution of their generative powers. Here then we hare 
a proof that two acknowledged different species may produce 
indefinitely prolific descendants, preserving the same characters. 
The three-eighth hares have thus become a constant species, 
with definite characters, which are propagated inde&iitely, 
and thus present all the marks of a zoological species. We 
will admit that it is an artificial species, which probably would 
not have been formed in a wild state, it being known that wild 
rabbits and hares are hostile to each other in this state ; 
and that the rabbits, though smaller and apparently weaker, 
drive away the hares ; hence (rerman sportsmen look upon them 
as vermin which must be destroyed. They are rarely eaten in 
Germany; while in France the wild rabbit isconsidered a delicacy. 
We will also admit that three-eighth hares, when set at liberty 
amongst wild rabbits and hares, may lose their intermediate cha- 
racter, and by recrossing may be absorbed in the parent stock, 
although we possess no certain proof of that. But what bearing 
has all this upon the point in question f Is the fact hereby 
altered that a new species has been produced by the crossing 
of two species, botii of which are known to us in the wild 
state, and one of which has been tamed, whilst the other, 
in Germany, namely, the hare, has never been domesticated f 

Baces, it has been said, are distinguished from species by 
the production of mong^ls, which are indefinitely prolific; 
but on closely examining this point it will be found that the 
assertion is without foundation. 

There are cases where coition between individuals belong^g 



LSCTUBI JXV. 421 

to tihe same raoe is impossible. As little as can the wolf oopa- 
late with the Fennec of the Sahara^ as little can a bulldog pair 
with the smaU hairless Afiricaa or the Bolognese lap-dog : it 
is a physical impossibility. Breeders are, moreover, aware, 
that certain races can only be made to pair with the greatest 
difficulty, that the prolificacy of the mong^ls soon diminishes, 
and that the race becomes extinct, whilst other races pair 
readily and are prolific. '' There are qualities,'' says Nathn- 
sins, ''which are incompatible; hence eyery crossing does 
not lead to a fusion of diaracters.'' There are accordingly 
crossings which can never become constant. In other words, 
there are races which are, but with difficulty, productive be- 
tween each other, and there are others in which the fertility is 
limited to a few generations. 

The aversion existing between allied species in the wild 
state has also been considered of . importance. We have 
seen that this aversion is frequently overcome, especially by the 
males ; but we know also that it increases with the difference 
of the race. Bengger states expressly, that the cats imported 
into Paraguay, which are now essentially changed, but whose 
importation is historically proved, have a decided aversion to 
European cats, and can only with difficulty be brought to pair 
with them. " Birds of a feather flock together'' is an old pro- 
verb, and applicable to the whole animal world. It appears to 
me highly probable that were the Swytz and the Saanen races 
of our common cattle set at liberty they would not intermix ; 
but that each race would select its own grazing districts, and 
not intrude upon those of the other race. Possibly, the larger 
Saqjien race may supersede the weaker Swyts race, but no 
voluntary intermixture would take place. 

On summarising the facts obtained in this field of inquiry, 
we are justified in concluding that, as regards production and 
propagation, there exists no difference whatever between species 
and races ; that there are both races and species unable to pro- 
pagate inter se; that there are some which only propagate 
with difficulty ; and again others which easily produce prolific 
hybrids, and thus give rise to new species and races. Expe- 
rience, however, also teaches, that races and species intermix 



422 LECTURE nv. 

with greater diflSonlty the more distmcily the characters are 
impressed by the stamp of time. 

The chaos of raceless animals, which have not yet received 
this stamp, exists not merely in races bnt in wild species, and 
it will be worth the zoologist's while to bear this idea in mind, 
in the classification of wild animals and species. When I con- 
sider the numerons varieties and species assumed in, for in- 
stance, the South American genus Cebus ; when we see that 
every naturalist differently conceives and differently groups 
the numerous allied forms, the conviction obtrudes on me that 
we have before us a raceless multitude which oscillates between 
different centres, like the multitude of raceless half-tamed or 
wild dogs of the East, between the old pure races or species. 

But when we consider the conduct of the so-called species 
and races on the whole, we constantly observe an important 
difference, which does not prevent us from establishing some 
few generaUy valid laws. Just as there are species which re- 
main the same in all zones and have undergone no change in 
the course of thousands of years, so are there again other spe- 
cies which, transported into other climates, are essentially 
transformed. The one may be said to be composed of unyield- 
ing, the other of flexible materials. In the same way do we 
observe species, as far as history can trace them, despite of 
. their resemblance, dwelling side by side without intermixture, 
preserving the same peculiarities, without giving rise to a 
mongrel race. Other species, on the contrary, which at a re- 
mote period were perfectly distinct species, intermixed, pro- 
duced prolific mongrels, and formed raceless masses, common 
root stocks, so to speak, giving rise to new races and speeies. 
Finally, there may be other species, which, though originating 
from such common root-stocks, departed from them, and ac- 
quiring distinct characters, became hostile to their brothers. 

That similar processes take place within the human genus, 
and human races, I shall endeavour to show in my next lecture. 



423 



LECTURE XV. 

The Trftditioii of AcUm.— Oeogn^hiosl Distribution of Humaa Bamb. — 
Constanoj of their Chanoten in the oomse of time.— Fliabilitj of Baoet 
— ^Derelopment of the Bkall by CiTiliaation.— >I>egenamtion of BMee.— 
An Emnple from Izelmnd.— Hodifloatione of Negroes in Ameriea, Yan- 
kees, Jews. — ^Time requisite for snch modifications. — ^Intennixtore of 
Baoes. — ^Differenoes in Prolifioacj in Tarious Mongrels. — Zntermiztnie 
of White Baoes between themselves.— Mnlattoei in Soath CaroUna and 
Louisiana. — Hombron's Bemarks. — ^Indians and Whites.— Whites and 
Malays.— Whites and Pdlynesisas.— Whites and Anstralians.— Infer- 
ences regarding the Original Diyersitj of the Homan Baoes, and the 
Prodnots of Intermiztore. — Direet Dinne Inflnenoe, aooording to Dr. 
Sagot. 

Gkhtliiibn — ^As far as oar traditions go. However far back 
they reach into the remotest antiquity, we obserre that wher- 
eyer peoples migrated to, and discovered onknown ooontries, 
they found Human beings, who appeared to them not less 
strange than the animals and plants they met with. There 
are but few small islands which, from the nature of the soil, 
their distance from any country, the inhospitality of the cli- 
mate, presented obstacles to habitation, and thus form an 
exception to the general rule. The larger islands, as weU as 
all parts of the continents under the hottest and coldest climates, 
were, by navigators or conquerors, always found inhabited. 
Even religious legends, which have for their object the origin 
of mankind and the history of a privileged race, even these 
legends indicate that at the creation of the first pair the world 
was already peopled, an indication g^iven even in the Bible. 
After the murder of Abel, Cain was the only child of Adam ; 
Seth and the other sons and daughters mentioned in the 
Bible not being yet bom. Notwithstanding this, Cain takes 
his wife with him in his flight and immediately lays the foun- 
dation of a new city, after having received the mark on his 



424 LKCTXTBB XT. 

forehead so that nobody should kill him. This mark oonld 
only have been intended for men^ for the wolf kills also marked 
sheep. Bnt where Cain could have obtained a wife^ or peopled 
a city (at the time of Adam) must always remain a mystery^ 
unless we assume that the history of Adam is no more than a 
legend intended to prove the specific excellence of the Jewish 
race. 

I merely allude to this to show that the only fact from which 
we can starts is that of the original dispersion of mankind upon 
the earthy and the original difference of races spread over the 
surface of the earth. However much we may indulge in theo- 
logical speculations on the origin and differences of mankind, 
however weighty proofs may be adduced for the original unity 
of the human species^ this much is certain, that no historical, nor, 
as we have shown, geological data can establish this dream of 
unity. However far back our eye reaches, we find different 
species of man spread over different parts of the globe. 

The geographical distribution of mankind corresponds more or 
less with that of animals, though not within such narrow limits 
as those drawn by Agassiz. Each race or species corresponds 
to the general conditions of the country, climate, and the sur- 
rounding animal or vegetable world ; and the laws of distribu- 
tion in general show the same shades which we find in the rest 
of organic nature. As there are animals inhabiting a very 
limited district which they never leave, so are there species of 
mankind who are limited to a small space. Again, as there 
are species of animals spread over large tracts, and enabled to 
support the heat of the tropics as well as the cold temperature 
of the north, so are there species of mankind presenting the 
same power of adaptation to external media. Boudin has en- 
deavoured to show, that of all known human races there is bnt 
one, namely, the Jewish race, which can easily become accli- 
matised in all the zones of both hemispheres, and can maintain 
itself without intermixture with the native race, whilst all other 
European races transported from a temperate to a hot climate 
would in the course of time become extinct, unless suppb'ed by 
immigration from the mother country, because the deaths 
always exceed the births. Hence it follows that, excepting a 



LECTURI XT. 425 

few fayonred races which^ as far as ia known^ may inliabit the 
whole globe^ the rest are more or less confined within certain 
limits which they cannot without impunity transgress^ But 
these laws now prevailing in the physical world are applicable, 
no doubt, to remote periods, in which the present conditions 
existed ; and, as the facts relating to the existence of man upon 
the earth teach us that the conditions were not changed, 
neither can the laws of distribution of the human race have 
undergone any material change. 

Not merely the difference of races, but also their constanqr 
in the course of time, is perfectly established. We have en- 
deavoured to show that these characters may be traced back 
beyond the historical period up to the pile-works, the stone- 
period, and the diluvial formations. The Egyptian monuments 
show that already under the twelfth dynasty, about 2,800 
years before Christ, Negroes had been imported into Egypt; 
that slave hunts had, as now, taken place under several dynas- 
ties, as proved by the triumphal processions of Thotmes TV, 
about 1700 B.C., and Bameses III, about 1800 B.c. There are 
seen long processions of Negproes, whose features and colour 
are &ithiuUy rendered ; there are seen Egyptian scribes regis- 
tering slaves with their wives and children; even the down 
upon the heads of the latter may be distingroished. There are 
also seen many heads presenting the diaracters of Negro 
tribes inhabiting the south of Egypt, and which the artist dis- 
tinguishes as such by a superadded lotos-stalk. But not 
only the TSegroes, but also the Nubians and the Berbers, as 
well as the old Egyptians, are always depicted with those cha- 
racteristic peculiarities which have been preserved to this day. 
''The peasants of the Nile valley,'' says Broca, " now termed 
Fellahs, have preserved the type of the ancient Egyptians, 
which is the more remarkable, as they have since the Arab 
conquest intermixed with the stock of the conquerors. The 
identity of the modem Fellahs with the Egyptians of the time 
of the Pharaohs has been shown by Morton by the comparison 
of their skulls ;" and Jomard confirms this as foDows : ''On 
looking at the agricultural labourers of Esn^, Ombos, EdA, or 
of the district of Selsfle, one is apt to imagine that the images 



426 LECTUBB XV. 

on the monuments of Latopolis^ Ombos, or Apollonipolis 
Magna, have detached themselyes from the walls and descended 
into the plains/' 

The same constancy of characters can be traced in the other 
raoto with which the Egyptians came in contact. The Jews 
are as easily recognisable as the Tatars and Scythians with 
whom Bameses III was at war. In the same way we observe 
npon the Assyrian and Indian monnments the characters of 
snch races as still inhabit these regions, so that the constan<7 
of race characters is eyerywhere rendered evident. Bnt the 
example of Egypt teaches also that slight changes of climate, 
as well as limited intermixture, have an insigpuficant influence 
on the character of a race. For more than four thousand 
years have Negroes, Berbers, and Egyptians inhabited the same 
Nile valley, and propagated there without any essential diange 
in their characters. At a later period there was an immigration 
of Greeks, Persians, Arabs, and Turks, still without changing 
the original stock. These conquerors added but a small per- 
centage to the existing population, and stood to it nearly in 
the same relation as limited intermixture, which, by recrossing 
with the parent stock, is absorbed in it, or leaves only a slight 
residue. 

Whilst thus the constancy of the natural races of mankind 
is established beyond any doubt, we must, on the other hand, 
not forget that most of them possess a certain flexibility, and 
show, when transplanted into difierent media, certain changes 
which are the result of their adaptation to new conditions. As 
it is upon this point that the advocates for the unity of the 
human species base their arguments, we are compelled to 
scrutinise the respective facts. 

Let us, at the outset, remember that many races, though 
they remain on the same spot, are apt to undergo certain 
changes, the result of progressive civilisation. It is chiefly 
the height of the skull, and the development of the frontal 
region, which is thereby affected, by which the internal capa- 
city of the cranium, and the cerebral mass itself an increased. 
We have already pointed out, that in races capable of civilisa- 
tion, the anterior satures remain open longer, and are ob- 



UBCTUBB TV. 427 

literated at a later period than the posterior; the reverse 
being the case in races incapable of high culture. We have 
shown that^ according to Broca^ the Parisian skulls have^ in 
the course of centuries, acquired a greater internal cranial 
capacity. We have further shown that the cave and stone- 
period skulls are unfavourably distinguished by the indifferent 
development of the frontal region. The height of the forehead 
and the skull cannot, therefore, be adopted as a permanent 
race character^ since it may change in the course of time and 
give to the profile a different aspect. Food, if appropriate, 
may also have its influence, by rendering a people larger and 
more muscular. The same characters which distinguish care- 
fully-bred domestic animals from their parent stock, may also 
be obtained in man by continued culture. There can be no 
doubt that the prosperous and wealthy classes of human 
society are, on the whole, physically finer and stronger than 
the lowest classes, who are much exposed to misery and want. 
It is further unquestionable that those classes which, in succes- 
sive generations, follow mental occupations, possess a g^reater 
development of the skull than the ignorant masses who are 
engaged in the meanest occupations. We should by no means 
feel surprised to hear it established by comparative observa- 
tions, that the squirearchy of the Mark Brandenburg, which 
for centuries have had no other ambition than to wear the king^s 
livery, possess a smaDer cranial capacity than the intelligent 
Berliners. 

In the same way as culture, wealth, aliment, and particular 
occupations may develope a cultured race from a natural race, so 
may the deprivation of such influences reduce a cultured race 
to its primary condition. Hunger and anxiety will do more, 
by adding morbid characters, which may be transmitted through 
several generations, until existence itself becomes endangered. 
I shall cite for this purpose a remarkable instance of this kind, 
which is quoted in the Dublin Univeratty Magazine :— - 

'' On the plantation of Ulster, and on the successes of the 
British against the rebels in 1641 and 1689, multitudes of native 
Irish were driven from Armagh and the south of Down into 
the mountainous tract, extending from the Barony of the Flews 



428 LECTUBB XT. 

eastward to the sea. The same race was^ on the other side of 
the kingdom^ diiyen into Leitrim, Sligo, and Mayo. Ever 
since that time these people have been exposed to the bad 
effects of hanger and ignorance, the two great demoralisers of 
the human race. The descendants of these refngees can still 
be distinguished from their cognates in Meath and other dis- 
tricts. They have open projecting mouths, with prominent teeth, 
and exposed gums, high cheek bones, depressed noses, and pre- 
sent barbarism on their front. We thus see in Sligo and the 
north of Mayo the consequences of a two hundred years' misery 
npon the whole physical structure, an example of deteriora- 
tion by known causes, which offers some^ compensation by its 
importance for the future, in shewing the sufferings through 
which former generations have passed. They are on the 
average five feet two inches high, big bellied, bandy-legged ; 
their clothes a bundle of rag^s — thus walk about the spectres 
of a people in the daylight of civilisation, as representatives 
of Irish misery and ugliness ; a people once well grown, able- 
bodied, and handsome. In other parts of the island, where 
the people have undergone no such degradation, the same 
race furnishes the finest models of human beauty and strength, 
both physically and mentally.'' 

'* Every reader," adds Quatrefages to this description, "who 
is any way acquainted with the distinguishing characters of 
mankind, will, with the exception of the colour, recognise here 
the character ascribed to the lowest Negroes, and the degene- 
rate Australian tribes." And Airther : " These two different 
groups, one of which reminds us of the lowest races of Aus- 
tralia; and the other, which will bear comparison with any 
white race, are they really of the same racef We answer 
no. The Irishman of Meath alone represents the old stock, 
the surrounding media have for him remained the same, and 
he is unaltered. The Irishman of Flews, on the contrary, 
placed under different conditions, has changed, and formed a 
new race, derived from the old, which corresponds to the 
media which produced it. There are now in these adjoining 
districts two races." Thus far Quatrefages. 

Let us examine this point. And, first, we must remember 



LiCTUXi zv. 429 

tliat party spirit Bpeaks here^ painting the condition of the 
Irish in as gloomy colonrs as possible^ and probably assuming 
some few ragged and broken-down beggars as the type of 
the whole race. But, assuming the description to be correct^ 
it is so imperfect and defectiye, that we can scarcely con- 
ceive how such a cautious writer as Quatrefages can find in 
it a description of the Australian savage. 

No person has examined such a degenerate Irish skull^ and 
shown how far it deviates from other Irish skulls, or approaches 
the characteristic form of the Australian skulls. The whole 
description resembles as closely, if not more so, that of the 
semi-cretins, as they are foun4 by hundreds in poor moun- 
tainous districts. The projecting teeth, the pendulous belly, 
the thick noses, pufl^ lips, are always the attendants on 
scrofula, that wide-spread disease which is produced by damp 
dwellings, bad food, want of care, and similar causes. That 
there has been degeneration in these poor creatures is unques- 
tionable ; that neglect has changed the noble horse into a little 
rough, thick-bellied mustang is certain ; but just as by proper 
care the noble Andalusian horse may be developed from the 
mustang, so may the scrofulous Irish emigrant from Sligo to 
America, by proper alimentation, be made to resemble in his 
successors the Irishman of Meath. Nothing in the whole 
description proves that any of the characteristic features of 
the Irish or Celtic skull had been obliterated. We have, 
therefore, before us dianges such as are experienced by civil- 
ised races, when the conditions requisite for preserving that 
civilisation begin to fail. 

We are, however, as already stated, fieur from denying certain 
modifications in races produced either by hunger and misery, 
or by transplantation to a foreign climate. We simply main- 
tain, that these dianges are in most human species but trifling, 
that they stand in proportion to the flexibility of the race, and 
that most races possess so little flexibility that, on being 
transported to a foreign climate, they perish rather than adapt 
themselves to the new influences. 

The flrst and most conmion influence of climate shows itself 
in a diminution of generative power in both sexes, which, by 
diminishing the number of births, even if they balance the 



30 LECTUBB XV. 

number of deaths, must necessarily lead to final extinction. 
The Mamelukes in Egypt could only maintain themselyes by 
the purchase and importation of slaves, as their own pro- 
geny, notwithstanding all care, perished. Despite of all advan- 
tages enjoyed by English married soldiers in India, they never 
succeeded in rearing a sufBcient number for drummers and 
fifers. The Dutch established in Java become sterile with 
women of their own race, and, if they have any children, the 
whole family regularly becomes almost extinct with the ap- 
pearance of g^ndchildren. As generative capacity is the last 
development of the organism, which is only unfolded when aU 
conditions of existence are present, so is it the first function 
which fails, and soon ceases under hostile influences. As in 
man, so is it in animals, many of which, though apparently in 
exceUent health, no longer propagate in captivity. Many 
assertions of sterility of mongrels and hybrids, founded on 
experiments in zoological gardens and menageries, rest merely 
upon this diminution of generative power, observed also in 
wild species, which are very prolific in a state of liberty. 

Let us now examine the changes which certain races are 
said to have undergone, in which transplantation into other 
countries has produced no diminution of generative power, 
and where thus the conditions requisite for the formation of a 
new race existed. First of all are mentioned the Negroes, 
who, imported into Southern and Central America, are very 
prolific on that continent. The Northern slave-states, Virginia 
and Kentucky, carry on the trade of slave-breeders, just as in 
our own country there are cattle-breeders. Here we have 
abundant materials for observation. Some authors assert, in 
fact, that the Negroes imported into America, in successive 
generations, gradually approach the white race. '^ The Negro 
children of pure race,'' says Reiset, ''bom in the AntiUes, 
have all the characters of the Negro, but somewhat more 
faintly developed. The colour and the hair remain the same, 
but the muzzle diminishes, and in all other respects the 
Creole-negro approaches the white.'' " The Negroes of the 
United States," says B^lus, ''have by no means the same 
type as the Negroes in Africa ; their skin is rarely velvety, 
though all their ancestors were imported from Guinea. They 



LBCTUBl XV. 481 

have no sncli projectizig cheekbones, thick lips, flat noses, 
thick wool, bmtish physiognomies, and so acute facial angles, 
as their brethren in the old world. In the coarse of some 
one hundred and fifty years they have, as regards their 
external aspect, {Missed oyer more than a quarter of the dis- 
tance which separates them from the white race" 

On summarising all these observations and adding the 
blanching of the skin, I must ask what are the characters for 
the remaining three-fourths of the distance which the Negro 
has yet to traverse, and whether the slight changes enumerated 
above really indicate an approach to the white race, or whether 
they are merely such changes as the Negroes undergo even in 
their own country with advancing civilisation? There are 
leaden-g^y Negproes in Africa, Negroes with but moderately 
puflfed up hps, with more prominent noses, less woolly hair and 
less brutish aspect, with less prominent cheek-bones and less 
acute fiunal angle, than the Guinea Negroes possess, which re- 
present the low Negro-type in general. Though we would not 
maintain that aD the peoples of central Africa have sprung 
from the same common stock, we know at least so much from 
the descriptions of African travellers, as to enable us boldly to 
assert that each of the above quoted slight changes occur as 
much in Africa, without any contact with the whites, without 
any transportation across the sea, and are developed amongst 
the Negroes themselves. The proof for our assertion is easily 
found: the extract from PruneruBey's article on Negproes, 
which we gave in a preceding lecture, confirms our view, as 
Pruner-Bey has only examined African Negproes in Africa. 
But supposing these changres to take place only in America, 
do these changes, upon which so much value is set, affect any 
of the essential features of the organisation, especially the skull 
and the skeleton f Have any of these gentlemen compared 
a slave-skull, I will not say of a hundred and fifty years ago, 
but one of only three preceding generations, with that of a native 
Negro skull? And how do these observations agpree with 
the measurements of Aitken Meigs, who assigns to American 
slave-skulls less capacity than to the skulls of Negproes bom 
in Africa? 

We might say still more : was either of these observers, such 



482 LiCTUU zv. 

u Lyell^ Reiset^ BAcIub, in a condition to comp«re large nnm- 
bera of recently imported African Negroes with as many 
Creole Negroes^ as since 1808 no more slaves liaye been im- 
ported into America^ so that the observations were only made 
forty years after the above period f And finally^ what guaran- 
tee have these gentlemen for the pure descent of these Negroes f 
We know the brutality of the slaveholders, who not only claim 
Hie jus prifncB noctis, but also the first child, and who with de- 
testable cruelty,* and with an utter disregard of every human 
feeling, recross such bastards with the black race and keep 
them in slavery. 

The American Anglo-Saxons, or Yankees, are also cited as 
an instance of change of characters. " Already, after the 
second generation,'' says Pruner-Bey in Quatrefages, ''the 
Yankee presents features of the Indian type. At a later 
period, the glandular system is reduced to the minimum of its 
normal development. The skin becomes dry like leather, the 
colour of the cheeks is lost, and is in males replaced by a loamy 
tint, and in females by a saDow paleness. The head becomes 
smaller and rounder, and is covered with stiff dark hair; the 
neck becomes longer, and there is a greater development of 
the cheek bones and the masseters. The temporal fosssd 
become deeper, the jaw bones more massive, the eyes lie in 
deep approximated sockets. The iris is dark, the glance is 
piercing and wild. The long bones, especially in the superior 
extremities, are lengthened, so that the gloves manufactured in 
England and France for the American market are of a particu- 
lar make with very long fingers. The female pelvis approaches 
that of the male.'' '' America," adds Quatrefages, '' has thus 
altered the Anglo-Saxon type, and produced from the English 
race a new white race whidi might be called the Yankee race." 

We have nothing to say against this ; for we also believe that 
America dries up the skin and reduces the fat, — an effect 
ito which all the above differences might be reduced. That 
the head becomes smaller, we utterly deny ; the exact cranial 

* The anthor eridently writes in entire iffnoranoe of the real fiMrts, and 
the orednlity which he haa here shown in hdiering the stories pnt forwBid 
by the " philanthropists" of Exeter HsJl* and the absurd fictions of Ifra. 
Beedher 8towe» is the more remarkable, as l^tot Vogt is not given to belieTe 
withovit some reliable eridenoe.— Editob. 



LSCTUBX XY. 483 

meaBorementfi by Morton oontradict this assertion categorically, 
by showing that the skull of the Yankee is as large as that 
of the Englishman. Thns the alleged differences are reduced 
to a minimum, and are the less to be depended upon, as the 
Anglo-Saxon race is itself a mongrel race, produced by Celts, 
Saxons, Normans, and Danes, a raceless chaos without any 
fixed type; and the descendants of this raceless multitude have 
in America so much inteimixed with Frenchmen, Germans, 
Dutch, and Irish, as to have given rise to another raceless 
chaos, which is kept up by continued immigration. We can 
readily believe that from this chaos a new race is gradually 
forming. The facts at hand are, However, by no means so 
decisive as to justify us in considering these characters as 
constant. We must, moreover, add that the German families, 
who have been settled in Pennsylvania quite as long as the 
Anglo-Saxons, and have kept their race pure, do not present 
the transition into the Yankee type, but preserve that of tbeir 
stock. The so-called Anglo-Saxon race, which, in point of 
fact, is no real race, as no fixed type has been produced by its 
manifold intermixtures with foreign peoples, that so-called 
race has, certainly, undergone some alterations in a foreign 
climate, whilst the fixed Germano-Saxon race, which main- 
tains itself with great tenacity in its old dwelling places in 
Grermany, has not dianged even in America. Here again 
we have that difference in the conduct of old fixed and new 
formed races already touched upon. 

The Jews also have been cited as a proof of alteration, even 
though, as is here the case, the stock is kept pure. It is true 
we find, chiefly in the North, in Russia and Poland, Germany 
and Bohemia, a tribe of Jews frequently with red hair, short 
beard, pug nose, small grey cunning eyes, massive trunk, 
round fuce and broad cheek bones, resembling many Sda- 
vonian tribes of the North. In the East, on the contrary, and 
about the Mediterranean, as well as in Portugal and Holland, 
we find the Semitic stock with long black hair and beard, large 
almond-shaped eyes with a melancholy expression, oval tace 
and prominent nose; in short, that type represented in the 
portraits of Rembrandt. In Africa finally, on the Red Sea in 

FF 



434 LKCTUBX XT. 

Abyssinia, we find a Jewish nation, which despises trade, 
carries on agricnltore and other handicrafts, and is seemingly 
not distinguishable from the other peoples of the country. 
They themselves derive their descent from the mythical Qneen 
Sheba, who is said to have visited Solomon, when she and her 
household embraced Judaism. 

The Jews, it was thought, thus afford a proof of the depend- 
ence of the stock . on the cUmate, in as much as in the North 
they approached the Sdavonian, in the Mediterranean the 
Oriental, and in the South the Abyssinian type. The proofs 
are, however, insufficient. On the Bed Sea the Jews had settle- 
ments from a remote period where, before Mohammed, they 
ruled in small districts, and, contrary to their usual custom, 
made many proselytes. The investigations of Jewish scholars, 
especially those of Dr. Ascher, made in Abyssinia, have shown 
this conversion, but no affinity of race. All Jewish scholars 
agree also that both types have existed from the remotest 
period, so that some reduce them to the multitude of -people 
which accompanied the Jews on their departure from Egypt, 
and passed with them through the Bed Sea; though it is 
rather surprising that this rabble too (the Hebrew expression 
still used among the Jews) should also have been worthy of the 
particular protection of their own God. Thus the differences 
obtaining between Jews seem to result rather from original tribe 
peculiarities than from change of localities. AnolJier argu- 
ment in favour of this view is, that the Jews of the Oriental 
type expelled from Portugal, who for several centuries have 
been settled in Holland, have preserved their peculiarities 
unaltered ; whilst, on the other hand, in the East, the two Jew- 
ish types lived also for centuries side by side in the same climate 
and conditions, and preserved their respective characters. 

We must, however, as regards these changes, not lose sight 
of a point which seems to us of considerable importance. 
" It required,'* says Quatrefages, '* scarcely two centuries to 
transform the Irish Celt into a kind of Australian ; two cen- 
turies and a half, at most ten or twelve generations, have 
sufficed to change the Anglo-Saxon into a Yankee. We may 
thus infer the effects which -numbers of centuries, hundreds 



LtCTUKt XT. 435 

of generationSj may prodaoe in man^ nay, mnst liave prodaoedj 
when the savage or aemi-barbarooa popniationa knew not how 
to protect themselyes from the influences of the new climate^ 
when they had to struggle against animal and vegetable nature^ 
against the physico-diemical forces which predominated. How 
much more destmctiye must at that time have been the 
struggle for life than it is now for those travelling pioneers 
whose courage we so much admire. And how much more 
durable and deeper must be the traces of those struggles." 

It appears to me that many facts are here confounded which 
ought to be separated. The struggle for existence in a new 
country may be deadly^ because the number of deaths ex* 
ceeds that of births^ and then there can be no question of a 
dumge of race, for it becomes extinct I Or, again, the struggle 
is not S3 deadly, that is to say, the number of births exceeds 
that of deaths, and the race adapts itself to the new conditions. 
This is done within a few generations, when a condition is 
established corresponding to the altered vital condition. We 
have for this the clearest proofs in the domestic animals which 
are transplanted to foreign climates. Hog, sheep, oat, and dog 
have thus within a few generations, in southern climates, passed 
through such changes as, for instance, the Egyptian goose in 
Europe. After that diange, which, as stated, was effected 
within a few generations, and the race was acclimatised, no 
further modification took place. And we may easily convince 
ourselves that it must be so. For if modifications are requisite 
to live in a foreign climate, these modifications must be rapidly 
accomplished to preserve the race from threatened destruc- 
tion. If then, we say, that a race which has undergone modi- 
fications within a few generations, must for that reason undergo 
a corresponding sum of alterations at a subsequent period ; if 
we were to establish a quasi rule of three, and say : since this^ 
this race has within three generations experienced x altera- 
tions, consequently it must within thirty generations have under- 
gone 10 X alterations, as Quatrefages would put it, we commit a 
scientific error, and excite hopes which can never be realised. 

We thus infer that all instances which have been cited of 
changes in races of pure descent, by the mere influence of 

ff2 



436 LECTUBS XT. 

changed media^ emigration into foreign oonntries^ ete. are 
insignificant, and do not affect tlie essential raoe-chaTacters* 
These modifications, therefore, which we by no means entirely 
deny, do not in any way explain the differences in the human 
species. As we, always in accordance with the facts, must 
assame a fundamental difference of races as onr starting pointy 
the crossing question now presents itself. Here, as with do- 
mestic animals, the question was simply answered by the state- 
ment, that all races of mankind can interbreed, and that their 
mongrels are indefinitely prolific. But on closer examination it is 
found that the same conditions present themselves as in other 
animals, specially domestic animals; namely, that there are 
crossings which are sterile ; others in which the bastards are 
but little fertile inter se, but more so with the parent stock ; 
and again, there are others which are between themselyea 
indefinitely prolific. 

There can be no doubt that the yarious white races which 
have intermixed in Europe and Asia are infinitely prolific. 
Though by dose examination we may, from this commixture, 
pick out the original stocks of which tiie civilised peoples are 
composed ; still all European peoples are more or less inter- 
mixed, the proofs of which glimmer forth from beneath their 
respective characters. Now these populations of Europe in- 
crease everywhere ; but nowhere do we find a pure unmixed 
stock or race ; it thus admits of no doubt, that the mongrels 
of the white race are indefinitely fertile. 

It is not quite so in the commixture of races more removed 
from each other. The connections of Whites with negresses 
are fruitful, and their issue — the mulattoes — are prolific both 
between each other and with the parent stock. It is true that 
race prejudices interfere with the connection of mulattoes be- 
tween themselves, as the mulatto woman prefers rather to be 
the concubine of a white man than the wife of a black, and 
considers it an honour to have a child by a white man ; whilst, 
on the other hand, the mulatto i^pares no effort to obtain a 
white wife, and only returns to the black parent stock by com- 
pulsion. Thus it comes to pass that, in speaking of mulattoes, 
we find only the mongrels of the firat blood, for by recrossing 



LIOTUBB zv. 487 

they are ultimately absorbed in one of the parent stocks. It 
might also, taken strictly, be boldly asserted tbat there exists 
no proof for the infinite prolificacy of molattoes between each 
other; and it might even be maintained that they or their 
descendants must necessarily be sterile between each other, 
inasmuch as nowhere can successive generations of such mu- 
lattoes be shown to exist. It would, indeed, be difiicnlt to find 
in any country a single instance of grandchildren of a mulatto 
by pure inbreeding ; whilst, on the contrary, the mongrels, by 
recrossing, exist in all possible gradations, 60 that a number 
of terms have been invented in transatlantic countries to 
designate these crossbreeds. 

The connections between negro and a white female seem to 
be less prolific, for anatomical reasons, which appear to be well 
founded. That they are productive at times there is no doubt, 
but the cases are so rare, that we possess no facts as regards 
the bastards so produced. 

The distribution of the parental characters in Mulattoes and 
human mongrels in general, seem to differ as much as in 
animals. Sometimes the Mulattoes resemble more the White, 
and sometimes more the Negro. Thus Idslet-GeoSroy, the 
mathematician, though the son of a Frenchman and a Negress, 
presented physically nearly all the characters of the Negro. 
Quatrefages tells a story of a black servant who had married a 
white woman, and found on his return from a journey that his 
wife had given birth to a child so white, that he would not 
acknowledge it until the nudwife showed him some black spots 
on the body. A Doctor Parsons, who saw the child, authen- 
ticates this case. It is very probable that neither the father 
nor the Doctor had ever seen a new-bom Negro child, and 
were therefore not aware that the dark colour is only gradu- 
ally developed. 

Some American authors assert that they have ascertained a 
difference in the fertility of the Mulattoes, according as the 
white fathers belong to different stocks. Nott observes that 
in South Carolina the Mulattoes are shorter lived and less fit 
for hard labour than the Whites and the Negroes ; that the 
Mulatto women are very delicate and subject to many chronic 



438 LlCTUfiX XY. 

diseases ; that they are bad wet nurses and freqaently miacany ; 
that their children die youngs and that the Mnlattoes are less 
fertile inter se than with their parent stocks. Bnt Nott found 
subsequently that these inferences^ though correct as regards 
South Carolina, did not apply to Louisiana and the banks of 
the Mississippi; hence he concluded that the Latin races of 
Europe produced with the Negro race mongrels more viable 
than the Anglo-Saxons. This fact seems also to have been 
established as regards Jamaica, colonised by the English, for 
the Mulattoes do not seem to thrive there, whilst on the 
islands colonised by the French, Spaniards, and Portuguese 
the Mulattoes show the same vitality as in Louisiana. At- 
tempts have been made to explain these differences from local 
influences, but it would be very strange if the English should, 
by mere chance, have chosen such spots as are destructive to 
Mulattoes, whilst the Latin races should have selected those 
districts which are favourable to their development. 

It may happen, that in the intermixture of certain races, the 
prolificacy is increased in the same degree as in the inbreeding 
of half- and three-eighth hares. Hombron, cited by Quatre- 
fages, observes on this point : ''During the four years which 
I passed in Brazil, Peru, and Chile, I amused myself with 
observing the curious intermixtures of Negroes with the 
natives. I have even noted down the number of children in 
many households, of Whites with Negresses, Whites and 
American women, Negroes with American natives, and Negroes 
inter ae. In our colonies the Whites are only moderately 
prolific with Negresses ; they are, however, very prolific witii 
Mulatto women, and so are Mulattoes inter se. I can aflirm that 
the marriages between European men and American women 
furnish the greatest average number of children; then come 
Negro and Negress ; then Negro and American female. The 
scanty fertility of Americans between themselves depends 
probably on the moderate development of their sexual in- 
stinct.'' The latter reason, by the way, means as much as if 
we were to say that the reason why the Arabs drink so little is 
that they feel but little thirst. The intercourse of the Latin 
race with the Indian seems to be remarkably fertile ; for the 



LIOTUBI XY. 489 

South Amerioan States, almost exdiudyely populated by Span- 
iards and Portngnese, are now chiefly inhabited by a mongrel 
raoOj the issne of that intermixture. These mongrel races 
may certainly be partly considered as perfectly raceless masses. 
No constant type has as yet been formed, probably becaose 
there is a continuous re-crossing with either of the parent 
stocks and their direct descendants. But we should not feel 
surprised to see a new race gradually developed, which might 
be compared to the hare-rabbits. That these cross-breds of 
Indians and Whites are not wanting in culture, and, in certain 
respects, are superior to the aborigines, as well as the Creoles, 
is best shown by the present war in Mexico, where the Re- 
public, under the leadership of a mongrel (Juarez), offers a 
heroic resistance to a weD-disciplined army. 

We know but little concerning the intermixture of European 
nations with South- Asiatics and Malays. Despite the great num- 
ber of connections between the Dutch men and Java women, 
which generally prove fertile, and the products of which are 
called ''Liplaps,'' nb mongrel race has been produced ; as little 
as in India, so that in both colonies the belief prevails that 
these mongrels become sterile inter se in the third generation. 

The fertility of Europeans with Polynesians is attested by 
the histoiy of Pitcaim island, where from a few English sailors 
and some Tahitian women a small mongrel race of about two 
hundred individuals originated, who are favourably distin- 
guished by bodily conformation, muscular power, and intelli- 
gence. But this instance is to some extent invalidated by the 
circumstance, that even upon islands where there is much in- 
tercourse between ship-crews and native women no mongrel 
race has been formed, whilst the natives themselves diminish 
and apparently approach extinction. 

The connections between whites and Australian females 
seem to be the least prolific of all. According to Broca^ 
only a single bastard has been mentioned by many travellers. 
Whilst the terms designating in America the numerous cross- 
breeds form no small vocabulaiy, and whilst the English 
in Australia and New South Wales have a number of nick- 
names for the varieties of white colonists, there is no term 



440 LSCTUBI TV. 

indicating the cross-breed between Enropean and Australian^ 
nor is there any administratiye law as regards such bastards* 
'' We may therefore^'' continnes Broca^ '' assmne it as a &ct^ 
that cross-breeds of Europeans and native Australian women 
are very rare. This fact is so much opposed to the usual 
theory of the interbreeding of human races, that it is wordi 
while to examine whether there may not be other than physio- 
logical causes for it/'- Broca then shows that sexual inter- 
course between Europeans and Australian women, so tea from 
being rare, is, on the contrary, yery frequent, for the simple 
reason that there are but few European females ; he further 
proves that the bastards are not, as has been asserted, killed, 
and that, in spite of numerous connections of this kind, there 
exist so few mongrels, that we possess no information concern- 
ing their physical and mental characters, and their prolificacy. 
In the presence of such facts, we cannot be surprised that this 
degree of sterility occurs in such races as, both by physical 
conformation as well as by distance, are far remote from each 
other. The objections to these facts by Quatrefages are so 
weak that they require no refiitation. Even if it were true 
that the Australians kill the bastards who with their mothers 
return to their tribe, it might at the same time be fairly as- 
sumed that all European fathers, who produce children with 
Australian women, are not such monsters as to expose them to 
certain death. We cannot suppose such an abnegation of 
every human feeling to have existed even among the first 
criminal population of Australia. 

In now casting a retrospective glance at the changes pro- 
duced by external influences and by intermixture in the various 
races inhabiting the globe, we arrive at certain conclusions 
which may be fairly inferred from the facts at hand. 

1 . The differences in the human genus which we may desig- 
nate either races or species, (both terms appear to me as 
regards natural races perfectiy identical), these differences are, 
as far as we can trace them, original and have in the course of 
time been transmitted unchanged upon the same soil. 

2. The changes, which these original species can undergo 
by external influences of any kind, are so slight that they can- 
not be compared with the primary differences. 



LECTURE XT. 441 

8. The raoeless masses prodaoed by transportation into a 
foreign climate may^ by pnre imbreeding^ give rise to a new 
human race or species^ the characters of which mighty indeed^ 
become fixed after a few generations^ bnt would require a very 
long period of time before they can acquire that constancy 
which distinguishes the original species of mankind. 

4. The various species of mankind present in crossing dif- 
ferent degrees of fertilily . Most of them are between each other 
indefinitely prolific^ as also are their descendants; in some the 
fertility is so limited^ that no mongrel race can be produced by 
them. 

& The mongrel races gradually attain by inbreeding that 
constancy of characters which distinguishes the original race, 
so that from this commixture new species may arise. 

6. Heterogeneous races have by intermixture given rise to 
raoeless masses — ^peoples which present no fixed characters^ 
and form^ so to speak> dispersive circles around the orig^inal 
species,, which at their points of contact become confluent. 

I cannot deny that these views are not exclusively derived 
from what is observed in man, but chiefly from what is seen 
in domestic and wild animals. But this, if I am not mistaken, 
gives greater weight to them. We are not so blind as to 
maintain, that the original spedes of mankind can undergo no 
change by the influence of surrounding media. We neither 
deny intermixture nor the mongrel races to which it has given 
rise, but we are unable to perceive th«t their existence can 
entirely obliterate the original diffbrenoe, or aSbrd a proof for 
an original unity, which is opposed to all known facts. Again 
we neither deny the disappearance and extinction of well cha- 
racterised races, nor the rise of new races and species from the 
commixture of existing species, intensified perhaps by the influ- 
ence of external media. All this is confirmed by the facts ob- 
served in the rest of the animal worid. For the development of 
this view we certainly as little require supernatural influences, or 
direct interference of foreign forces, as Laplace required a 
divine interference for celestial mechanics, an hypothesis which 
a modem pious defender of the unity of species, in the &ce of 
all &cts, advances in this manner : 



412 LiCTunx XT. 

'' I am of opinion that daring a period^ probably of sereral 
centuries, after God had multiplied the languages, separated 
the various tribes which spoke different languages, and distri- 
buted these peoples over the surface of the globe. He endowed 
in tlie course of generations each race, as it became a nation, 
with a peculiar external character. In appointing to each 
stock a dwelling place, God also endowed it with a capacity to 
live either in the arctic, temperate, or torrid zone ; He also 
taught them, or assisted them, in their invention of means to 
satisfy their wants, and finally presented them with useful 
plants proper to the climate, and which do not grow wild.'' 

This is the explanation of Doctor Sagot, who in this nuumer 
reconciles the diversity of mankind with Biblical unity. If 
God really fed the animals in the ark of Noah with food from 
heaven, all difficulties are at an end. If all natural conditions 
and facts which oppose a myth are to be removed by a direct 
divine interference, natural science is useless. We have not 
arrived yet at this point in the civilised world, although some 
eyes are turned in that direction. 



443 



LECTURE XVI. 

Origin of Ofganio Katiire.-*DiilineiioM between the Qigtaio tn^g^Mnm ^ad 
their mib-DiTiaioiis. — Origin of Organio CeUe. — ^Theory of Darwin. — Vj 
change of Opinion.— Creation of Spedea.— MntabiUtj of Type.— Con- 
aeqnenoea of this Theory.— Adaptation and Ilzation of l>pee.— Prao* 
tioal Conoeption of Speeiea.— Variation in Adaptation and Slownen of 
Tranaformation. — Fretent and Former TranaiUon Ttp^.— Cebna. — 
Bean.— The Qreek Monkey of the Tertiary Period.— Ezdnaiye IHewa of 
CnTier and Agaads. — ^Sarity of Transition Forma. — Progrcerion and 
B o t r o gro Mi o n. — Fondamental Plan in the Straetore of Animale — "So 
■ingle Original Organic Form. — ^DeriTation of the Hnman from the Ape- 
Type. — ^DeriTation of the three Anthropoid Apea from three different 
Families. — The Yarioos original Homan Baoes mnst be deriTed from 
different Ape Fkmiliea.— Lamentations of Moralists. 

GiNTLiMiN, — ^The desire of man to inquire into the origin of 
all things produces daily fresh attempts of ascending the scale 
leading in that direction. Faith has in this respect an easy 
task ; it builds upon some old myth a system which points to 
an unknown beyond. The path of science is more rugged, as 
it must steadily keep to the principle, not to depart from the 
facts and the limits fixed by observation and experiment. The 
further back science proceeds, the more necessary is it to use 
caution in drawing inferences from the facts, and the greater 
should be the candour in confessing the gaps which are every 
where met with ; not for the reason that no created being can 
penetrate into the sanctuary of Nature, but simply because the 
facts and observations are so numerous that they cannot be 
mastered by one individual. 

The origin of organic nature has always attracted the atten- 
tion both of the professional naturalist and the general student. 
Observation teaches that every organic being owes its origin to 
parents, which are again the product of other parents; no 
where is there an interruption in the series, so that notwith- 
standing aU assertions to the contrary, the production of organic 
beings from original elements has hitherto failed. However 



444 LECTCBS XVI. 

glad^ to tell the trnth^ I miglit be to accept the theory of spon- 
taneous greneration; however illogical it appears to me to 
assume for the production of organic beings a special force in 
nature, which we observe nowhere else; however natural it 
may be to search in this primeval generation foi' the starting 
point of organic creation, which might then have developed 
itself in various directions by the influence of various causes ; 
I must on the other hand confess, that only the most stringent 
proofs could induce me to adopt it. If this be forthcoming I 
shall accept it most willingly ; till then, I must acknowledge 
the existence of this gap in our science, though I entertain the 
hope that we shall finally succeed in filling it up. 

Organic creation, considered in its totality, presents a remark- 
able diversity. The chief kingdoms of nature, the vegetable 
and animal kingdoms, appear sharply separated from each 
other. Even within these kingdoms there are some divisions 
so diBBimilar in structure and fundamental plan, that again we 
imagine a gulf to exist between them. It is, however, soon 
perceived that there are some groups which have a closer 
connection; that the similarities of sioructure grow out during 
the development of the individual ; that the g^ups related to 
each other proceed from a common fundamental form, fix>m 
which these diversities veiy gradually arise. 

It was no small triumph for microscopic science when 
Schwann proved that all the tissues, whether vegetable or 
animal, owe their origin to certain elementary forms which he 
called cells, — a &ct now generally admitted. There exists at 
present no doubt with regard to the development of every 
vegetable or animal organism from a single cell, — ^from the egg. 
There are organisms, both vegetable and animal, consisting of 
one cell only, which is endowed with all capacities requisite 
for life and propagation. AU other organisms, however com- 
plicated they may be, are merely masses of cells, differently 
shaped and g^uped, and have all been developed from one 
primordial ceU. 

Whilst thus the uniiy of the fandamental plan in the struc- 
ture of the vegetable and animal world is no long^er doubtful; 
whilst it is manifest that there are a number of primitive organ- 



UCTUBE zn. 4i6 

isms which oocnpy an intermediate position between the 
vegetable and animal worlds and thus apparnntly conatitnte a 
connecting link between the two kingdoms, we mnst, on the 
other hand, not forget that " celF' is only an abstract notion, and 
that there prevail many diversities in the individual cells of 
the various organisms and their respective organs — differences 
which must be considered as original, and which therefore 
from the very beginning impart to the organisms arising from 
them a special direction in development. If, therefore, it be 
said that all organisms arise from a single cell, and that this 
cell is the fbndamental and primordial form of the organism, 
it is perfectly correct; but if it be attempted to redace all 
existing organisms to one primordial elementary cell, from 
which they may have been developed, the axiom is false. Not 
only do organisms that stand in an intermediate position 
between animals and plants consist of different kinds of cells ; 
not only are these cells developed in a different mode, so that 
we are able to distingnish different species of these organisms ; 
but also those egg-cells from which the more compound organ- 
isms are developed, show, from the beg^inning,. a fundamental 
difference both in form and subsequent development. The 
attempts, therefore, to reduce the whole organic world to one 
fundamental form, so to speak, to one primordial cell, from 
which all organisms have been developed in different directions, 
are as futile as the assumption of those naturalists who con- 
sider that the whole organic creation had been developed 
from an elementary plastic matter, the so-called primordial 
slime. In assuming the possibility that by the co-opera- 
tion of some forces — as yet unknown to us— on organic cell 
may be produced from diemical elements, it is clear that the 
slightest change in the action of these elements must effect a 
change in the product, that is to say in the cells produced. 
But as it is impossible to assume that on the whole surface of 
the earth the same causes have acted, and are still acting, 
under the same conditions and with the same intensity in the 
production of such elementary cells, the deduction is clear, 
namely, that the original cells from which the organisms were 
developed must have possessed diversified forms and a different 



446 LSCTUBX XVI. 

capacity for fiixiher development^ ao that the actual diversities 
were conditioned bj differences in the primary forms. 

In bringring before yon this hypothesis^ — ^for as yet it is no 
more, — ^I do so to prove to yon that even on the assumption of 
a gradual development of such types, as we find both in exist- 
ing and extinct species, we are not led, as so often asserted, 
to an original nnily of the whole organic world ; but that we 
must, on the contrary, acknowledge that in that abstract unity, 
termed a cell, there must necessarily have existed an original 
difference, — such as that existing in the organisms interme- 
diate between plant and animal. But just in this, as appears 
to me, lies another reason for the assumption that the organic 
world might have been developed from such a beginning. If 
it be difficult to conceive how the great diversity of organic 
iypes could have been developed from a common soil ; it can, 
on the other hand, not be denied that an intrinsic difference in 
the constitution of this soil may have g^ven rise to the diver- 
sities of the types sprung from it. 

The theory of the gradual development of iypes from pri- 
marily common forms, has recently, with much ingenuity, 
been advocated by Darwin, after it had been formerly advanced 
by French and German naturalists, and especially by Lamarck, 
though in a different form. This theory, as then advanced, 
certainly found in me a violent and sincere opponent ; but as 
it is now propounded, I must confess that it appears to 
me to afford, better than any other theory, a clue to the 
affinity of individual types, and it seems in every respect a 
step in advance towards the knowledge of truth. When I 
opposed the doctrine of the gradual transformation of types, 
I was certainly much prejudiced by received opinions, which 
obtrude upon anyone engaged in sdentifio researches. The 
sharp contrast apparently existing between species, the sys- 
tematic distribution and strict division of the different groups, 
must necessarily have a similar influence upon a young stu- 
dent, as that produced by the contrasts which he finds in 
living characters. And just as in daily life we gradually be- 
come convinced that there exist no human beings absolutely 
good nor absolutely bad, — that life and society oscillate be- 



LSCTUBS XVI. 447 

tween two extremes, ; so do we find^ in the inyestigationfl of 
the forms of the animal world and their development from the 
eggj that here also the contrasts diminish, and that there 
exist a number of forms which may well have been derived 
from each other. Isidpre GeoSroj Saint-Hilaire has pointed 
out how the views of Boffon, as regards the limits and fixation 
of the conception of species, gradnallj changed ; how, at first, 
he yentored npon a hard definition which admitted of no 
flexion, and how he gradually adapted it to the facts which he 
had gathered throngh life, and which he was wise enongh not to 
reject because they clashed with his theory. I also lay claim to 
the benefit derived from continued self-instruction, as regards 
the change of my opinion. 

Darwin endeavours to show that every animal and every 
plant sustains a constant struggle for existence, that it has to 
contest for space, aliment and propagation, not only with the 
surrounding physical agents, but with the whole organio 
world, in which every other individual has the same rights to 
space, aliment, and propagation. Every germ, eyeiy egg, 
has a claim to life, but not every egg is developed, nor 
every germ unfolded. Most succumb in this struggle, some 
sooner, some later ; that individual only, which by itself or by 
association is strong enough to issue firom this battle as victor, 
is enabled to live and to enjoy life. 

. The question now arises, whether an adaptation of the indi- 
vidual as well as of its progeny to the conditions of existence 
can take place ? The question is, whether this adaptation by 
continued improvement, continued breeding, if we may thus 
express it, can lead to transformations which may compel us to 
acknowledge these products as new types. On this point most 
naturalists difier in opinion. 

The prevailing opinion, hitherto, was, that species are fixed 
normal types, which may undergo changes within a yery limited 
splhere ; that they were the expression of a definite realised 
idea ; that they were the separate unchangeable materials from 
which, according to a creative plan, the structure of the organio 
world had been erected. It was also asserted that species can 
indeed perish, but cannot be transformed; that from time to 



448 LECTUBB ZYI. 

time tihe organic world is destroyed, afber which a new orea-* 
tion takes place after an improyed plan by a divine *^ fiaV^ 

I have already stated that the idea of a Creator, who from 
time to time destroys the fumitore of the earth, and supplies a 
new one, was repugnant to my notions. I said No I I cannot 
believe this. But as I had no better theory to offer, I was 
obliged to confess, like Kiinol, the professor of Theology at 
Giessen, who, having lectured for a fortnight on the resurrec- 
tion of Christ, during which time he had exhausted the mani- 
fold hypotheses of theologians on that subject, concluded as 
follows : '' To tell the truth, gentlemen, I must confess we 
know nothing at all about it.'' 

Darwin starts from the mutability of types. He instances 
not merely the domestic, but also wild animals and plants in 
support of his theory. In the struggle for existence, he con- 
tends, evexy animal must endeavour to attain that relative 
perfection which enables it to sustain that struggle. The 
transmission of characters, which is undeniable, and even that 
of individual characters, which is also established, renders it 
possible that such peculiarities, which are advantageous to this 
struggle, may also be transmitted to, and further developed in 
the offspring. There thus arises a breed by natural selection, 
which in some privileged individuals acquires a particular fixed 
type. In this manner, that is to say, by continued and unin- 
terrupted transmission arise new varieties, races, and species ; 
and as this transformation process is continued through long 
periods of time, the production of such natural selections may, 
at last, so much deviate from each other, that they represent 
genera, families, orders, classes, and kingdoms. 

It is not surprising that Darwin's theory, of which I have 
griven you but an imperfect sketch, has excited much opposi- 
tion. Coarse attacks were directed against this naturalist, the 
author of sterling works. At present, the opponents have given 
up refuting ; for as there is much in this theory that cannot 
be refuted, they confine themselves to calling Darwin's theory 
a dream, an ingenious hypothesis, a dazzling firework, and 
think they have done for a work fraught with such momentous 
consequences. 



uenmi xn. 449 

These oonBeqnenoes btb oertaixily formidable in some re- 
apects. There can be no donbt that Darwin's theory ignores a 
personal creator^ and his direct interference in the transforma- 
tion and creation of species, there being no sphere of action for 
snch a being. Given the first starting point — ^the first organism 
— all existing organisms are subsequently, by natural selection, 
developed from it in a continaoos manner through all geolo- 
gical periods by the simple laws of transmission. There arise 
no new species by any creative interference; none disappear 
by a divine mandate of destruction, since the natural course of 
things, the process of development of all organisms and of 
the earth is amply sufficient for the production of all these phe- 
nomena. Even man is neither a distinct creature, fonned in a 
special manner, and differently firom aU other animals, nor pro- 
vided with a special soul and endowed with a divine breath of 
life — ^he is only the highest product of a progressive natural 
selection, and descends from the simious group standing next 
to man. 

Darwin, it must here be stated, has nowhere in his work 
touched upon these sequences, so that from the richness of 
materials, and the logi(»l treatment of the leading idea, the 
work met at first with a very favourable reception in England 
— a country so much attached to Biblical traditions. But when 
it was perceived upon what base the theory rests, the storm 
broke forth from all quarters of the compass; nor has the 
agitation as yet subsided. But we must not be disconcerted 
by attacks of this kind ; let us then pursue our investigations. 

If it be once established, that species may generally success- 
fuUy intermix and produce prolific mongrels; if, on the other 
hand, it is ascertained that for their adaptation to surrounding 
conditions they may undergo changes, tiie limits of which are 
not yet determined, there are two ways open in which new 
forms may arise. There exists no doubt a conservative ele- 
ment in the fixation of characters in unchanged external 
media, otherwise the transformation would be infinite for 
eveiy type. Darwin has, perhaps, taken too littie notice of 
this element, as his chief object was to establish mutability, 
which hitherto had been denied. 

GG 



450 LICTUBB ZVI. 

We have seen ihat the notion of 'spedes' neither is nor 
can be fized^ and that practically every author conceives it 
differently. Any one who has seen the conchologrical collection 
in the Paris Ja/rdin des Plantes, most have observed twenty 
or thirty species ticketed as races or varieties^ which in the 
British Mnseom are arranged as well characterised indepen- 
dent species. Each of these scientific institutions defends its 
own theory on apparently sufficient grounds. The one points 
out the faransition forms ; the other the distinctive marks in 
these forms. But this is not the only instance in which natu- 
ralists differ; and in approaching man, I shall here touch 
upon the ape. By the side of some well characterised species, 
about which all are agreed, there are others, e. g. the capu- 
chin, the brown Cebus, the howling monkey, and even the 
orang, which by different authors are divided into dozens of 
species ; so that it may be asserted that the viewa as regards the 
specification of monkeys disagree quite as much as those concern* 
ing thai of mankind. Here, therefore, the principle of muta- 
bility must play an important part, and there must exist a 
series of forms which stand in the dosQst relation to each 
other. All naturalists admit, that spepies occupy only a 
limited sphere of distribution, which may be wider or nar- 
rower, and within which they arrive at the gpreatest perfection; 
but that at the boundaries of these spheres, these species de- 
generate, that is to say, assume other forms in order to adapt 
themselves to altered conditions. That this mutability might 
go much further and transgress the limits usually drawn 
for species, we have already shown in the races of domestic 
animals, which are in fact species. 

From the same example we have also learned that when the 
surrounding media are unchanged, the production of new 
species can only be effected by intermixture of allied species. 
At first, the issue of such commixtures will be raceless masses, 
the characters of which have no particular constancy ; but by 
degrees fixed characters are evolved from such masses, which 
produce a constant race, — a typical species. 

It is clear that so long as the surrounding media remain the 
same, a iypically fixed species will experience but little change. 



LBCTUBl XYI. 451 

bat win liave its oharacten more fixed. It henoe is explained 
that the old species^ the relics of which we find in the aUayinnij 
and the spedes which existed 5^000 years ago in Egypt^ 
the mmmnies of which we find in the graYes, have not clumged 
since that period, but represent the same l^pes now as then. 
Just as there are species which in the present creation are 
scattered over a considerable tract of inhabitable climates, 
and which for their acclimatization require only insignificant 
modifications, so are there types, which daring geological 
changes have remained onaltered till the present period. The 
genas Lingula has thos been pointed oat, as having remained 
onchanged since the deposition of the oldest Silarian beds to 
the present period, and as being represented in almost all 
strata by several species differing bat little from each other. 
Here we find a remarkable constancy, bat I cannot look apon 
this as a proof against Darwin's theory. The error is con- 
stantly committed of applying the conditions foand in some 
species to the whole animal kingdom, and forcing it into a 
strait jacket which the variety in natare does not tolerate. 
Though the matability and adaptation to external conditions 
be a possibility, it is no absolate necessity for all types, as 
little as the namber of these changes, requisite for adaptation, 
is the same in all types. We know that some species cannot 
be acclimatized at all, othera are easily acclimatized: some 
cannot andergo the slightest change withoat pexishing, while 
othen experience important alterations before they become 
adapted to the new conditions. And so, in the histoxy of the 
earth, there mast necessarily exist similar differences, in- 
asmuch as certain species and types last only short periods 
and then perish ; oUiers keep pace with the changes of sar- 
rounding media, and andergo comparatively great alterations. 
Othen, again, require only insignificant modifications for their 
preservation. 

Although the changes which we now observe in creation are 
inconsiderable and insignificant, we must not forget that the 
histoxy of the earth extends over a series of ages of which 
we have no conception, and that this etemiiy (for we cannot 
term it otherwise) comprises an immense series of change, 

oo2 



452 LECTURE XVI. 

carried on slowly, bat which, in their totality, exceed anything 
we are able to observe within the span of time open to onr 
view. The npheavings and subsidences of continents, the 
altered proportions of land to sea, the gradations of climates, 
in short, all changes on the surface of the earth made known 
to US by geology, have not been effected by sudden convulsions, 
but have been gradually and impercepibly produced. The 
changes in the animal world have proceeded pari poMU^ and 
while many inflexible races have perished, others have been 
transformed, and thus present a series of changes, the terminal 
points of which deviate so much, that families, orders, classes, 
might have issued from them. 

It has long been acknowledged that the actual creation re- 
presents by no means an ideal whole, the members of which 
are harmoniously connected, and that it can only be considered 
in its ensemble by including the extinct animals. What in the 
present animal world appears as perfectly distinct becomes 
cemented by the transitions represented in extinct animals, 
so that every new discovery adds an intermediate link in the 
series of forms. Just as in the external animal world, no 
definite boundaiy-line can be drawn between fishes and am- 
phibia, inasmuch as the genera Lepidoriren and Protopterus 
present the most evident transitional forms, so that, according 
as a naturalist considers this or that character the more essen- 
tial, they are by one author included in fishes, by another in 
amphibia, so it is with a multitude of transitional forms found 
among organic remains. The boundary-line between amphibia 
and reptiles, which may be drawn in the present creation, no 
longer exists when we look at the singular family of Laby- 
rinthodonts, which extends to both. The boundaries be- 
tween herbivorous Cetacea and Pachydermata, between these 
latter and ruminants, are removed by the Dinotherium and the 
Dichobune. The feathered reptile* of Solenhofen indicates that 
nature is able to bridge over the gulf between reptiles and 
birds. The existence of these transition forms is undeniable 
— ^their significance does not consist merely in the filling up of 

* Ftoved B&tdB&ctorily to have been a bird with a long aeries of oandal 
▼ertebnB. — ^Editob. 



LBCTUEI XVI. 468 

an ideal gap, bat in the eBtabliahment of real intermediate 
formsj whibh, by gradual unfolding and tranaformation, de- 
y elope themaelTeB from lower forms and approach the higher-^ 
an approximation which here succeeded only up to a certain 
point, but is accomplished in the more perfect forms. 

But, we are told, these intermediate forms certainly fill up 
the g^p between great divisions, but the minuter transitions, 
which might teach us the process of this transformation, are 
entirely wanting. We ought to be able to trace these transi- 
tions step by step, both in living and fossil species. As regards 
living species, this would not be very difficult. Place side by 
side the skulls of the various species of the genus Oebus, and 
see whether yon cannot establish a perfect series of minute 
changes in form, as in dogrs or cattle. The transitions are 
then rendered as evident as they are in aseries of Orang skulls 
of different ages in the extreme forms of the round young 
head, and the long extended head of the old orang. With 
regard to fossil skulls, need I instance those of bears f The 
great cave-bear, with its prominent brow-ridge and its convex 
elevations on the forehead, is certainly, as A. Wagner has 
shown, a distinct species, just as our present brown bear; but 
are there no intermediate forms, such as the Urtua a/retoideus, 
which, though it attains the size of the cavern-bear, has 
neither its frontal eminences, nor such thick bones f then 
there is the Ursus Leodienaia, which is smaller than the cavern- 
bear, and shows no such frontal eminences ; there is also the 
UrsuB priscus, smaller than the cave-bear, but resembling in 
profile the still smaller brown bear; apd finally the brown 
bears found in the caverns of Switzerland, the skulls of which 
show a gigantic size, approaching that of the cave-bear. All 
these transitional forms are very rare. We possess only a few 
specimens of each, whilst skulls of cavern- and of brown-bears 
are collected by hundreds. The large, savage, and formidable 
cavern bear corresponds with the conditions which surrounded 
him, in the same manner as the living brown bear corresponds 
with existing conditions. The transition from the cave-period to 
the present, perhaps, took place within a comparatively short 
time, consequently the transitional forms, indicating the raoeless 
oscillations between two fixed types, are very rare, compared 



454 LXCTT7BS XVI. 

with those extreme forms which we acknowledge as indepen- 
dent species. 

I hasten to another example^ which concerns ns more par- 
ticularly. 

Cnyier never had an opportunity of seeing a fossil monkey; 
at that time there had not been a fragment of one found. Even 
on theoretical grounds^ Cuvier contested the existence of 
fossil monkeys. "At present/' says Albert Gaudry, *'we 
know, besides those found in Ghreece, ten other species : two 
from South America, three from Asia, five from Europe (where 
at present no monkeys exist). All these species have been 
determined from v^ry imperfect remains, the bones being very 
rare. In Greece the fossil monkeys are more abundant. The 
excavations I was commissioned to make by the Academy pro- 
duced twenty skulls of these animals, several jaws and bones 
of different parts of the body, so that I was enabled to compose 
a drawing of the whole skeleton.'' After quoting the remarks 
of A. Wagner, the first discoverer, and those of Lartet and 
Beyiich on the fossil monkey, which Wagner considered as 
an intermediate form between Semnapiihecus and Hyloha/tes^ he 
continues : '' My last investigations had a remarkable result ; 
they prove that the limbs of the Greek monkey differ greatly 
from those of the Semnopithecus. The Greek monkey (called 
Mesapithecus) resembles in its skuU the Semnopitheeus, but in 
its limbs the Macacus, 

" This is a perfectly transitional type, whidi connects two 
genera perfectly distinct in the present creation. When we had 
before us, not merely a fragment of a jaw (as is the case of most 
fossil mammals registered in the catalogues), but perfect skulls, 
we were apt to believe the Gb^ek monkey a Semnopithecus. 
This was an error. Had we, on the contrary, had before ns 
not a single bone but all the bones of the limbs, we might have 
assigned them to the Macdcus ; this also would have been an 
error." 

I repeat with Gaudry : Is this not a perfect transition form 
between two distinct genera, the head a Semnopithecus ^ the 
body a Macacus ? We know not whether this new species, 
which in Greece abounded in the tertiary period, was developed 



LICTUBI XVI. 465 

from the crossisg of both elements^ or perhaps by natural 
selection ; no person can decide how this form arose ; bnt that 
the intermediate form exists in snch a shape that it might have 
been the result of cross-breeding cannot be doubted. That this 
race acquired the requisite capacity for existence is rendered 
evident by its frequent occurrence in a country where at present 
no monkeys exists where^ therefore^ by subsequent change in 
the surrounding media the existence of these animals was ren- 
dered impossible. 

There exist thus intermediate forms of minute transitions and 
regrular transformations. The example of the Greek monkey 
shows that the whole structure must be known, and that it is 
not sufficient to study the skull or the dentition to detect such 
intermediate forms, and that for this reason our knowledge of 
fossil forms is too fragmentary for us always to find them out. 

We are certainly told not to make deductions from the un- 
known. I agree with this perfectly. I do not assert that 
because an intermediate form has been discovered between 
8emnopithseu8 and Jlfaeaeu«, there must be one found between 
the BemnopUheeua of the old world and the-OebiM of the new ; 
but I also maintain, that in our fragmentary knowledge we 
must not, where our knowledge is for the moment at fault, say, 
thus far and no further I It is scarcely thirty years since 
Cuvier said : There exists no fossil monkey, and none can 
exist : there is no fossil man, and there can be none ; and yet 
to-day we speak of fossil monkeys as of old acquaintances, 
and trace back fossil man, not only to the diluvium, but to 
recent tertiary formations, though some obstinate persons still 
assert that Cuvier's principle cannot be controverted. It is 
scarcely twenty years since I learned from Agassis : IVansition 
beds, palflBOBoic formations = Empire of Fishes ; there are no 
reptiles in this period, nor could have existed, as it would 
have been contrary to the plan of creation. Seoondaiy* for- 
mations (Trias, Jura, Chalk) == Empire of Reptiles. There are 
no mammals, nor could be, for the same reason as above. Ter- 
tiary strata s= Empire of Mammals; there are no human beings 
nor could have been. Present creation = Empire of Man. 
Where is at present this exclusive plan of creation T Reptiles 
in the Devonian strata, reptiles in coal ; farewell then Empire 



456 LXCTUBB XYI. 

of fishes I MaTnmalfl in the Jurassic formation^ maminalfl in the 
Parbecklimestone^which some consider asbelonging to the lowest 
chalk. AdieU; then^ Empire of reptiles ! Man in the npper tertiary 
strata; man in the dilnyimn; good-bye Empire of mammals I 

The proof of one well-attested transitional form inclndes the 
possibility of all other transitional formSj but not their necessity 
or actual existence. 

I must now drawyonr attention to another point rendered evi- 
dent by these examples. The transitional forms between the two 
bear species with fixed characters — the cave bear and the brown 
bear^are as rare as the two species themselves are abundant. One 
portion of them seems also to have been intermediate in time^ 
since the colossal brown bears from the Alpine caverns of Swit- 
zerland are more recent than the cave-bear, which is, according to 
Wagner, also the case as regards the Urtus priscus, whose head 
is found along with the lower jaw, and thus probably deposited 
by standing water, whilst the cave-bear skulls are never found 
so connected. But apart from this circumstance, we must 
notice the rarity of such transitional forms. There is no doubt, 
if the change of surrounding media occurs within a compara- 
tively . short time, the transformation of the type must keep 
pace with it. We have alluded to this when speaking of the 
domestic animals introduced into South America. The modi- 
fication of type experienceil by cats in Paragoay, swine in 
Chile and the Brazils, and the sheep in the same regions, in 
consequence of a sudden transplantation, were effected within a 
few generations. The transformed type was soon adapted to 
the climate, and has now assumed a stationary form. Unfor- 
tunately our knowledge refers only to the exterior, and not- 
withstanding the great interest attached to this question, no 
naturalist has yet compared the skulls of the European domes- 
tic animals, acclimatized in South America, with those of the 
parent stocks bred in Europe. Admitting that striking dif- 
ferences do exist, that the skull of the swine, for instance, 
has become shorter and higher, the snout thicker, the tusks 
more curved, so that the South American domestic pig repre- 
sents, even in the skeleton, a new and easily distinguished 
species. Admitting all this, where do we find the transi- 
tional form which led to this result f — ^Nowhere I The millions 



ucTUBi xn. 457 

of cattle^ hones, and pigs which now populate the exten- 
aiye tracts of South Americaj either in a wild or semi-domes- 
ticated state, are, as is historically proved, the descendants of 
some few imported specimens. The first generations, now 
fonnd in small numbers, bad to struggle for their existence 
in the foreign climate until the acclimatization process was 
completed. Only after the race has been brought into bar* 
mony with surrounding media does it begin to multiply ra- 
pidly ; only when it has become typical does the number in- 
crease up to millions. But as to ihe transitional forms of the 
few indiYiduals of few generations, where are we to find them f 
Who is to disinter them from the soil f The two species, the 
original and the derived, are not apparently linked by an inter- 
mediate tonOf as nobody can show them ; yet they did exist, 
for the transition has taken place within historic times, and 
is historically authenticated. 

Is the process different in wild animals T Let us assume 
that the transformation of the bear has taken place during the 
glacial period, which, as we have shown, was only an in- 
cident of the so-called diluvial period. There is no doubt 
that most of the cave-bears perished by the advance of the ice, 
which deprived them of their means of subsistence, and pre- 
vented their emigration into other regions. But some few of 
these animals were preserved; their successive generations 
adapted themselves to the new conditions; their wildness 
diminished; their means of subsistence changed, and they 
became smaller in size, until the change was effected and the 
cave-bear transformed into the brown-bear which, now adapted 
to the new external conditions, multiplied greatly. But the 
transitional forms — ^the witnesses of the fierce struggle for 
existence during changing conditions — ^must they not be far 
less numerous than the typical species which form the terminal 
points of this struggle ? 

Thus it will always be, if the surrounding media change 
within a comparatively short time. The transitional forms re- 
duced to a few individuals, will, among the number of typical 
species adapted to external conditions, disappear, and it will 
only be owing to a happy accident if, here and there, a speci- 
men of them be found. 



468 LSCTUSB ZYI. 

The case is altered when the ohanges^ in conBequenoe of 
geological metamorphoses^ are Tory slow. The adaptations 
which these infinitesimal changes require^ and which only 
become visible in their effects by the accnmnlations of thou- 
sands of years ; these adaptations are as slight as the cause 
which prodnces them^ and they will consequently produce 
such a number of gradual transitional forms that an infinite 
number of specimens are required to connect the extreme 
ends of the change. Do we not behold this in nature f Do 
we not see species of one group of strata slide into another ; 
that is to say, pass through a long series of development 
stadia in order gradually to assume a form which differs from 
the original form, not sufficiently, indeed, to be distinguished 
under all circumstances, and yet enough to justify its distinc- 
tion by the prefix stib {e.g., Terebrattda triquetra, and «ii&- 
triquetra) from that found in another group of strata? Have 
we not seen the changes which, by the gradual elevation of 
Sweden and Norway, have taken place in the Fauna of the 
coasts T Can we forget what Lov^n has shown, that by the 
separation of the Wener- and Wetter-lakes from the sea with 
which they were formerly connected, most species of this ice- 
sea perished, but some craw-fish have preserved themselves in 
these lakes gradually filled up with fresh water, and have so 
adapted themselves to the changed medium, that though the 
original type can be detected, peculiarities of form have been 
developed establishing an essential transformation ? Does not 
this example show us what all investigations concerning petri- 
factions teach, that there exists nowhere a thorough separation 
between two groups of strata, but that some individual species, 
more or less in number, and more or less chang^, pass from 
one stratum into another f 

We have seen that fixed spedes may alter under changed 
conditions, and that this alteration of the surrounding media 
is an essential lever for the production of those oscillating 
types which pass under the name of raceless animals. We 
have further learned that the fixed types interbreed less 
readily the more constant that type. Is it not, hence, evident 
that the pjroductiou of new mongrel races must take place 



L1CTXJRB XYI. 459 

at that period when^ by the change of Bnrroimdixig media^ the 
fixity of the type is broken and prodaces that raoeleas soil 
from which the variooB types spring np^ partly by inter- 
mixture and partly by adaptation^ in order to become again 
fixed types? 

It appears to me that in this way may be explained both the 
renewal of creation in different epochsj as well as the extinc- 
tion of most species at the same periods^ and also the fixity of 
types daring long periods intervening between renovation 
epochsj and further the development of more perfect types 
from the raoeless masses which arise in the beginning of the 
renovation period. There may^ in many respects^ be progress^ 
arrest^ or retrogression. Thus the type of the Ammonites seems 
to us a more perfect type than that of the Nautilus^ neverthe- 
less the former became extinct at the end of the chalk period. 
The cavern-bear was more of a beast of prey than his de- 
scendant the brown bear^ and this can hardly be called a 
progress. 

Acquainted as we are with the retrogressive metamorphosis 
in animalsj namely^ how an animal may in its earliest youth 
have a more perfect structure than at a later agOj why may we 
not imagine a similar process taking place during the adapta- 
tion to changed conditions which no longer permit the type 
to continue in its former perfection ? Why should not 
types become gradually fixed by their adaptation to changeSj 
and modify their sensitive and locomotive apparatus^ which 
can no longer be used as formerly^ when they moved under 
different conditions, by which their senses and limbs acquired 
a certain perfection ? Modifications of this kind which, from 
an anatomical standpoint, must be considered as a retrogres- 
sion, may, under given circumstances, be as advantageous in 
the struggle for existence as the transformation of the palmated 
feet of the hurvso of certain parasitic Crustacea into hooks and 
claws is advantageous for their subsequent, so to speak, seden- 
tary life. 

But whilst we thus proceed hand in hand with observation, 
we must not forget that transformation by adaptation, or by 
intermixture, is still confined within certain limits which are 



460 UCTUBI ZVI. 

impassable. Thns we see that the gulf between fishes and rep- 
tiles has been filled up ; that that between reptiles and birds lis 
beginning to fiU ; that some points have been gained to support 
a bridge over the golf between reptiles and mammalsj the 
more so as in all vertebrate animals we perceive a unity of 
stractnre and a similarity in the fundamental plan^ manifesting 
itself in the unfolding of forms, as well as in the development 
of the stages^ which the embryos of the higher animals have to 
pass through firom the beginning of their eidstenoe until they 
arrive at maturity. But from the Yertebrata to the Inverte- 
brata I can find no guide, nor have I any idea by what adapta- 
tion or intermixture intermediate forms can arise, which may 
lead from the MoUusca and Articulata to the Yertebrata. It is 
moreover well known that the lowest vertebrate we are ac- 
quainted with,*— the Amphioxus lanceolatus, is, as regards the 
development of all its organs, so far behind that of the higher 
Mollusca and Articulata, that the transition from one of these 
better developed types into that of this vertebrate would include 
a series of retrogression^, from which nevertheless is said to 
have issued the beginning of a structure capable of the highest 
development. In other words, I see here the vertebrate type, 
with man as its highest development, commencing with an 
animal, which, as regards the perfection of its organs, is 
excelled by most worms, and much more so by most Mollusca 
and Articulata, which in some instances attain the highest 
development of which the structural plan of the Articulata is 
capable. I should thus find myself face to face with an inso- 
luble enigma, if I were not permitted to recur to the conclu- 
sion I have arrived at, namely, the assumption of an original 
difference in the primaiy g^rms from which the animal kingdom 

has been developed. , 

On following the animal structure in its downward direction, 
we certainly find that the Articulata, step by step, reach the 
worms, and these again approach the Infusoria so closely, that 
some naturalists include the latter in the former. On the other 
hand, the Mollusca approach the Badiata, there being some 
forms which naturalists include in either of the above divisions, 
BO that even here an original difference shews itself. These 



iiiCTUfis zvi. 461 

fimdamental differenoea cannot^ in my opinion 1>e reasoned 
away, nor can I comprehend their development from one ori- 
ginal form. What I can understand is thisj that each of the 
plans may, in its increasing simplification, be traced back to an 
ideal original form of organic development — ^the cell ; and, as 
I have already observed, it appears to me very probable that 
the elementary cells have from the beginning been differently 
constituted, which differentiation is manifested in the develop- 
ment of the fundamentally different structural plan, which is 
recogpused in the animal kingdom. I repeat, I am far from 
adopting either a formal original substance or one cell form as 
the fundamental type and beginning of the whole organic crea- 
tion. As I find in the present creation animals and plants con- 
sisting of a single cell, which present a different composition, 
diffbrent forms, and a different mode of Ufe and of propagation, 
I do not see why the primary single-celled organisms which 
might have arisen from the elementary substances should all 
have possessed the same form, quality, and capacity for 
development. 

It is sufficient for me to have shewn that an original diffe- 
rence may exist by the side of modification and adaptation, 
that both must supplement each other in order to render intel- 
ligible the picture presented by organic nature. 

Let us after this digression return to our theme, the origin 
of man and his descent from the ape. 

The course of lectures which I conclude this day, had for its 
object the indication of the kind of studies requisite in order to 
arrive at certain results. I have endeavoured to show in what 
respects the organisation of man differs or agrees with that of 
the ape. I endeavoured to indicate the fundamental plan in 
the structure of the individual organs, which is evidently the 
same in man and ape. But whilst insisting on the identity of 
the plan, I pointed out the difference in its execution, in the 
same manner as a teacher of architecture may demonstrate the 
unity of the plan in several Gothic cathedrals, whilst at the same 
time he points out the diversity of its execution in the respective 
minsters. I have proved to you that thediffbrences between some 
human races are greater than those subsisting between some ape 



462 LICTURS ZVI. 

species ; that^ therefore^ we are justified in assnming different 
species in mankind^ jnst as in several domestic animals of higli 
antiquity. I touched upon the antiquity of mankind, and pointed 
out tike differences in the human species, which, at the beginning 
of the stone-period, inhabited the earth. We then glanced at 
the origin of new races and species, and arrived at the conclusion, 
that transformation, adaptation, natural selection, are processes 
in nature explanatory of the various forms of which the organic 
world consists. We may, therefore, now proceed to discuss the 
last question, — ^namely, whether the theory of the derivation of 
the human type from the simian group is scientifically admissible. 
The existing materials for bridging over the gulf between 
man and ape I have placed before you. I have shown in what 
points the three anthropoid apes establish the similarity ; in 
what respects the races of mankind, and especially the Negro, 
approach the ape-type, without, however, completely reaching 
it. I have demonstrated that the oldest cave-skulls kno?m 
to us decidedly approach the ape-type, both by the elongated 
form and the low arching of the skull. I have, finally, di- 
rected your attention to the microcephali, those congenital idiots, 
not as constituting a separate species, as some of my detractors 
make me say, but as a morbid arrest of development, which 
indicates one of the stages which the human embryo must ne- 
cessarily pass through, and which now in its abnormity repre- 
sents that intermediate form, which at a remote period may 
have been normal. I remind you on this occasion of what I 
said concerning these microcephali, together with (Landry's 
remark on the Greek monkey. Just as Qaudry observed that 
the whole skull of the Greek monkey would constitute it a 
Semnopithecus had not the limbs been found, which present 
the type of the macacus, so, I remarked, might the skull of a 
microcephalus, found in a fossil state, in the absence of the 
jaws be mistaken for that of an ape, until the discovery of the 
limbs should establish the human type. But as it is certain 
that the microcephalus, with his arrested development, is not 
suited for propagation, it is neither the only possible nor the 
only imaginable intermediate form between man and ape. But 
this arrest which the brain experienced in its forward march, 
is the simian stage. This abnormal creature, this arrested 



tiCTURi XVI. 468 

monstroBity of the present creation^ fills up the gap which can- 
not be bridged over by normal types in the present creation, 
bnt may be so by some fntnre discoveries. 

We are told that intermediate forms have not been fonnd> and 
we admit this. Bnt when it is added that none can be found, 
the histoiy of the last ten years, with all its discoveries relating 
to man and the ape, tells a different tale. Twenty years ago 
fossil monkeys were unknown, now we know nearly a dozen ; 
who can teU that we may not in a few years know fifty ? A 
year ago no intermediate form between Semnapitheeus and 
Macaeus was known, now we possess a whole skeleton ; who 
can assert that in ten, twenty, or fifty ^ears we may not pos- 
sess intermediate forms between man and ape f 

Bnt whilst we assume the actual descent of the human race 
from the apes, and believe that the differences between both, 
which will become greater by the further development of man, 
are the result of selection and intermixture, we must, on 
the other hand, decidedly repudiate an inference we are 
charged with, and which consists in this, that we must neces- 
sarily come back to the original unity of mankind, and con- 
sider Adam as an intermediate form between ape and man. 
" The changes in the history of science,^' says Councillor R. 
Wagner, " have a remarkable, almost comic, aspect, when we 
look at the fierce contest now raging between mono-genists 
and poly-g^enists, as they call in France the advocates for one 
or many parent stocks of mankind. Three years ago, just 
before Darwin's book appeared, the theory of the possibility or 
probability of the different races of mankind having descended 
from a single pair was considered as perfectly antiquated, and 
as having lagged behind all scientific progress, wlulst now, to 
judge from the applause with which Darwin's theory is re- 
ceived, there is nothing more certain than the inference that 
both ape and man had for their single progenitor a form inter- 
mediate between ape and man.''**^ 

We crave pardon. Sir Councillor ; never was there a more in- 
correct inference, and when yon advise us '' to let this question 
rest for the present, as it cannot be scientifically solved,'' you 

• Since the abore woe written, Fkof. Bad. Wagner haa departed thia life.— Ed. 



464 UBCTOU XYI. 

fihonld not liave been the first to raise it ; for as far as I know^ 
no Darwinist^ if we mast call them so^ has either raised that 
question or drawn the above inference^ for the simple reason 
Uiat it neither accords with the facts nor their consequences.'*^ 

It is easy to prove oar assertion as regards man and ape. 

The ape-type does not culminate in one, biU in three anthro^ 
paid apee, which belong to at least different genera. Two of 
these g^nera^ the orang and the gorilla^ must at all events be 
divided into different species ; there are perhaps some varieties 
of them which form dispersive circles^ like some aronnd 
certain races of man. Be this as it may^ this much is certain^ 
that each of these anthropoid apes has its peculiar characters 
by which it approaches man ; the chimpanzee^ by the cranial 
and dental structure ; the orange by its cerebral structure ; the 
gorilla^ by the structure of the extremities. None of these 
stands next to man in all points^ — ^the three forms approach man 
from different sides without reaching him. 

I say ''from different sides.^' For^ in point of fact^ these 
three anthropoid apes do not rise above the same fundamental 
form fi^m which they branch off; but they sprang from different 
ape families which we must consider as having run parallel. 
Qratiolet has, as regards cerebral structure, followed up this 
subject. I shall not enter into details which must be studied in 
his treatise, but I shall give here the conclusions he arrived at. 

" On comparing the brain of the orang with that of other 
brains/' says Gratiolet, ''we are bound, on account of the size 
of the anterior lobe, the relative smallness of the posterior lobe, 
and the development of the superficial transition convolution 
fplis de paseagej, to place the orang at the head of the gibbons 
and the Semnopitheci, of which any one may easily convince 
himself on comparing the respective brains dravm with scru- 
pulous exactness. 

" These analogies are the more remarkable, as they lead to 
the same result as the examination of external characters.'' 

The orang, considered as the highest gibbon, has a "gibbon's 
brain, only richer, more developed^ in a word, brought nearer 
perfection." 

• Thia !■ quite tme, although the author is mietaken respeGiinff there being 
no Darwinist adTOoatea for unity t I have aUnded to this in the Aelkoe. — Bd. 



LicnnuB zn« 466 

Of the bhimpanzee^ Gratiolet remarks^ '' On oomparing his 
brain with that of the true Macacns, and specially of the ma- 
got^ it is impossible for us to reject the analogies presented by 
this comparison. The examination of the sknll and face con- 
firms these analogies by new ones. 

" When^ therefore^ we pat aside erery preconceiTed theoxy^ 
and keep solely to the facts^ we are irresistibly led to the con- 
clusion : The chimpanzee brain is a perfected Macacos brain. 

''In other words : the chimpanzee stands in the same rela- 
tion to the Macacos and the baboon^ as the orang to the gibbon 
and the Semnopithecos.'' Of the gorilla^ finally^ he says : " The 
gorilla is a mandrill, jost as the chimpanzee is a Macacos and 
the orang a gibbon. The absence of a tail, the existence of a 
broad stemom, the pecnliar locomotion, not opon the palmar 
Boifaceof ihe fing^ers, bat opon the dorsal soi&ce of the second 
phalanx, are indeed characters they possess in common ; bat 
however important these may be, they do not permit the ap- 
proximation of these three grenera. As heads of three pU£brent 
series, these apes still preserve the characters of the groops to 
which they belong, althoogh they possess, if I may so expresa 
myself, common insignia of their high dignity." 

No yalid objection can be raised to these dedoctions of Ghra- 
tiolet, in presence of the facts; bot these facts prove oar 
assertions, that the higher developed forms of different parallel 
series of apes approach man from different sides. Let as 
imagine the three anthropoid apes continoed to the homan 
type, — which they do not reach and, perhaps, never will reach ; 
we shall then see developed from the three parallel series of 
apes, three different primary races of mankind, two dolicho- 
cephalic races descended from the gorilla and chimpanzee, and 
one brachycephalic descended fit>m the orang ;->— that descended 
fitmi the gorilla is, perhaps, diatingaished by the development 
of the teeth and the chest; that descended from the orang by the 
lengthof the arms and light-red hair; and that issoed from the 
chimpanzee, by blade coloor, slender bones, and less massive 
jaws. 

When, therefore, we look opon the apes and their develop- 
ment as proceeding from different parallel series, the assumption 

HH 



466 ucTUBs xn. 

of only one intermediate fonn between man and ape is rnxjnsti- 
fiabloj inasmuch as we know in onr present creation three 
different sources for such intermediate forms. 

Schroder ran der Kolk and Yrolik agree with us in this 
r pect, although they are opposed to Darwin's theory. " We 
knowj'' they say, " no species of apes which forms a direct 
transition to man. If man is to be derived from the ape, we 
must search for his head amongst the small monkeys which 
group themselves around the Cebus and the Ouistitis; for 
his hand we must go to the chimpanzee; for his skeletoui 
to the Siamang; for his brain, to the orang, [and I add, 
for his foot, to the gorilla] . Putting aside the difference in 
the teeth, it is manifest that the general aspect of the 
skull of a Cebus, of a Ouistiti, or some other cognate mon- 
keys, resembles, though in miniature, more the skuU of man 
than the skuU of an adult gorilla, chimpanzee, or orang. The 
carptu of the chimpanzee, [and of the gorilla], has the same 
number of bones as that of man, whilst that of the orang is 
distinguished by those singular intermediary bones found in aU 
other monkeys. The skeleton of the Siamang resembles by its 
sternum, the shape of the thorax, the ribs, and the pelvis, much 
more that of man, than that of the gorilla, chimpanzee, and 
the orang; and our researches have also shown that the brain of 
the orang stands nearer to that of man than the brain of the chim- 
panzee. It would thus be requisite to collect the human cha- 
racters from five different apes, from one of America, from two 
of Africa, from one of Borneo, and from one of Sumatra ; the 
primitive relations of man are accordingly so scattered, that we 
can hardly believe in one common stock.'' 

It is just this plurality of characters which confirms us in 
our view. If the Macaci in the Senegal, the baboons on the 
Gambia, and the gibbons in Borneo could become developed 
into anthropoid apes, we cannot see why the American apes 
should not be capable of a similar development ! If in dif- 
ferent regions of the globe anthropoid apes may issue from 
different stocks, we cannot see why these different stocks 
should be denied the further development into the human 
type, and that only one stock should possess this privilege; in 



LSCTUBB xn. 467 

shorty we cannot see why American races of man may not be 
derived from American apeSj Negroes from African apes^ or 
NegritoSj perhaps, frt>m Asiatic apes I 

On examining the species of mankind and their history, we 
aniye at similar results. We haye traced the ploraliiy of 
species, not merely in the historic, but also in the pre- 
historic period ; we have shown that no existing species present 
a G^reater'contrast than did, e.g., the cave-men of Belgium and 
the Bhenish provinces, and the Lapps of the stone-period. 
This plurality and diversity which we find in the primitive 
races of Europe — ^that is to say, upon a very limited space, 
will also be found in the primitive races of other parts of the 
world. At all events, all the facts which cany us back to the 
oldest history of Asia, Africa, and America admit of no other 
inference. 

But if this plurality of races be a fact, as well established 
as their constancy of characters, despite of the many inter- 
mixtures through which the natural primitive races had to 
pass J if this constancy be another proof for the great antiquity 
of the various types, for their occurrence in the diluvium, or 
even in older strata — ^then all these facts do not lead us to one 
common fundamental stock, to one intermediate form between 
man and ape, but to many parallel series, which, more or less 
locally confined, might have been developed from the various 
parallel series of the apes. 

It is not unworthy of notice that the fossil apes of the ter- 
tiary period, from which man perhaps might have issued, are 
much more widely spread than the present monkeys, and that 
they follow in their distribution the same laws as at present. 
The monkeys found in Europe, as high up as England, are all 
narrow-nosed, whilst those found in American caves are all flat- 
nosed. The difference between the Fauna of the Old, and that 
of theNew World, as now observed, existed already then — there 
was no road whidk led fit)m South America to Europe. But if 
apes became developed into men, they had in the old world a 
range from the equator up to England, and could thus form 
the antochthonic races upon the various spots, where we have 
found the oldest species of mankind. This assumption equally 



468 LIOTUBI XVI. 

leads UB to an origfinal ploraliiy of mankind^ not to their deri- 
vation from a single stock, but from the various twigs of that 
treOj so rich in branches, which we snrronnd with the order of 
primates or apes. 

Here again, gentlemen, yon will observe the agreement in de- 
meanour of the now distinct types. The simian type parts in 
varions directions ; it first divides into two chief brandies-^ 
monkeys of the old, monkeys of the new world — each of these 
main branches produces twigs which seem more and more to 
part from each other. But on arriving at perfection the ends 
of the twigs turn again towards each other, so that from the 
fundamentally distinct families of the gibbons, Macaci, and 
baboons are developed the three anthropoid apes, which, by a 
number of common characters stand considerably nearer each 
other than the groups of which they are the heads. Does not 
the history of man present something similar T The further 
back we go in history the greater is the contrast between indi- 
vidual types, the more opposed are the characters — ^the most 
decided longheads immediately by the side of the most decided 
shortheads. Our savage ancestors stand opposed to each other 
— stock against stock, race against race, species against spe- 
cies. By the constant working of his brain man gradually 
emerges from his primitive barbarism ; he begins to recognise 
his relation to other stocks, races, and species, with whom he 
finally intermixes and interbreeds. The innumerable mongrel 
races gradually fill up the spaces between originally so dis- 
tinct types, and, notwithstanding the constancy of characters, 
in spite of the tenacity with which the primitive races resist 
alteration, they are by fusion slowly led towards unity. 

My task is finished, believing that I have, as far as was in 
my power, attained the object I had in view. But before con- 
cluding, I feel bound to address a few words to friends and 
opponents. 

The ^lamentation over the destruction of all faith, morality, 
and virtue ; the woeful cry about the endangered existence of 
society, which years ago forced me to take up my pen, is heard 
again — ^but this time it is in the French tongue. The pulpits 
of the orthodox churches, the pews of the pietistio oratories. 



UCTUBB xvr. 469 

the platforms of the missioDBj the chairs of the consistories^ 
resound with the pretended attacks on the foundations of human 
existence made by materialism and Darwinism. They feel 
surprised, that people with such views can he good citizens, 
honest men, good husbands and fathers* There are priests, 
who, while defrauding the state of taxes, mount the pulpit and 
preach : that when materialists and Darwinists do not commit 
all sorts of crimes, it is not from righteousness but from 
hypocrisy* 

Let them rage I They require the fear of punishment, the 
hope of reward in a dreamt-of beyond, to keep in the right 
path — for us suffices the consciousness of being men amongst 
men, and the acknowledgment of their equal rights. We have 
no other hope than that of receiving the acknowledgments of 
our fellow-men ; no other fear than that of seeing our human 
dignity violated — a dignity we value the more, since it haa 
been conquered with the gpreatest labour by us and our ances- 
tors, down to the ape. 

To our friends we return thanks for their support, and con- 
clude with an anecdote. 

In a satirical journal, edited by my late friend, Fritz Jenni, 
called Der Ouehkasten (The Show-box), there is a picture of a 
cowkeeper with his milk-cans, and before him a cur, barking 
furiously. Says the milkman, *^ Thou barkest ! Thou always 
barkest I Thou barkest at all the dogs I Thou barkest at me, 
and barkest till thou hast done barking, and canst bark no 
morel" 

Then let them bark, till they can bark no more. 



THl KNI). 



APPENDIX. 



The following are the peaaegee omitted from the text, to which allusion ia 
made in the Bator's prefi^e, p. zii : — 

P. 122, line 16 from top :— 

"When Sir Walter Soott, in aome of hia norela, deaozibea aome Highland 
robber, diatingoiahed by a diaproportionate length of hia anna reaching 
down to the knee, which enabled him better to handle hia aword, he praiaea 
the ape type in man, Jaat aa the piona painter of the Byaantine achool and 
oar preaent Naaarenea act in depleting their Savionra and Madonnaa, with 
their ooorta of aaintai, with long narrow ape-handa and feet, and orang-titan 
pelTea, which warrant the immacnlate conception, ainoe no hnman head 
could paaa throagh." 

P. 147, line 6 from top : — 

" Herr BiacholT prooeeda ftirther : the Eaqnimaox, Botooadoe, New Zea- 
landera, etc., whoae appearance ia certainly in many reapecta not anperior 
to that of animala, have been appealed to ; or inatanoea hare been cited of 
ao-called wild men, who, loet in the foreat in early yoath, hare grown up 
amongat the bmtea, and became ao degenerate that on being found tiiey 
exhibited acaroely any trace of a higher aelf-oonadooaneaa. Perhapa Heir 
Biachoif only caUa thoae men who attend hia lectnrea at Munich, or have 
implicit fidth in the tranafbrmation of urea." 

P. 166, line 4 ham bottom :— 

"Bx>perly apeaking, my human character ia here gone to the derill Ko 
operculum, — no ooTered tranaition convolution! To the devil with that 
devil'a ape 1* But we aee how nature indicatea here that the devil atanda 
neareat to man ! It ia remarkable enough that the Capuchin atanda by the 
aide of the deviL In the Capuchin ape, the auperior tranaition convolution 
ia abaent ; the aeoond ia auperfioial in ita whole extent, — the operculum 
abnoatnulL 

" Tablea are frequently uaefuL I preaent, therefore, a ^ynopaia of that ex* 
cellent character of man, — ^the operculum and the convolutiona : — 



Partof Bnln. 



DerU^Ape. 



CaptieUn Ape. 



Oz«&g. 



CulSBfittB* 



Poeterior lobe 

Operculum 

Superior tranaition 

convolutiona ... 
Second tranaition 

convolution 



SmalL 
Abaent. 

Superficial 

Superfidal 



Moderate. 
Abaent. 

Superfidal 

Superficial 



Very abort. 



Moderate. 



Almoat abaent Imperfect. 



Abaent. 
SuperfldaL 



Superficial 
Covered. 



Large. 
Perfect. 

Abaent. 

Covered. 



" Beoeipt reanlting from thia Table :— Melt the Devil, and the Capuchin in 
ape-ahape, together, and you have the Man! Nature aeema to be very 
aarcaatie!" 

* The monkey in qneation ia beat known aa the Marimonda (AUIUb BeUe^ 
}mih). Ensliahmen apply the name "devil-monk^' to the Cuxio (PUheeia 
jSatonof).-- £ditob. 



INDEX OP SUBJECTS. 



AbeU428 

AbbeiriUe, 266 

Al^TMinim, 484 

Adam, X8, 18 

Adult skiill. 88 

Alpine dfluvinm, 274^ H 

A]flao^21 

Ape and man* 12, 484 
Angle, ftdal, 86, 140 
„ nasal. 148 
,, aphenoidal, 148 
Anthropoid apea, 466 
Animals, sensibility of, 

89 
M soeietiee, 280 
Apostle skull, 806 
Apples, oaibonised, 866 
Arbor Titn, 98 
Ann, 179 
Armenia^ 8 
Arcfaenoepha]% 160 
Anriffnac^ 267 
Armagb, Irish in, 427 
Arcj, grbtto oC 264 
Anstnaian sknll, 88, 48, 

40, 62, 66, 71, 91, 876 
Australian hybrids, 440 
Ayemge man, the, 22 
Axik, nioat, ^2 
Asteo, 12, 146, 196, 199 



Base line, the, 28 
Base of sknll Hnner), 86 
(oater),87 
Bashkin,62 
Basis eranii, 86 
Base of brain, 96 
BUqne sknlls, 881 
Bears, 242, 244^ 468 
Bezne skulls, 876 
Bimana,184 
Bison, 897 
Boml^ skull, 806, 886, 

869.886 
Bo4esman,12- 



BraohycephaUo, 49, 60, 

886 
Brahmin, 17 
Bzain, weight o( 88, 111, 

138 
Brai^ strootuec^ 98 
BraKiloaTai,261,280 
Brasilians, 60, 62 
Britanny, 21 
British Association oon- 

troreisies!, 117 
Bronse period, 868, 869 
Bnggese, 49, 60 
Batter-dish, a» 80 



Cain, 488 
CaBithzix, 140 
Calmnoks, 60, 181 
Camner's angle, 86 
Cani8,894 

CajMoity of skull, 87, 88 
Caxicatnres, 78 
Carlovingians, 60, 88 
Casts of skull, 78 
Cats in Pazagoaj, 421 
CaTem remains, 2, 287, 

246 
Cebos, 84, 48, 148, 149, 

208 •!••«. 422 
Celts, 22 

CeUs, mnltQKilar, 94 
Cell, primordial, 444 
CemeteiT skulls, 90 
Ceroopitheoos, 211 
Cerebral sar&ce of Ne- 
anderthal sknll, 806 
Coebmm, 96 
Cerebellnm, 96 
Chabins,417 
Characters of peoples, 7 
ChanTanz gxotto. 844 
Cephalic index, 47 
Cheeky, 180 

Child, skull of Chinese, 
60 



Chimpaniee, 12,189,140, 
148, 160, 198 

Chin, 188 

Christian missionaries, 
878 

Choroh, nse of. 

Circulation of the blood, 
11 

Climate, infinence o^ 
428 

Coloors, taUes of^ 22 

Concise, 864 

Conscription, its infin- 
ence, 21 

Constuioe» 864 

ConTolationsofthebrain* 
118, 168 

Convolationi, 104 

Copper age, 868 

qnadrigemin% 



Coronal Tiew of skull, 
Coeoinopora globalaris, 

271 
Cossacks, 40, 60, 62 
Cowkeeper, anecdote of, 

469 
Crag deposits, 818 
Crania, coUectioiis of^ 0; 

measurements of, 26; 

capadty of, tables, 88 
Crannoges, 868 
Creation, 406 
Creator, a personal, 449 
Crimean war, 28 
Cyrena ftnminalis, 268 



Danish skoDs, 878 
Darwinian tbeosy, the* 

449 
Delineation of the aknD, 

76 
I>emoerats,18 
Derelopment* 216 
^^i^BontDes eoooossevsci 



472 



INDKZ. 



by tlie pnctioal uia- 

tomistBy 9 
Diopter, qm of, 76 
DiluTial beds. 275, ti 

90q., 326 
Dupnte on the oerebnd 

onanoten of niMi and 

ape, 158 
Diminution of the brain 

in old age, 84 
Divergenoe, range of^ 

216 
Dolichooepbalio, 48, 40, 

50 
Domestic animals, 17 
Down, Irish in, 427 
Dora mater, 98 
DOssel, 255 
Datch, 50 
Dynamometer, th^ 24 



Eaxs, 180 

Egypt, 426 

Egyptian antiquities, 16, 

Egyptian goose, 436 
i£gis sknfi, 248, 296 
Esqnimanz, 8, 40 
Ethnic portraits, 78 
Etmsoans, 893 
Eye, aperture of, 129 



IVusial angle, 86 
fUz,98 
Features, 128 
Female skoD, 81 
Fenneo, the, 481 
Finns, 49 
Fbx,858 
Flint flakes, 268 
Flint imnlements, 16 
Fontaneues, 42 
Foot, 155, 156, 157 
Foot of Kegro, 151 
Foramen magnmn, 86 
Fossil, definition <i, 284 
French, 49, 50 
Frontal sinuses, 801 



Ganss» the mathemati- 

oian,184 
Oanis, 22 
Genera, skull hem, 52, 

60,388 
Geometrical drawings, 

75 
Geological system, 456 



Germanic skull, 8, 49, 

6Q, 174 
German intermixtures, 

20 
Gibrsltar, 888 
Gipsies, 50 
Glacial formations, 822 

„ cUy, 826 
Goat and sheep, 417 
Gorillm foot of, 157 

„ 194 
Gattdngen meeting, th^ 

Gre€^,49 
Grisons,898 
Gypsum, use o( 79 



Hair, 126 

Hand of the Chimpan- 

see, 154 
Hares, 418 
HelTetian skull, 52, 60, 

66,68,70,189,141,389 
Hindus, 40, 52 
Hius, breadth of, 186 
Hollanders, 50 
Horisontalplane, 28, 32 
Hottentot Venus,97, 108, 

184 
Hottentot, 51, 91 
Hoxne, 288 
Human kingdom, the, 

11,226 
Hybrids, 414, 486 
Hyanas, 242, §t uq. 
Hylobates, 188 



Iceblink, 822 

Ice-sea, lerel o( 825 

Icelander, 1 

Idiot, 145, 168, 195, 201 

Index, cephalic, 47 

Indians, 50 

Individual peculisrities, 

7 
Instrumentsrequired fbr 

craniometry, 59 
IntermaiillaTy bone, 147 
Intermixture of races, 20 
Internal organs, 181 
Ireland, missionaries 

from, 878 
Irish in Armagh, 427 
Italians, 40 



Jsphet, 867 
Javanese, 50 
Jews, 50, 488 



Joinville. section Bt, 287 
Ju$ jprimm noetU, 482 



EJdBr skull, 65, 69, 142, 

150, 175, 197 
Eimris, or Gaels, 22 
Kj6kkenm5ddin^, 808 
KihUrglaub€ %nd WU- 

imiMdufi, 1 

Lapps, 40, 889 
Lateral yentrides, 116 
Leptocephaly, 80 
Lherm cave, 852 
Li^ caves, 247 
Iambs, 158 
Lion monkey, 106 
Lips, 180 

LOTibrive remains, 249, 
379,880 



211,456 

Malay skulls, 91 

Man, the study ci, 5 

Mangabey, 211 

Materialism, 8 

Mathematician, brain 
of, 102 

Measurements, tablea 
oi, 66, 62, 76 

Medial plane, the, 29 

Medulla oblongata^ 95 

Megaceros, 396 

M^en skun, 847, 859, 
387 

Menoheoourt, fknna at^ 
286 

Mesaticephali, 51 

Methods of investiga- 
tion, 19 

Metrical systems, 28 

Microcephali, 166, 199 

Mississippi, 326, 292 

Models, wax, 19 

Modena, skulls, from, 890 

Molar, a supplemental, 
176 

Moluccans, 50 

Monkeys, fossil, 454 

Monogenists, 468 

Moosseedorf, 848 

Moraines, 316 

Moral instincts, 226 

Mosaic Adam, 16 

Moulin-Quignonjaw,278 

Mouth, 130 

Mulattos, 437 

Mules, 46 

Mult^Kkhtf oeUs, 94 



IKDEZ. 



478 



Kakedbodj^S 
NatohM,291 
Neanderthal akoll* 104, 

255, 290, 806, 800 
Negro, 18,61,81,06,02, 

m. 172, 181, §t M9., 

180, 106, 801, 487 
Net, cranial, 46 
NenfchAtel, TlBefal 

Knowledge Society of^ 

its otjecta, 1 
New HoUandera, 52 
Noah'B flood, 8, 18, 867 
Norfolk crag, 286 
Norma ftontalie, 68 
Norma oocipitaUa, 68 
Norma Teracalia, 47 
Nonnal German iknll, 8 
Nose, shape o^ 120 
NoTara» the expedition 

o( 8, 28, 24 

Oeningen salamander, 

284 
Oksars, 826 
Olivary process, 42 
Optic thalami, 88 
C^ang, 186 
Orpan of fidth, 168 
Origin of species, 16 
Origin of man, 468 
Onimi balls, 862 
Orthognathic skn]l,41,51 
Os InoB, 880 
Orifonn shapeof Blnill,48 



Paohydermatak 248 
Paraffuay, 421 
Parinan skoDs, 40, 88, 

427 
Pears, carbonised, 866 
Peat bogs, 886 
Pelvis, 110, 187, 167, 178, 

203 
Pennsylvania^ 484 
Persistent satnies, 88 
Perayians, 60 
Phihmthropists, 482 
Photograpny, 74 
Phrenology, 101, 288 
Pile-works, 840 
Plane, hoxisontal, 41, §t 

Pkne, vertical, 26 
Platean of the Andes, 

110 
Platycephalr, 80 
Plan in Mecktonbnrg, 

848 



Plis de passage, 114 
PoUtfisation, 108,100 
Polygenists, 468 
Polynesians, 01 
Primitive brsin, the, 06 
Primitive man, 204 
Profile drawings, 76 
Prognathism, 176 
Proeimis, 228 
Pay remains, 262 
Pyramidal heads, 64 
F^zgooephali, 64 

Qoadrate skull, 48 
Qnichnas, 110 

Babbits, 416 
Baoes,20,402 
Balter-heads, 64 
Bameses II, 426 
Beftise-heaps, 884 
Beligioos sense, 228 
Besnrrection-men, 
Bhine, vall^ of, 201 
Bobenhansen, 848 
Bodents, extinct, 242 
Boman8,40, 50 
Boof. heads, 54 
Bominants, extinct, 248 
Boasia, Little, 48 
Bussians, 40 

Saint-Frast beds, 810 
Smoos, 204^ Huq, 

284 
flamoleds, 8 
J3and, nse of, 78 
Schwann sknll, 840 
Sdavonian sknlls, 40 
Sella turcica* 40 
Semnopithecma, 466 
Seth,488 

Sexnal differences, 81 
Shells, collectiona 0(460 
Shot, nse oi, 70 
Slamang, brain of, 70 
Sideview of brain, 108 
Skin of man. 128 
Sknll, capacity o( tables, 

88 
Slate coal, 881 
SUveholden,482 
Sleep, 217, 800, 417 
Solnthom sknll, 877 
Somme vallear, 17, 266 
South Amencan ihaaa» 

200 
Southern States of Ame- 
rica* 18 



fifpede^, 4, 216, 402 

G^henoid bone, bent, 42 

Stone-period, 888, 860 

Stalactites and stalag- 
mites, 287 

Sumatran, 60, 62 

Sus scrofib et palustris, 
806 

Sutures of the skull, 88, 
76 

Swedish skulls, 40 

Switserland, 816 

Swyts cattle. 

Sylvian fissure, 102 

Synchronal tableof dUa- 
vial ft) riwt4A*^f j 826 

Syphilitic diseases, 28 



Tatar skull, 61 

Temporal muscle, its ac- 
tion, 26 

Tectocephali, 64 

IVtsMTT^ the, 20 

Theology, its basia, 14 

Thibet, colossal idols oi, 
28 

Thickness <^ the sknll,26 

Thorax, 186 

Time, lapse of, a fiustor, 
15 

nnitee mound, 860 

Tower heads, 64 

Triangulation of the 
dcuD,26 

Tmnsitional links, 458 

Tkchuktchis, 8 

Tubal Cain, 17, 86^ 860 

Urus, 807 

Vend, canton d, 865 
Vertebral division of the 

skull, 108 
Vertical line, the, 27 

Wanderoo, 211 
Wax modeb, 70 
Wanwyl,848 
Weeper monkey* 84 
Wei^tofthebrain,88, 

Wheat, ancient, 855, 400 
Wisent,807 

Yankee, skull oi; 488 
Tverdun,865 

Zoological oompazisons, 

75 
Zygomatic aiohes, 141 
1 1 



474 



INDEX OF AUTHORS. 



Aeby, 2, 28, 168, 179 
Aganis, 2, 424, 465 
Amlet, 877 
Aaoher, 488 



BftfthmMij 18 

Baer, von, 28, 26, 45, 47, 

48, 51, 68, 64, 69, 61, 

68,66,67,69,76,892 
Bajle, 812 
Beamnont^ Elie d^ 274, 

279,287 
BenelioB, 158 
B^yTich,464 
Bisohoff, 188, 146, 167, 

194 
BUdnTiUe, 242 
BlunenlMUsh, 8, 47, 189 
Boehner, 8 
Boaoher de Perthes, 16, 

17 
B(^d,88 
B2mYiiid,268 
Breh]n,280 
Bxooa» 2, 22, 47, 49, 86, 

88, 889, 424, 427, 488, 

448 
Brooke, 84 
Brown, 829 
Baofaner, 8 
Bnffon, 220, 414 
Bnrmeieter, 22, 155, 178, 

181 
Bnek, 2, 27, 28, 59, 61, 

68, 66, 71, 808, 888, 

841, 872, 884 



Csear, 246 
Gam]>er,82,85, 177 
CanooUe, D^ 4 
CBRite,ll 
Gems, 46 
GliOBsat,85 
Christy 400 



Chiietol,267 
COaparMe, 2, 892 
Collomb, 817 
Cnill,76 

CuYier, 16, 88, 215, 284, 
275, 408, 454 



DaTe8te,165 
D>Archiac, 284, 287 
Davia, Barnard, 807 
Darwin, 4, 15, 162, 411, 

446,449,468 
Decandolle, 865 
Delalande, 140 
D^aor, 2, 817, 858, 860, 

888,411 
Deanoyera, 287, 810 
Dickeaon, 298, 829 
I>impre,278 
P'Orbigny, 287 
Dowler, 829 
Dubois de Montpereox, 2 



Eok,8 

Edwards, Milne, 275 

~ ,257 



Faber, 857 

Falooner, 278 

Filhol,249 

Flower, 79 

Forchhammer, 888 

Frere, 288 

Friee, 4 

Fochs, 110 

Fnhlxott, 2, 254, 299, 806 



Gall, 187 

Gazngoa, 2, 249, 879 
Oastiadi. 2, 860 
Gandxy, 454^ 462 
Qaoss, 84, 102, 110 



Geoifroy, 106, 126, 167, 
198,225 

QeofDroj, L., 487 

Giebel, 206, 211, 220 

Oilli^ron,864 

OOthe, 147 

Gradolet, 97, 106, 107, 
118, 114, 168, 166, 166, 
188, 211, 804^ 464 



Hanamann, 85, 87 
H A)ert, 280, 287 
Hear, 820, 855, 866 
His, 2, 859, 872, 877, 887, 

888 
Hngi, 877 
Hosohke, 79, 81, lOQ, 

188, 206, 801 
Huxley* 2, 117, 164, 156, 

169,160,297,807,872 



Jaoqnard, 182 
Jajet, 864, 865 
J^ni, 469 
Jomazd,424 
Jnares,488 



Keller, 2, 847, 852, 856 

Kj«ralf;822 

Kolk, Schroder Ton der, 

160 
Kolliker, 124, 126 
Kfln0l,446 
Kntorga^ 844 



Langel, 810 
La^boe,488 
Lartet, 268, 276, 454 
Lay, 877 

Leubnacher, 195, 200 
Liohtenberg, 80 
Liebig, 820 



INDEX OF AUTHORS. 



475 



Link, 257 

IdXUUBIlAj 220 

Lmth, Eadher rcsk, 814 
Loder, 147 
LoT^n, 825, 458 
Looae, 82, 48, 55, 71, 75, 

79, 806, 875 
Lund, 290 
Lather, 8 
I^ell,SirC.,2,248, 271, 

281, 811, 482 



MazBhall, 116, 160 
Meckel, 89, 876 
Meige, 88, 92, 187 
Meiiikomer, 2 
Momimen, 877 
Montagne, 862 
Morlot, 2, 815, 817, 888, 

860 
Morton, 8, 12, 76,88, 14i, 

425,488 
MUller, 195, 200 



KathoBiiifl, 404» 407, 412 
Nandin, 4 
Nila8on,406 



Otho,415 

Owen, 12, 84, 116, 144^ 
159, 195, 804, 897, 406 



BuionB, 487 

FatterMn, 12 

Perthes, Boucher de,267, 

271, 277, 279 
Pictet, 2, 244 



Freetwidh, 265, 289 
Pmner-Bej, 127, 176, 
178, 182, 184, 188, 189, 
191, 862, 891, 480 



2» 11, 225, 
281, 27$, 275, 428, 482 
Qaekett,28 
QuMelet, 7, 22 



BameBe8,248 
Beclai,480 
Begmer, 24 
B^et, 482 
Benffger, 421 
Bembrandt, 483 
Betdiia,48 
Bobert, 812 
Bolle, 809 
BoUeston, 160 
BoBcnmnller, 257 
Boogemontk 8 
Bonz, 418 

BQtimeyer, 239« 244, 276, 
855, 860, 824^ 897 

8agot»442 
8i£, 824 
Sohaaffhauaen, 257, 299, 

802, 805, 807, 848, 872 
Scherser, 28, 66 
Scheaohzer, 284 
Schild, 2, 877 
Sohlagintireit, 28 
Schleiden, 4 
Schlotheim, 257 
Sohmerling, 241, 247, 

276*295 
Schopenhauer, 188 



Schroder ran der Eolk, 

466 
Schwab, 2, 877, 890 
Schwan, 28, 66 
Serres, 257 
SOmmerinff, 182 
Spring, 2, 844 
Steenstnip, 888 
Strobel,860 



Th4nazd, 158 
Thiele, 168, 195 
Tiedemann, 76, 88, 160 
Tonrtofll, 257 
Troyon, 847, 850, 865, 



Valentin, 8, 875 
yibraje,254 
Virohow, 41, 56, 59, 60, 
62, 64, 66, 68, 70, 882 
Vrolik, 160,466 



Wagner, 9, 79, 88, 84, 
86, 102, 111, 118, 151, 
161,162,168,194,201, 
220, 228, 458, 468 

Wflllaoe,84 

Weber, 121 

Welcker, 8, 26, 88, 41, 
46, 47, 49, 58, 69, 60, 
62, 64, 66, 68, 70, 75, 
80, 84, 91, 148, 296, 
296,879 

Wilbrand, 11 

Wirnng, 76 

Woteaae, 838 

Witndt,281 



T. BlCSABDa, 17, eSlAX «OBn tTBBBT. 





ERRATA. 




PAOB 






125 line 17 from top 


/or aoreola 


rMKiax«61a. 


170 „ 11 from top 


*, stationery 


„ stationazy. 


190 „ 80 


... „ -aggitid 


„ sagittaL 


206 „ 2 


... „ Gipbel 


„ QiebeL 


297 „ 17 


... >y DToiF bndgee 


M brow ridges. 


858 top line 


„ CTa%nag9 




884 „ 15 from bottom ,, 7,8 


„ 7-8. 


807 bottom line ... 


... „ vol. i, 1864 


„ ToLi, 1866. 


892 bottom line ... 


... „ ClaiaparMe 


M OaparMe. 


397 „ 6 fix>mtqp 


... „ Wisent 


„ Bison, 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL REVIEW, 



Jonnial of the Anthropologioal Bodoly of LondoiL 



VOL. 11 NOW BEADY, PRICE 16f. 



CONTENTS. 



On the Hmnan Htir u % Baoe-Chanoter. 

B J Dr. Pnmer Be;. 
Pott on the Mjthe of the Origin of Han and 

Language. 
Italian Antloopology. 
On the ScTtho-Cimmerian Langnagee. 
Notei on Soalmng. Bj Bichard F. Barton. 
Benan on the ohemitio Nationa. 
Abnormal Diatortion of the Wrist ByCharlea 

H. Cbambera. 
Hnman Bemaina from Lough Gnr, Ooontj 

Limerick. 
Daaiah Kitchen-middens. Bj Charies H. 

Chambera. 

Liqnixy into Oonsangcdneoaa Marriages and 
PnreBaoea. By Dr. E. Dall^. 

P^yrerios. and TheolQgioal Criticism. By 
Philalethes. 

Miseegenat ion. 

Anthropology in its Connection with Che* 



Ba^age 



of Pans. 

Coi I'WlNMldOUOO 

Hisoellanea Anthropologioa. 

On the Distinction between Han and Am* 

mals. By Philalethes. 
On the Phenomena of Hybridity. 
Thoashts and Facts contribating to the 

SistorfofHan. 
On the Importanoe of Methodical Classifica- 
tion in American Besearchea. By A. 

De Belleoombe. Transkted by W. H. 

Garrett, Eaq., FJu8.L. 
Aathropotomy. 
Doyle's Chronide of England. 
Anthropological Doeomenta of the State of 

KewToric By George E. Boberta, Esq., 

F.G.S^Hon. Bee. A.8.L. 
Doherty's Organic Philosophy. 
Proceedings of the Anthropologioal Sooiety 

ofPkns. 
The Fossil Man of AbberiDe again. 
Misfiflllanna Anthropologica. 
Notea on Waits's Antlnopology. By detain 

B. F. Burton, y.P JL8.L. 
Bain on the Sensss and the LiteDeet 



The Gipsies in Egypt. By Alfired vo 
On the Ideas of Species and Baoe applied to 
Han and Homan Society. ByH.CoamoL 
Slareiy. By James Bsddie^ Esq., FJL.S.L. 
Anthropolofrr at the Brituh Association. 

Barton's Misrioo to Dahome. By W. Win- 

wood Beade^ F.A.8.L., F.B.G.8. 
Miseellanaa 



Journal op rax Ajithbopolooical Bocisit: 
Carter Blalce on the Anthropological 
Paners read at Newcastle ; G. E. Boberts 
ana Profeaaor Bnak on the Opening of a 
Cist of the Stone Ages Captam Eostaoe 
W. Jacob on Indian Tribes of VanconTer'a 
lalaadt Dr. James Hnnt on the Negroes 
Place in Natnres C. B. MarVham on 
Qoarta Cnttinff Instruments from Chan* 
day I G. B. Booerts on Mammalian Bonea 
fiom Aodley End s A. Brrson on Arrow 
Heads from the Bin of Colkn: Dr.F.Bi. 
Faixbank on Hint Arrow Heada from 
Coont Oscar Beidienhabh on 



Mat Ji. 

of Baoei ; T. Bendyshe on the Extinetioa 
of Baoea; Dr. C. G. Caroa on the Con* 
straotion of the Upper Jaw of a Green* 
hmder; C. Carter Blake's Beport on th« 
same sabjeott Jaa. Beddie on Anthro* 
pological Dendsrata; Ber. J. M. Joass 
on some Pre-historic Dwellings in Boea- 
akire, with an Introdootion by George B. 
Bobertas C. Carter Blake on the alleged 
PeooUar Chazaoters, and aaanmed Anti- 
ooity of the Homan Craniam from the 
Neanderthal; Alfred B. WaDaoe on th« 
Origin of Haman Baoea, etc. i Schkgint* 
weit on some Ethnographical Casts, 
etc: Dr. Shortt on the Dombert Pike 
on the IHaoe of the Science of Mind and 
Tsmgnage in the Sdenoe of Man ; Gappy 
on Uie Capabilities of th« Negro for 
Cirilisation ; Fanar on the UniTeraalitj 
of Bdief in God, and in a Fntore State i 
Fanar on Hrbridity ; Barton and Carter 
Blake on Snlla from Annahom in the 
West African Seas; Tlramam on the 
Two Principal forma of Crania in the 
Eariy BriUmai BoUant on the Pklao* 
gra^ of the New World; BenMhe 
on ue PMcantions which ought to nave 



1 to ensors the healOi of British 
Troops had any been aent to Copen* 
hagenj Boberta and Bolton on the Kirk- 
head CaTe, near Ulrerctone; Blake and 
Boberta on Homan Bemazns fkomPeter- 
bctoDgh; BoOaart on the ADegsd Intro* 
daetion of Syphilis firom the New Woridi 
Gibb on Exfreme Ht u e ilrw hy of the 
Sknil; Boberta and Carter Blake on a 
Jaw firom Boildwas Abbey, Salop ; Carter 
Bkke on Homan Remains Iran Xent^a 
Hole, Torqoay i Garter Blake on Homan 
Bemaina tnm a Bone Care in Bnudl ; 
Brooa on SknBs tnm the Basqoe Pro- 
▼inees. and horn a Cam of the Bronae 
Period; Posey on the Negro in Belation 
to CtriHsed Society. 



LONDON: TBIJBNEB A CO., 60, PATERNOSTER ROW. 



ANTHROPOLOaiCAL REVIEW, 

Journal of the Antliropdlogical Sodety of London. 

VOL, I NOW BBADT, PRICB 16«. 



CONTENTS. 



OhIImBI 



Dr. Junes 



llMBtQdjof AntliropdloffT. Bvl 

Hunt) F.8 JL, FMdent A.8.L. 
Wild Men and Beset Children. By £. Burnet 

Tjknr. F.A.S.L. 
On the iVibee of Loreto in Northern Pern. 

By FMfeaeor Baimondi. TnuiBlated from 

the Spaaiih by William BoUaert, F.A.S.L. 
A Day with the Fans. By Captain B. F. 

Barton. H.M. Consul at Fernando Po, 

andV.PJL8.L. 
On the Difference between Han and the Lower 

Animals. ByTheodorBischoff. Truisbited 

from the German. 
SummaiT of the Eridenoe of the Antiqnilj 

of Man. Bt Dr. James Hont. 
Hnzley on Man s Place in Nature. 
Jackson on' Bthnologr and Phrenology. 
Lyell on the Geological Bridenoe m the An« 

tiqnity of Man. 
Wilson's rre-historio Man. 
Panly^s Ethnographical Aocoont of the Peoples 

of Bnssia. 
Oommiztore of the Races of Man. By John 

Crawford, Esq., F.B.8. 
Bnrton's Prairie TraTcller. 
Owen on the Limbs of the Gorilla. 
Man and Beast By Aathropos (C. Carter 

Blake). 
Dnnn's Medical P^rchologT. 
Human Bemains from MoStn-Qniffnon. By A. 

Tylor, Esq., F.G.8./ Withan ImgtratumJ 
Notes of a Case of Microcephaly. By B. T. 

Gore, Esq., F.A.8.L. 
Notes on 8ir C. Lyell's Antiquity of Man. 

By John Crawfiud, Esq., F.R.S. 
Falconer on the reputed FosnlMan of Abbeville 
Miscellanea Anthropologica. 
Journal of the Anthippological Society of 

London. 
On the Sdenoe of Laneuage. By R. 8. 

Chanock, Esq., F.8X, F.A.8.L. 
Fervuason on the Influence of Race on Art. 
On the Creation of Man and Substance of the 

Mind. By Prof. Rudolph Wsgner. 
Pietet on the Aryan Race. 
Ethnological Inquiries and Obsenrations. By 

the!^ Robert Knox, M.D. 
On the Application of the Anatomical Method 

to the Discrimination of Species. By 

the same. 
On the Deformations of the Human Cranium. 

supposed to be produced by Mechanical 

Means. By the same. 
History of the Proceedings of the Anthropo- 
logical Society of Paris. By M. Paul 

Broca, Secretary. GeneraL 
On the supposed increasing Prevalence of Dark 

Hair in England. ByJohnBeddoe,M.D., 

F.A.S.L. 
The Abberille FossQ Jaw. By M. A. de 

Quatrelages. Translated liy Q. F. Rolph, 

Miscellanea Anthropologica. 



On Cerebral PfaymologT. 

Seemann on the Inhabinnts of 4be FQi Islands. 
By A. A. Fraser, Esq., FJL.S.L. 

The rdation of Man to tine Inferior Fonns of 
Animal Lffe. By Charles S. Wake, 
Esq., F.A.S.L. 

Proceemngs of Anthropological Sodet^of Paris 

Anthropofogy at the Bntish Association.* — 
Dr. Hunt on Anthropological Classifica- 
tion : Mr. Carter Blake on South Ameri- 
can Cranioscopy; Dr. Hunt on the Negro; 
Mr. W. Tumter on Cranial Deformities: 
Mr. Duckworth on the Human Croninm 
frtim Amiens; Professor King on the 
Neanderthal Skull; Dr. EmUeton on the 
Anatomy of a Young Chimpansee; Mr. 
Carter Blake on Svndaotyly ; Mr. Roberta 
and Professor Busk on a Cist; Mr. 
Crawfurd on the Commixture of Man; 
Dr. Camps on Troops in India; Dr. 
Murray on Instincbre Actions; Mr. 
Samuelson on Life in the Atmosphere ; 
Mr. Glaisher on the Influence of High 
>Mtitudes on Man; Mr. Hall on the Social 
Life of the Celts; Mr. Petrie on the 
Antiquities of the Orkneys: LordLovaine 
on Lacustrian Human Habitations ; Pro- 
fessor Beete Jukes on certain Markings 
on the Horns of Megaceros Hiberaicus ; 
Mr. Crawfurd on Sir C. Lyell's Antiquity 
of Man ; Professor Philhps on the An- 
tiquity of Man; Mr. Godwin- Austen on 
the Allurial Accumulation in the VaUeys 
of the Somme and Ouse ; Mr. Wallace 
on Man in the Malay Archipelago : Mutu 
Coom&ra Swamy on the Eihnclaofij of 
Ceylon; Mr. Crawfurd on the Orim of 
the Gypsies; Mr. Crawfurd on theCeltio 
Languages ; Mr. Chaznock on Celtic Lan- 
C[uages ; Personal Recriminations in Seo- 
bonD; CondudiDg Remaiks. 

Welti's Introduction to Anthropology. 

Kingsl^s Water Babies. 

Lunacy and Phrenolog?* by C. Carter Blake, 
Esq., F.G.S., fIa^.L. 

The Rind Races ; or, the Sons of Joel. 

Ramsay on Geology and Anthropology. 

Hameh Spinosa. 

Anthropology in the Nursery. 

Miscellanea Anthropologica. 

JOUBKAL OF THE AUTBHOPOLOOICAL SOdXTT : 

T^lor on Human RemaiTis from Moulin- 
Qnignon; Schvarci on Permanence of 
Ty^; Wake on Man and Hie Lower 
Ajiimals ; BoUaert on Populations of the 
New World; MsTshall on Microcephaly; 
Busk on Human Remains from Chatham ; 
Bendyshe on Anglo-Saxon Remains from 
Barrington ; Charnock on Science of Lan- 
guaee; Winwood Reads on Bu^ Tribes 
of Equatorial Africa; General Meeting of 
the Society; Carter Blake on Antiquity 
of the Human Race. 



LONDON: TRUBNER & CO., 60, PATERNOSTER ROW. 

99 3i 




3 2044 036 969 293 



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